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Including Comprehensive Information Regarding Factory 

Arrangement; Pigments; Vehicles and Thinners; Liquid 

and Cold Water Paints as well as Practical 

Working Formulas and Recipes. 



The Painters Magasine 
100 William Street 


The Trade Papers Publishing Co.» Ltd. 
865 Birkbeck Bank Chambers, W. C. 

All Rights Reserved 
Deoember, 1013 

Copyright, 1911, by the 
Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. 

G>pyright, 1918, by the 
Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. 

Copyright 1918 by 

The Painters Magasine 


Charies L. Uebele 

Copyright, 1918, in Great Britain. 

* • • • 

• • «' • 

AA ^Rights* Reserved* 

Printed by 


22 Thames Street, New York. 


Publishers' Preface 5 

Author's Preface 7 

Chapter I . 13 

The Factory and Arrangement 

PART 1 19 

White Pigments and Wliite Bases. 

Chapter II £1 

White Lead Mixing and Grinding. 

Chapter ni 43 

Grinding Sublimed White Lead; Zinc Lead 
and Zinc White. 

Chapter IV 51 

Lithopone White: 

Manufacture, Composition and Uses of the 
Pigment which has in Recent Years Come 
into General Use. 

Chapter V 69 

Grinding White Bases and Pigments. 

Chapter VI 81 

Extenders and Fillers and Their Uses. 

PART II 109 

Color Grinding in All Its Branches. 

Introduction Ill 

Chapter Vn 115 

Mixing and Grinding Black Pigments. 

Chapter Vm 133 

Mixing and Grinding Blue Pigments. 

Chapter IX 151 

Mixing and Grinding Brown Pigments. 

Chapter X 171 

Mixing and Grinding Green Pigments. 

Chapter XI «06 

Mixing and Grinding Red Pigments. 

Chapter Xn 289 

Mixing and Grinding Yellow Pigments. 


Paint Vehidet and Thinners. 

Chapter Xm 269 

Linseed Oil. 

ChaptCT XIV 278 

China Wood or Tung Oil : 

A General Description of its Origin, Pro- 
duction» Physical and Chemical Proper- 
ties and the Great Importance of its Use 
in the Manufacture of Varnishes. 

Chapter XV 295 

Paint Oils Other than Linseed. 

Chapter XVI 801 

Paint Thinners and Solvents. 

Chapter XVn 805 

Varnishes, Driers and Japans. 

PART IV 809 

Liquid Paints Ready for Use. 

Introduction 811 

Chapter XVni 813 

Building Paints. 

Chapt^XIX 828 

Floor Paints for Interior and Porches. 

Chapter XX 827 

Metal Preservative Coatings. 

Chapter XXI 881 

Concrete and Cement Coatings. 

Chapter XXII SS5 

Bam and Roof Paints. 

Chapter XXm 389 

Shingle Stains. 

Chapter XXIV 341 


Chapter XXV 347 

Dipping Paints. 

Chapter XXVI 351 

Modem Flat Wall Finishes. 

Chapter XXVn 357 

White and Colored Enamel Paints. 

ChaptCTXXVm 363 

Liquid and Paste Wood Fillers. 

Chapter XXIX 367 

Iron Fillers and Machinery Paints. 

Chapter XXX 369 

Putties and Cements. 

PART V. 373 

Casein and Gold Water Paints. 

Chapter XXXI 875 

Origin and Uses of Casein. 

Chapter XXXII 381 

Tests for Cold Water Paints. 

Chapter XXXm . 385 

Manufacture of Cold Water Paint. 

Chapter XXXIV 391 

Uses of Casein and Cold Water Paints. 

PART VI 395 

Practical Recipes and Working Formulas. 
Index 457 


ALTHOUGH many books have been published on the 
subject of paint and pigments, most of them have been 
written either by chemists, whose knowledge of the 
practical questions involved in paint manufacturing has been 
more or less biassed by the standards of the laboratory; or they 
have been written from the viewpoint of the consumer or practical 
painter; or in many instances they have been mere collections 
by hack writers of formulas that have appeared many times 
previously, and therefore being entirely out of date, whatever 
value they may have originally possessed has been lost, because 
later and better methods and formulas have been introduced 
into the paint factory. 

In no other country have the advances in paint making and 
color grinding been so rapid as in the United States, because in no 
other country are such enormous quantities of paint consumed; 
and this is natural, because nowhere else are such a large propor- 
tion of the houses built of wood, requiring protection by paint in 
order to preserve them from the ravages of the elements. Owing 
to the competition that exists between the different paint man- 
ufacturers, processes have been gradually improved and devel- 
oped until the practices of a decade ago have been completely 
revised or supplanted by more modern methods. Up to the 
present time, no book has been written from the standpoint of 
the practical paint factory man, and for the use of the manu- 
facturer, as distinguished from the paint chemist. 

We have frequently had calls for a book describing the latest 
methods of paint making and for this reason, we have felt that a 
work of the character of the present one would meet a necessity 
which exists. 

The author of the present book, Mr. Charles L. Uebele, while 
by no means a novice in paint trade literature, has always been 
too modest to permit his name to appear in connection with the 
numerous articles which he has contributed to various paint 

trade publications, especially to The Painters Magazine and the 
Of/, Paini and Drug Reporter^ but we have prevailed upon him to 
permit this book to be issued under his name. 

Mr. Uebele has been connected with paint manufacturing for 
upwards of twenty-five years, and for the greater part of that time 
has been in charge of the paint making and color grinding in one 
of the largest factories of this country. For the past three years, 
he has been identified actively with a company engaged in the 
manufacture of paint specialties, specification paints and cement 
coatings. His work has not only been along practical lines^ 
involving the handling of men, machinery, and materials, and 
a knowledge of the latest improvements in every process used in 
the paint factory, but it has necessitated much original research 
in order to develop such improved methods as were needed to- 
keep the products of the factory with which he was identified at 
the forefront, as well as constant practical tests of their own and 
their competitors* products. Although well acquainted with the 
technical and scientific side of paint making, Mr. Uebele is essen- 
tially a factory manager and has written this book for other men 
holding similar positions. The methods given have all been 
practically tested out and are those in use in up-to-date factories 
at the present time. The formulas given in Part VI, have never 
been published before and are of themselves worth to the paint 
manufacturer, many times the cost of the book. Indeed, 
practical working formulas of this character are generally sold — 
when they can be bought at all — at prices ranging from ten 
dollars to twenty-five dollars each, and even more. 

In offering this book to the paint manufacturers, we do so with 
absolute confidence that the statements made in it are correct 
and represent the best practice in paint making and color grinding; 
at the present time. 

December, 1913. 


IN presenting this volume to the consideration of practical 
men and others interested in the subject of paint making 
and color grinding, it has been the aim of the author to 
incorporate the results of almost a life time of work and study 
of paint problems, in a way that should be readily understood 
by interested readers. It is not the object of the author to tell the 
reader, how to make inferior goods for the purpose of gain. If he 
looks for such information he will have to work this scheme out 
for himself. The idea of the work is to show, how economy can 
be practiced and rational methods adopted, so that high grade or 
standard goods may be produced and reputation maintained in 
the face of competition. 

The author, from the very start in his career, nearly thirty 
years since, when in the employ of one of the oldest firms in this 
country, has had the good fortune to be associated with technical 
men, who endeavored to have the very best products it was possible 
to manuf actiu^. To these associations, and with the aid of a well 
equipped chemical laboratory and its learned chief, is due the 
author's ability to offer a work of this character, which has been 
written only after much persuasion by friends in the trade. It is 
the hope of the author, that the work will be favorably received 
and serve as a volume of reference to practical men and as a hand- 
book for beginners. 

In presenting the formulas in Part VI as well as those in the 
body of the book, the author desires to say to those, who are yet 
unfamiliar with the practical work in a paint factory, not to con- 
demn a formula or suggestion, when it does not appear successful 
at the first attempt, but to think it over with a view to discover, 
where an error might have been made. After all, while formulas 
are of great assistance to the practical man, a certain knack in 
manipulation is essential to success. 


December, 191S. 

Paint Making and Color Grinding 



Before describing in detail the processes involved in 
paint making and color grinding, it is well to consider 
briefly the general arrangement of the plant, the neces- 
sary machinery, apparatus, storage and facilities for 
handling the raw material and requirements for shipping 
the finished products. 

The writer is well aware, that much will depend upon 
the capital that is available and the size and capacity 
of the plant, and whether it is contemplated building a 
new factory, where all conditions can be planned and 
controlled from the very start, or whether an old factory 
must be used with machinery in operation, that is still 
too good for the scrap heap, or where conditions of site 
will not permit desirable or modem arrangements, yet 
it is possible to point out ideas from which the paint 
manufacturer may approximate plans to improve upon 
existing conditions. 

It may be well to state right here, that true economy 
will often consign to the scrap heap a mill, mixer or 
other apparatus, that might be still used for years, but 
at the expense of yield in production, quantitatively 
and qualitatively. By working with antiquated appar- 
atus, it is difficult to compete with those owning 
modem equipped plants and it has been asserted by 
those who have made efficiency a study, that more 

•'*« *' '''"pAI^fT blAklNG AND COLOR GRINDING 

paint and other factories have failed, because of the use 
of antiquated machinery and systems or processes^ 
than from any other cause. 

In selecting a site for a plant, the first consideration, 
of course, should be facilities for transportation with 
opportunity to introduce railroad sidings, if the size of 
the output warrants such, or at least close proximity to 
shipping terminals, because cartage is quite an item of 

As to the factory building or buildings, the arrange- 
ments should be such, that really only the storing of the 
raw material should require any amount of power, while 
the progress of the material during the process of man- 
ufacture should be accomplished by gravity. Hence, 
wherever a factory building is of suflScient height, it 
should be so substantial that the heavy raw material 
can be stored on the top floor and the mixing with the 
vehicles should be done there or on an intermediate or 
half floor immediately beneath, while the mills are 
stationed on the floor next to the storage and mixing 
floor, and the pastes may be fed directly into the 
hoppers of the grinding mills without further handling. 

Of course, this can apply only to factories having a 
large output of staple goods, because it would not be 
very economical to clean large mixers and mills very 
frequently to permit changing from one color to 

Whenever possible, when the output of the mills is 
to be used as the base for liquid paints, it should be 
chuted right into the liquid paint mixer, which should 
be so arranged, that when the product is ready Jo be 
filled into containers, such as barrels, kegs, kits or cans, 


the liquid mixer can be raised to convenient height from 
the floor, and the containers filled without using 
intermediate filling cans, thus preventing waste. 

If a floor still below this is at hand, the final handling, 
such as closing packages, labeling, marking and shipping 
can be done conveniently here, or if the filling has been 
done on the ground floor, then ample room should be 
provided for doing this work. In paint factories, where 
much of the output is for supplying jobbers and dealers, 
quite a large stock of colors in oil and ready mixed 
liquid paints must necessarily be kept on hand at 
certain seasons of the year and the storage space for 
these goods should be so located, as to make the least 
amoimt of handling and rehandling necessary. 

One very important item of expense in paint factories 
is fire insurance, as insurance men consider this business 
as extra hazardous. For this reason, and in order to 
obtain as low a rate as possible and to save waste and 
labor in transportation, the vehicles, such as oils, tur- 
pentine, benzine and any other solvents, that may be 
used in sufficient quantity, should be stored, if possible, 
in metal tanks in fire proof sheds outside the factory and 
piped to the mixing floors into smaller storage tanks, 
in quantities sufficient only for a day's requirements. 
This can be accomplished by the use of compressed air, 
centrifugal pump or similar means. Wherever these 
Uquids are brought to a factory in tank cars, the storage 
tanks should be placed low enough, that the material 
may be discharged into them from the tank car without 
the use of pressure. Another item of economy is the use 
of measuring pumps on the mixing floor, wherever 


Many large concerns make their own barrels, tin 
cans and packing cases, but where cases are purchased 
in large quantities, such as car load lots, economy can be 
practised by using conveyors for unloading these as well 
as for large size tin cans. 

We will not dwell on what style of packages, tin cans, 
etc., are best or most economical to use for shipping, as 
that will depend largely upon the pleasure of the trade, 
but in order to prevent errors in labeling, marking, etc., 
it is a matter or precaution to use a stamp on all con- 
tainers, which plainly shows to the initiated by letters or 
figures, as the case may be, the contents of package. 
While this does not absolutely prevent errors at all 
times, it is the best system of marking yet devised. 
When storing away goods in cases, that are to be 
shipped later on, it is best to have them dated and so 
stored that the oldest stock is moved first. The same 
applies to tin cans stored in bins, the latter to be so 
arranged that the oldest stock must necessarily move 
first and the person in charge should see, that the help 
follow that rule. No one has any adequate idea what 
waste there is in a factory, when this rule is not followed 
as the trouble is mostly discovered only after the goods 
have been on the dealer's shelf for a long time and the 
disgruntled customer returns an opened tin that con- 
tains old fatty paint or color that has become hard. 
There cannot be too much system in this respect or care 
exercised, the help as a rule being indiflferent to or 
ignorant of the trouble caused. A system, that is not 
followed up to the letter is worse than none at all. 
This applies also to the system of keeping records of 
formulas of mixings and grindings. 


The formulas given to the men at the mixers or mills 
should be collected by the man in charge of the floor 
as soon as a batch has been made and any changes 
noted that it may have been necessary to make. This 
precaution does not necessarily imply a suspicion of the 
honesty of the help, but will prevent errors and permit 
a true record to be kept in the factory oflSce of all 

If anyone however has any idea that a correct tally 
can be made between the material used and the material 
produced, he makes a very serious mistake and he will 
find quite a leakage that cannot entirely be accounted 
for by evaporation during the milling or mixing process. 
The salary paid to the clerk or clerks necessary to 
superintend the weighing and measuring in a factory of 
some size would cost considerably more than any 
leakage that can be figured in the long run. When, as 
is often the case, illiterate labor has to be made use of, 
some inteUigent person must needs be on the floor to 
look after the weighing and point out the material 
required. As a further means of identifying the mater- 
ials, it would be well to follow the method of a very 
prominent paint manufacturer not many miles from 
New York City, who used to number his dry white 
material Uke this: "Lead No. 0", "Lead No. r\ 
"Lead No. i'\ and so on; Dry white lead being 
"No. 0"; French zinc, "No. 1''; American zinc, "No. 
2''; and barytes, No. S; whiting. No. 4; while his 
liquids were designated as oil; raw linseed being 
"Oil No. 0"; boiled Unseed, "Oil No. 1"; refined 
linseed, "Oil No. 2*'; while color grinder's Japan was 
simply "black oil.'* The names for white pigments as 


barytes, whiting, gypsum, clay, asbestine, talc, etc., 
do not mean anything to the kind of labor referred to. 
Other details will be found in the body of this volume 
xmder proper headings. 



We must preface this portion of our book with the 
remark that when we speak of white lead, we mean by 
that term the hydrated carbonate of lead, known to 
painters as keg lead, when ground in linseed oil for their 
use, but of late known to the general consumer as cor- 
roded white lead, in distinction from basic sulphate of 
lead or sublimed lead. The latter will be dealt with 
later on as we proceed. 

This being a description of methods employed to 
manipulate the dry pigment for the use of the consumer, 
we shall refrain from a description of the various 
processes in use for manufacturing the dry white lead, 
only incidentally touching upon these for a better 
imderstanding of the characteristics, miscibility, etc. 

Historical. — Going back thirty years, there were 
exactly thirty firms corroding white lead by the "Dutch** 
process, yet white lead was made in this coimtry as 
early as 1807, but up to fifty years ago about three- 
quarters of all the white lead used was imported from 
abroad, mostly from England. And it is a fact well 
known to the veterans in the trade that the bulk of these 
importations was not pure white lead, although so 
branded, but more or less "stretched** with barytes. 
The corroders in this country, however, at an early date 
agreed not to sell any of their products under their 
name, except the strictly pure article, and if at this day 
any firm corroding white lead in oil sells or offers for sale 


any brand of white lead in oil that is extended with any 
other material, it is not branded white lead, but is 
labeled with some fancy name or brand. 

Examination of Dry White Lead. 

Our first aim in producing a high grade of white lead 
in oil brings us to the physical examination of the dry 

No matter by what process white lead is produced, 
it is necessary that it be tested for whiteness and fine- 
ness. If on rubbing it out in oil with a spatula it feels 
gritty, it may be due to being **homy," a term applied 
by white lead men to dry white lead that has been over- 
dried on steam pans; in other words, has become 
crusty, which may also indicate that the pulp has not 
been thoroughly washed free from lead acetate. Dry 
white lead of this character, when mixed and groimd 
in oil, does not make good white paint and lacks in 
opacity (body). If, on the other hand, the grit is due 
to the presence of uncorroded metallic (so-called blue) 
lead, it can be readily determined by rubbing out some 
of the dry lead with a spatula or muUer on a white 
marble slab or with a pestle in a mortar, using turpen- 
tine instead of oil as the vehicle, when the metalhc lead 
will show more or less by clinging to the white surface of 
the marble or mortar. When white lead has this defect 
it is unfit for grinding in oil for several reasons. In the 
first place it will coat the face of the millstones and fill 
the furrows thereof with a coating of metallic lead, 
thereby preventing fine grinding and greatly retarding 
the output of the mill, not to speak of the very inferior 
product that is unsafe to be used as the basis of ready 


mixed paints for white as well as for tints. First class 
white lead, aside from the defects just mentioned, 
should when rubbed up in spirits of turpentine and al- 
lowed to dry on clear glass, be a neutral white, as a 
grayish cast would show the presence of metallic lead 
in fine division, even if the dry lead be free from grit. 
If inclined to the yellow cast, it would indicate the 
presence of massicot or litharge, while a pink cast would 
show the presence of red lead or orange mineral. 

Foreign Metals in the Dry Lead. 

When white lead is corroded from metallic (pig) lead 
that contains an appreciable percentage of copper, the 
presence of the latter in the dry white lead can be 
readily determined by a very simple test. A small por- 
tion of lead is rubbed up in bleached linseed or poppy 
seed oil imtU fine; that is, free of lumps, to a paste, and 
then reduced to Uquid consistency with spirits of tur- 
pentine and a portion of this placed in a three-quarter 
inch by six inch test tube and set aside to settle. If 
copper is present the turpentine will show a more or 
less greenish color, otherwise it will be clear. Should 
the turpentine, however, show a discoloration similar to 
rust it indicates the presence of iron in the white lead. 

Excess of Lead Acetate, and Test for Its Presence. 

As dry white lead supplied by the corroders is never 
adulterated, it is not necessary for paint grinders or 
other consumers to go to the expense of having elabo- 
rate chemical tests made, but still there are a few that 
imder certain conditions can hardly be dispensed with. 
One of these is to ascertain the presence of lead acetate 
in objectionable proportion. It may be done in a simple 


way. Grind a small portion of the dry lead with dis- 
tilled water to paste, throw it on a wetted filter and 
wash with freshly boiled distilled water. The clear 
filtered liquid must show nothing more than a slight 
cloudiness on the addition of a little dilute sulphuric 
acid. Another and more diflScult test, requiring the 
services of an expert chemist, is to ascertain the propor- 
tion in white lead of lead carbonate and lead hydrate, as 
much depends upon the pigment having these constitu- 
ents within the right limit. An excess of lead carbonate 
and consequent deficiency of lead hydrate means lack 
of spreading power and oil absorption, while on the 
other hand an excess of lead hydrate means deficiency 
of body (hiding power) due to too great absorption of 
oil. In either case the life of paint made from such 
white lead in oil is shorter by far than when the lead is 
normal in every way. This test is made by taking a 
weighed portion of the dry lead, having previously been 
dried at 212 degrees F., carefully roasting it in a current 
of dry air and the water evolved intercepted by means 
of a weighed calcium chloride absorption tube. Unless, 
however, this test is made accurately it is liable to lead 
to erroneous conclusions. 

Theoretical Ck>mpo8ition8 of White Lead. 

The theoretical constituents of normal Dutch process 
white lead are claimed to be two molecules of lead car- 
bonate (PbCOa) and one molecule of lead hydrate 
(PbH202), which would mean about 70 per cent, lead 
carbonate and 30 per cent, lead hydrate. The author, 
however, found in a series of extended tests, made in a 
practical way in conjunction with those made in the 
laboratory, that all other features being normal, i. e.. 


fineness, purity and dryness of the material from a 
number of batches, the average producing best results 
after grinding in oil proved to be 72 per cent, lead car- 
bonate and 28 per cent, lead hydrate. Batches showing 
68 per cent, lead carbonate or under proved to be de- 
ficient in opacity and without tooth imder the brush, 
while when 73 per cent, lead carbonate was exceeded oil 
absorption and spreading quality was lacking. Tests 
made with quick process lead on a similar plan and 
extended over a long period showed a decided diflference, 
probably due to a diflference in the structure of the 
particles of the pigment. Here it was ascertained that 
the extreme limit within which the constituents gave 
good results was not less than 75 per cent, nor more than 
78 per cent, lead carbonate, and the best average 77 
per cent, lead carbonate and 23 per cent, lead hydrate. 
The pigment referred to here as quick process white 
lead, however, is not to be confounded with the many 
later day processes of manufacture, such as, for instance, 
the precipitation or electrolytic methods. It is un- 
doubtedly the best process for quick corrosion, diflfering 
only in one respect from the old Dutch process or stack 
method, that instead of the metal being cast in buckles 
and placed in earthen pots that are imbedded in tan- 
bark, the pig lead is melted, and while in this state is 
^*blown** into fine particles by jets of high pressure 
isuperheaded steam, and the powder thus obtained 
placed in large wooden revolving cylinders into which a 
supply of acetic acid is introduced and the manipulation 
kept up by spraying the mass with water. In the 
meantime carbonic acid gas that is generated in a 
iumace by burning coke and washed and freed from sul- 
phur is also passed into the cylinders through flues. 
The average time of corrosion by this process is twelve 


days, as against sixty days by the stack method, and the 
product shows a lesser percentage of uncorroded lead. 
We do not intend to dwell upon the superiority or 
deficiencies of the various methods of white lead man- 
ufacture, having gone into this description of corrosion 
merely to illustrate how closely this quicker method 
resembles the other and yet how results diflFer. In the 
stack method, it may be said, that nature is given its 
sway to a great extent, while in the cylinder corrosion 
method artificial means are employed to hasten the 
result. In the former process very little attention is 
required after the pots have been set ,while in the latter 
constant vigilance is required in order to obtain a good 
and uniform product. It is claimed for the latter 
method that the process of corrosion can be inspected 
at any stage and at all times, day or night, and that 
this fact favors the output of a superior product. 

While this should be true to a great extent, the fact is 
that white lead corroded by this method, no matter how 
uniform it may be turned out, is somewhat deficient in 
density and hiding power when compared with a sample 
of normal white lead corroded by the stack method. 
Nearly all, if not all, of the white lead made by any of 
the quick processes exhibited a tendency to lighter 
specific gravity than that made by the stack method, 
requiring a greater percentage of oil for grinding into 
the paste form, in many instances as high as 25 and even 
50 per cent, more, and until this defect was overcome it 
was diflScult to market the product, because the con- 
sumers found a sad deficiency of body (hiding power) in 
the product. These brands of white lead lacked what 
the painter calls "tooth** or "life,'* because when the 
paste lead was thinned to a consistency of what the 


painter considered just right for application with the 
brush, it either flowed out like grease over the surface or 
was too "short/* 

The argument that the lead has the spreading capa- 
city will not hold good with the painter, because it is 
the labor that counts for far more than the cost of the 
material, and if he can cover up a surface well enough 
with two coats of white lead paint he will not use three, 
and therefore will purchase the brand that gives him the 
result he looks for. 

White Lead in Oil as Ground for the Trade. 

There are two methods for grinding white lead in 
linseed oil for the market, the oldest being that still 
mostly followed, which is to mix the white lead in lump 
or powdered form, as it comes from drying pans, kilns 
or ovens, as the case may be, in suitable powerful mixers 
with linseed oil and chute it into the hoppers of large 
diameter stone mills, and when fine into coolers, and 
thence into various sized packages. The other method^ 
which only came into general use twenty-five or thirty 
years ago, is the so-called pulp grinding process, in which 
the lead does not imdergo any process of drying, but is 
placed in a suitable apparatus in the form of pulp, and 
therein agitated with a certain percentage of specially 
treated pure linseed oil until the lead and oil, which 
have great aflSnity for one another, unite and permit the 
clear water to rise to the top, which is then drawn oflF and 
the lead in oil passed over stone roller mills in order to 
eliminate all the remaining water possible. There ia 
still a great difference of opinion as to which method of 
grinding, the dry or pulp ground gives best results as to 
the life of the paint made from either. Owing to the 


prejudice against pulp ground lead, some of the cor- 
roders have given up the process, but there is no doubt 
that not a few are still using it. The writer, in making 
exposure tests of paint made from either of the two 
grindings of lead, all other things being found equal by 
laboratory examinations, found that the paint from 
pulp ground lead did not show any chalking tendency 
inside of three years, while that from the dry ground 
lead chalked badly in less than eighteen months' time. 
Yet the surface on which the paints were applied was of 
the same seasoned lumber, white pine weather boarding 
put up for the purpose and exposed to the south, both 
leads mixed with the oil and driers from same package 
and in similar proportions. The chemist reported both 
leads free from appreciable percentages of lead acetate, 
the moisture in the pulp ground lead as .65 per cent., 
and that in the dry ground lead as .29 per cent., while 
the percentages of oil were alike in both pastes. The 
reason that pulp ground lead has been given a black eye 
by some authorities and by consumers may be looked 
for in the fact that through ignorance or carelessness in 
manipulation or the use of improper oil, an emulsion 
between some of the water and the oil was formed, 
especially in the presence of appreciable quantities of 
lead acetate. In describing the process of pulp grinding 
further on we shall touch upon this and other de- 

The Grinding of Wliite Lead in Oil (Dry Method). 

It is essential to success in grinding white lead to 
select linseed oil that if raw must be well settled, so as 
to be perfectly free of foots, and whejn refined or 
bleached is free from traces of acid or alkalies, while 


when boiled oil is wanted as the vehicle, it must be of 
the old fire or kettle boiled process, in which borate 
of manganese is the drying medium, so as to keep the 
white lead from discoloration. When the white lead is 
to be used for exterior work, or when the manufacturer 
places one brand only on the market, the pigment 
should be mixed with pure raw linseed oil only and so 
ground to the proper consistency. 

For inside use or for use in car and carriage painting, 
where pure white eflFects are required and turpentine is 
the principal thinner, the vehicle should be bleached 
or refined linseed oil only. Boiled linseed oil should be 
used in grinding white lead only when so specified. 
Raw oil produces a stringy lead, so termed by the 
painters; bleached or refined oil makes the lead break 
up readily and excellent for stippling purposes and 
for flatting, being shorter and of stiflFer consistency. 
White lead groimd in boiled oil is specified only for 
admixture with red lead for use on ironwork and for 
mixing with varnishes that do not take kindly to raw or 
refined oil, but the practice has been pretty well 

The lead mixing and grinding rooms should be kept at 
a normal temperature during the cold season, and white 
lead in oil should not be mixed, ground or stored in 
rooms where the temperature is less than 60 degrees F. 
at any time, 60 degrees F. being preferable. The reason 
for this caution is that white lead mixed, groimd and 
stored at lower temperatures will to a certain extent 
show a gritty appearance that will not disappear even 
when used in the warmer season, or when strained 
through the finest sieve. It is also of advantage to have 
the oil in which white lead is to be ground of a normal 


temperature at not below 55 or 60 degrees F. during the 
winter season, so as to be limpid enough to mix and 
grind well. During the hot season, of course, the tem- 
perature of the oil is above the degrees named, according 
to where it is stored. But one of the principal precau- 
tions in white lead grinding is to avoid oil foots, and 
therefore it is essential to store the oil in tanks so ar- 
ranged that it can be drawn without disturbing the 
sediment that collects in the bottom of storage tanks. 
By having the supply pipes above the bottoms of tanks 
and outlets arranged in the bottoms the sediments or 
foots can be drawn oflF from time to time, thus avoiding 
the source of many complaints that often are thought 
to be unfounded because not traced to their source. 
Dry white lead mixes best with oil when it has been 
made what is termed bone dry in the usual manner on 
steam jacketed drying pans of copper, or when filter 
pressed and then placed on wooden trays in drying ovens 
or kilns, and is then permitted to cool down and absorb 
the natural moisture of the air, which, however, should 
not exceed 26/100 of 1 per cent. When white lead in 
the so-called dry state exceeds one-half of 1 per cent, of 
moisture, it will not mix well with oil, heating up too 
much in the mixer and will not pass smoothly through 
the mill, and the output will be lessened to a great 
extent. Very much depends upon the care of the work- 
men in mixing the lead and oil, because by improper 
manipulation the material may be overheated in the 
mixer, and by choking up the mixers by overcharging 
the apparatus at times much power is wasted. White 
lead may be spoiled in mixing as well as in subsequent 
grinding through overheating. This may be deter- 


mined by its having a decided yellow cast while hot, 
and though it will be a pure white again on cooling its 
opacity is destroyed. 

Apparatus Required. 

Having pointed out the necessity of care in the mixing 
of the material, we will now describe the apparatus used 
from time to time in the process. Where white lead 
grinding in oil is carried on a large scale, as is done by 
corroders, the building in which the operation is going 
on is usually so arranged that the dry lead is stored in 
hoppers or bins on the top floor, where it may be shov- 
eled into the mixers that are let into the floor, and where 
Supply tanks or pipes are at hand to furnish the neces- 
sary oil. These mixers are provided with the necessary 
shafts and blades to bring about the required consis- 
tency of the paste, and may be of more or less depth, 
reaching to a convenient height above the floor below, 
where stone mills with large hoppers are ready to 
receive the mixing that is passed from a gate that may 
be on the side or on bottom of the mixer. These 
mixers may be of any length, and in some instances have 
been constructed of a depth of ten or even twelve feet, 
but in the opinion of the writer are really impractical 
because they cannot be readily cleaned. 

The most practical mixers are of a diameter of about 
S6 to 40 inches and not over 30 to 36 inches in depth, 
and they should be twin mixers, i. e., so arranged that 
the mill hopper can be fed from either of the two. 
This will give ample time to mix lead and oil in one mix- 
er, while the material is discharged from the other, and 
there is no occasion to unduly hasten the mixing, for it 
goes without saying that thorough mixing assists the 


process of grinding to a great extent, as otherwise the 
mill is compelled to do one-half of the work that should 
be done by the mixer. The favorite mills for white lead 
grinding have always been stone mills of 36 inches 
diameter, although in some cases the diameter preferred 
was 42 inches, the stones being of the French buhr type, 
because it was the belief that these did not only the best 
and finest grinding, but also imparted a polish to the 
finished product. While these buhr stones last a life- 
time in lead grinding, it is a fallacy to think that they do 
better work than the so-called esopus stones, and it has 
been proved that the mills provided with the latter show 
a much larger output on all pigments of soft texture 
than the buhr stones. The principal advantage, after 
all, in milling white lead is the arrangement of the speed 
of the mills to correspond to the diameter of the mill 
stones or grinding surface and the proper dress of the 
stones, as well as the diameter of the eye of hopper, 
which really controls the feed. This should not be 
smaller than 10 inches for lead in oil of stout consistency, 
yet for a long time 5 or 6 inches diameter was thought 
to be the proper opening for the hopper of a SO or 36 
inch mill. 

The speed of a 36-inch white lead mill should not ex- 
ceed twenty-six revolutions per minute, otherwise the 
product will be overheated, as it will be at any rate, if 
the attendant is not careful to watch it. The idea of 
paint grinders always has been that unless the mill 
stones become hot there can be no fine grinding, and 
some have tried to help it along by heating the oil in 
cold weather, which is also a fallacy and liable to lead to 
erroneous conclusions. A stone mill soon becomes hot 
when tightened up well or set close, and therefore it 


behooves the miller to take oflF a turn or two as the heat- 
ing makes itself apparent. Unless he attends to this he 
is liable to ruin the mill stones as well as his product. 
When white lead in oil as it comes from the mill indi- 
cates a temperature of over 160^ F., it is not a good 
product, as before stated, in point of covering power. 
This is why some white lead manufacturers have 
abandoned the use of twin mills and substituted chasers 
and roller mills. 

This apparatus is best arranged with the chaser 
located so as to discharge the lead and oil after being 
well condensed into a strong mixer that is set into 
the floor with its body directly over a roller mill with 
granite stone rolls, the outlet or gate of mixer discharging 
on the center of the back roller. The idea of this style 
of white lead grinding is to crush the dry lead by the 
heavy weight roller in the bed of the chaser, adding as 
much oil as is required to produce a stiflf paste, not un- 
like heavy putty in consistency, which imparts increased 
density to the product, but in order to overcome any 
inclination of the material to be gummy, it is run into 
the intermediate mixer and more oil is added to form a 
good medium paste. When the mixing is finished, i. e., 
when lead and oil are one uniform mass, the gate of 
mixer is opened, the rollers started and the paste lead 
given its polish by the rubbing and grinding of the 
rollers. As the lead in oil ground by this process does 
not become overheated, as is often the case on stone 
mills, it may be put directly in the packages requiredff or 
commercial purposes. In some factories steel rollers 
have been preferred over the stone rollers, but the writer 
prefers the latter as least liable to discolor white pig- 
ments. If the dry white lead is soft and free from horny 


particles, the chaser, mixer and roller process of milling 
will produce the best stiflF lead for flat work, because the 
percentage of oil required is less on account of the con- 
densing action of the chaser, and the consumer does not 
have the trouble of "drawing" the oil for flat work in 
jobs of decorating. When from 9 to 9}^ pounds of oil is 
required for 903^ to 91 pounds of dry lead for each 100 
poimds of the paste in stone mill grinding, 8 to 8}^ 
pounds of oil for 913^ to 92 pounds of dry lead will pro- 
duce a paste of similar consistency when using the chaser, 
mixer and roller mill. The power cost will be a little 
more, but the lesser cost for labor per ton will even this up. 

As noted above, in grinding on stone mills the lead in 
oil is discharged rather hot, especially during the warm 
season, and it cannot be placed directly into commercial 
packages without the risk of forming a lump in center of 
container on cooling, or a crust on the side of the pack- 
age; in short, the lead should be cooled to a normal 
temperature, which is best accomplished by a mechan- 
ical stirring device, a so-called cooler that is running at 
same speed as the mill and is in the shape of a shallow 
mixer, with mixer blade, from which the lead may be 
put up in containers same as from the roller mills. 
Years ago the mills were set fairly high above the milling 
floor and each set of mills was provided with a water- 
cooled turntable in front on which the lead in oil 
dropped from the mill scraper and was then scraped off 
in turn by a scraper attached to the table. This 
worked very well during cool seasons, but was of little 
or no use during the heated term. 

Endless canvas belts have also been in favor in many 
white lead factories on which the heated product was 
dropped from the mills, carrying it a certain distance 


away, so as to cool down and be removed by scrapers. 
The drawback to this system is that unless properly 
looked after there is too much waste, and the risk of 
mixing particles of dried up skin or crust into the com- 
mercial containers. Still another method, although 
rather primitive, for cooling the heated lead in oil, was 
to have large wooden tanks of great strength holding 
anywhere from two to three tons set on the ground floor 
in close proximity to the mills, into which a portion of 
cold water had been placed and the finished lead carried 
to these tanks in piggins or small tubs holding about 75 
pounds each and dropped into the water. When such 
tank was nearly filled the top of the lead was leveled oflf 
by means of trowels and more water put on if required. 
This was done to keep the material from forming a skin 
on top and was a rather handy feature, as the lead could 
be kept in bulk for weeks or months, thus preparing 
ahead for the busy season, avoiding the necessity of 
keeping a large quantity in small kegs and pails, 
enabling the packers to ship non-leaking wooden 
packages. Of course, since the advent of the steel 
packages the risk of leakage is done away with, but not 
the skinning or crusting over by long standing. When 
the lead so stored is to be filled into packages for the 
trade, the water is carefully taken off from the top of 
tank and the lead in oil scooped up with strong iron 
ladles into whatever sized packages are wanted. There 
was a time when the practice of throwing the freshly 
ground lead into water had to be abandoned, because it 
was discovered that sometimes the lead stiffened up to 
such an extent that it was necessary to remix and grind 
it over again before shipping to the trade. This hap- 
pened invariably when one of the storage tanks was 
filled too rapidly. The remedy adopted was to first 


cool the lead by not placing more than one-third of its 
capacity of lead in any one tank twice daily, and when 
filled using raw linseed oil on leveling oflF the top in 
place of water. Some twenty years since a well-known 
firm of corroders conceived the idea of storing immense 
quantities of white lead in bulk, dry and in oil, and con- 
structed a massive building of four stories with a base- 
ment. The basement was intended for the storage of 
commercial packages of lead in oil in wood, because this 
basement was of low temperature during the heated 
term. The first floor was for filling, packing and ship- 
ping, the second floor had a dozen large cylindrical steel 
tanks with funnel-shaped bottom, set in on a level 
extending to within four feet of the first floor, whence 
the lead in oil from each tank by means of a sliding 
gate and lever attachment could be filled by gravity 
into any package no matter of what size. 

These storage tanks, each of which had a capacity of 
thirty-five short tons, and whose diameter at the top 
was 83^ feet, were filled by means of iron trucks on 
wheels of a capacity of one. and a quarter tons that were 
brought from the mills, the product already cooled and 
discharged by means of a sliding gate. The extra cost 
of this work for labor was overcome by the economy in 
labor in filling the commercial packages by gravity, not 
considering the great advantage of being ready at all 
times to furnish very large tonnages of the product, 
without overcrowding the mills. The third floor was 
devoted to the storage of dry white lead in bulk, of 
which it held at one certain time nearly 300 short tons. 
This may at first glance appear like an unwise accumula- 
tion of stock, but it turned out to good advantage for 
several reasons, chief of which was a long protracted 


shutdown in corrosion, the other that it confirmed what 
the late V. B. Grinnell, who had investigated the 
practical side of white lead corrosion and grinding for 
several years from the painters' standpoint, asserted in 
some of his writings, namely, that the belief that white 
lead in oil should be well aged was erroneous, but that 
the storing and ageing of dry lead was a great benefit to 
the quality. The writer has found that lead stored in 
the dry state for a month mixes and grinds more freely — 
ripens, as it were — and appears to be endowed with 
better body or hiding power. The fourth floor of the 
building in question was devoted to the storage of empty 
lead containers, and every floor had its heating arrange- 
ment by dry hot air flues. 

Of course, the paint and color grinder who does not 
corrode his own white lead will not store very large 
quantities of dry lead to place on a floor or in a bin for 
exposure to normal atmosphere, but it will pay in the 
Icttig run to purchase supplies well ahead, as even when 
in barrels or casks the dry lead will become more 
mellow and grind more freely when not too fresh, unless 
it be packed damp. The paint grinder who grinds 
paste paints consisting of part white lead and part zinc 
white, will do well to thoroughly examine his stock of 
lead for uniform dryness, because zinc white coming in 
contact with damp or moist white lead will give serious 
trouble when ground in oil in fairly stiff paste form, as 
lumping and partial hardness will be the inevitable 
result. We shall refer to this matter again when we 
consider the subject of grinding paste whites in general. 

When grinding white lead in pale gold size or varnish 
for coach and car work, great care must be exercised in 
having the pigment as dry as is possible, and also that 
the vehicle is free from rosin or other soft resins. 


The Pulp Lead Grinding Process. 

This process was introduced by white lead corroders 
some thirty years ago, probably much earlier, but if so 
it was kept very quiet, as it did not become generally 
known to the trade until twenty-five years since. Even 
then the process was by no means new, as it had been 
carried on for years, but on a very small scale, and for a 
different purpose. When it was adopted on a large 
scale it was to save time and expense of drying the 
pulp lead after washing, and taking it all in all, aside 
from economical reasons, there is another phase to the 
question, which may be stated in short as follows: — 
When the hydrated carbonate of lead is mixed with lin- 
seed oil by agitation, thus separating the water from the 
pulp and uniting lead and oil without more heat than is 
generated by the friction incidental to the agitation, the 
resulting product will if all the water is thoroughly 
expelled, be free from any tendency to become stringy 
or gum up, as it is liable to do when run through over- 
heated stone mills. The process resolves itself into 
something rather simple. It requires a building with 
several strong floors to conduct the process in, as the 
only economical way is to do it by gravity. The pulp 
washing and storage tanks must be on the top floor, 
whence the well washed pulp contaiuing at least 33 per 
cent, of pigment is run into another large tank of wood 
that contains a stirring device, also of wood and steam 
coils of leaden pipes for the purpose of bringing the 
pulp to a temperature of as much as 120 degrees F., 
because at this temperature the agitation and separa- 
tion of water is effected much more rapidly. On the 
floor below there is a weighing box on a stationary scale, 
which has near its top an overflow pipe and on its bot- 


torn at one end several discharge outlets with valves that 
are directly over the agitators. These, which may be 
eight or ten feet deep and three feet or more in diameter, 
are made of heavy timber having heavy shafts running 
in a step in bottom of tank, while very strong mixer 
arms with heavy blades are fastened to the end of shaft 
in bottom and about three feet from the bottom there is 
a heavy cross arm that holds the shaft in place, and at 
the same time contains blades that extend toward the 
bottom of the tank. On this cross bar rests a brass 
sleeve that reaches to the top of the tank, but is loose 
and can be started by means of a clutch on the shaft by 
dropping a lever. This brass sleeve has a number of 
brass blades that are so arranged as to give the oil a 
downward course while the agitation is going on. The 
lead in oil, after water has been drawn, is discharged 
from the agitators by means of gates and passed into 
other mixers below, when all the water possible is 
drawn oflf and passed over stone rollers on the lowest 
floor, which squeeze out all the remaining water if 
proper care is exercised. So far the apparatus, which, 
of course, varies in construction according to the facil- 
ities of the buildings in which it is located. Now as to 
the manipulation itself. The well-washed pulp is run 
or pumped into the stirring tank and there allowed to 
settle to some extent, so that the excess of water may be 
run or siphoned oflF. This done, the mechanical stirrer 
is placed in action and the steam turned on for warming 
up the pulp lead. When sufficiently heated enough of it 
is discharged into the weighing box below to fill it up to 
the overflow pipe referred to above, and the weight 
ascertained. In order to make this fully understood, 
we will say that the weighing box is of wood, very strong- 
ly constructed, resting on a framework that again rests 


on a large platform scale of say 5,000 pounds capacity, 
and the box is inclined toward the agitators, so that it 
may be flushed with clear water from a hose after being 
emptied of its charge of pulp lead. Assuming that the 
weighing box and frame work weighs 1,500 pounds, and 
that the box itself holds 1,000 pounds (120 gallons) of 
clear water when filled to the overflow, the dry weight 
of the lead contained in the pulp when the box is filled to 
the same point of overflow with pulp lead instead of 
water is figured on this equation: — Assuming that a 
batch of pulp lead in the box shows a gross weight of 
3,500 pounds, we subtract the tare of frame work 1,500 
pounds, leaving 2,000 pounds of pulp lead and water. 
From this we subtract 1,000 pounds for the capacity of 
the box when filled with water, leaving a balance of 
1,000 pounds to be accounted for. Multiplying this by 
the figure 1.18, which has been ascertained to be the 
correct multiple, we have 1,180 pounds of dry lead in 
the 2,000 pounds of pulp. This having been ascer- 
tained, the pulp is run into one of the aforesaid agitators, 
and when the mixer is in motion a weighed portion of 
oil, amounting to not less than 9 per cent, of the weight 
of the dry lead ascertained as above is run into the 
agitator in a thin stream. 

The higher the temperature of the pulp lead in the 
agitator or separator, the quicker will be the union of 
lead and oil and the separation of the water, always 
providing that the oil is of the right character. At 
certain times the separation of the water is effected in as 
short a time as twenty minutes from the time of putting 
the mixer in motion, while sometimes it will require 
over an hour or more. The most rapid action takes 
place when well refined linseed oil is being used and the 


oil must be refined by the sulphuric acid process, well 
washed and clarified by settling before use. Raw lin- 
seed oil will not do the work no matter how well settled 
and clarified by age. It requires too much time to efifect 
separation of the water, and the lead in oil so manipu- 
lated retains too great a percentage of the water. The 
process of separation, when properly attended to, is 
very interesting, because of the lightning-like rapidity 
of the clearing of the water and the uniting of the lead 
and oil. At first, as the stream of oil is run in the agita- 
tor on top of the pulp, it floats on top for a few minutes, 
then appears to form an emulsion with the water of the 
pulp, but all of a sudden the water clears, and on stop- 
ping the machine the lead in oil can be seen in the bot- 
tom of the mixer, so clear is the water, which is removed 
by means of a steam siphon and another small percen- 
tage of oil, say one-half of 1 per cent., of the calculated 
weight of dry lead added, at times even more, as may be 
necessary. With this addition of oil the lead in bottom 
of mixer is agitated some more, and then enough 
drawn into the mixers above the roller mills to relieve 
the agitator suflBciently to admit of running in another 
batch of pulp. In the' mixers above the roller mills the 
mixing obtains the finishing touch, because here any 
moisture that may still be present comes to the top and 
can be removed. This additional manipulation also 
imparts compactness or density to the product, which is 
always more loose than dry ground lead in oil. The 
further running of the pulp ground lead over stone 
rollers aids in still further imparting density as well as 
pressing out moisture should such be still present. In 
some instances the lead has been run over a double set 
of stone rollers, or six of them in all. Some one may ask 
wherein is the economy of this process with all the 


stages it has to go through, but any one that is or has 
been connected with the manufacture of white lead will 
readily see the benefit derived as against the process of 
drying the lead on steam jacketed copper pans or in 
drying rooms on wooden trays, the use of iron being out 
of the question because of discoloration from rust. 
Before the advent of the steel keg, wooden kegs and pails 
were glued on the inside to keep the oil from being 
absorbed by the staves, but most of the packages con- 
taining pulp ground lead in oil were not sized in order 
to permit the wood to absorb the moisture that had not 
been entirely expelled. As steel kegs and pails are now 
in general use, pulp ground lead must be manipulated 
much more carefully than it used to be years ago, as it 
is otherwise liable to discoloration. 




Grinding Sublimed White Lead. 
(Basic Lead Sulphate.) 

The grinding of this pigment does not practically 
diflFer from that of dry white lead in oil, but being of a 
harsher texture, should be ground on stone mills, prefer- 
ably buhr stones, in order to get it down to proper 
fineness. When sublimed lead first came into the mar- 
ket, it had a tendency to harden while being mixed with 
oil, especially when becoming heated and afterward 
cooling before being run through the mill. Ten pounds 
of oil being required to 90 pounds of the pigment in 
those days to form a good medium paste in oil, the 
remedy adopted was to grind in a mixture of 90 per cent, 
raw linseed oil and 10 per cent, cottonseed oil. At that 
time sublimed white lead was composed of about 86 
per cent, lead sulphate and 14 per cent, zinc oxide. At 
present as sold by the Picher Lead Company it is com- 
posed of 95 per cent, lead sulphate and 5 per cent, zinc 
oxide, and is more mellow than when marketed twenty- 
five years ago, and as a rule of better whiteness. 

When ground for the trade in paste. form (which is 
very seldom the case, however), and kept in bulk in 
quantity it must not be leveled oflf on top with water, 
because it will form a very thick crust on top that is 
difficult to mix in oil without regrinding. When 
groimd in oil as a base for ready mixed paints, it is 


usually combined with a portion of zinc oxide or 
hydrated lead carbonate, as well as such base pig- 
ments as blanc fixe or natural barytes, China clay, 
magnesium silicate (asbestine) or calcium carbonate 
(whiting). In this admixture it mixes and works much 
better than when ground in the pure state. There are 
a few points connected with this pigment to which we 
shall refer later on. 

American Zinc Lead and Leaded Zincs. 

Some twenty-five or thirty years ago a white pigment 
was oflFered to paint makers under the name of zinc lead, 
made from a lead and zinc ore foimd in Colorado and 
then known as Colorado zinc lead. It was a combina- 
tion which the chemists found to consist of about 28 
per cent, lead sulphate and 72 per cent, zinc oxide, 
rather coarse in structure and with decided yellowish 
cast. Many paint grinders experimented with this 
pigment and finally adopted it as a base for ready- 
mixed paints, while others made it the basis for a line of 
cheap tinted paste paints, sold as building paints and 
paints for agricultural implement makers, because of 
its comparatively low price, as compared with white 
lead and domestic zinc oxides. These pastes were, 
however, rarely sold pure, but the pigment was mixed 
with other inert mineral bases, such as calcium carbon- 
ate (whiting), calcium sulphate (gypsum), barium 
sulphate (barytes) or kaolin (China clay) or magnesium 
silicate (asbestine). A flood of these paste paints was 
let loose upon the market, especially by Western firms, 
under fanciful names or brands, and because of the low 
prices, their sale was enormous for a time. But the 
inevitable reaction set in later on, and, in spite of the 
improvement made in further developments of the 


pigment, when it was made of a much purer white and 
of a composition consisting of about 45 to 48 per cent, 
lead sulphate and 52 per cent, zinc oxide, it has lost 
ground and is rarely heard of today. 

Zinc Lead as a Pigment. 

Like sublimed white lead, as it was first placed on the 
market, zinc lead was of a coarse, harsh texture, difficult 
to mix in oil and to grind fine and required a larger 
percentage of oil than a mixture of sublimed lead and 
domestic zinc oxide in similar chemical proportions, and 
when ground into a medium stiflF paste in oil it was 
very apt to settle quickly, when thinned for use as a 
liquid paint and on standing about in that condition, 
exhibited a strong inclination to cake hard in the bot- 
tom of the paint pot. This was in a measure overcome 
when ground with a certain percentage of whiting, 
kaolin or asbestine, but was aggravated when gypsum 
or barytes was used. Another bad fault was its ten- 
dency to act on certain tinting colors, especially those 
not alkali resisting. Zinc lead, ground on roller mills, 
never made a fine paint and was rather hard on paint 
brushes. House paints made from a base of zinc lead 
did not make good primers for raw wood, and, used as 
finishing paints for exposed work, were very apt to crack 
and scale. Hence, the desire to correct these faults by 
combining it with more or less inert mineral pigments, 
as mentioned above. The average proportion of pig- 
ment and oil, when zinc lead came first on the market to 
produce a stiff paste was 86J^ per cent, pigment and 
IS}/^ per cent, linseed oil, while later on, when the pig- 
ment consisted of nearly equal percentages of lead 
sidphate and zinc oxide, it was 88 per cent, and 12 per 
cent, respectively. 


Leaded Zinc as a Foment. 

More recently a white pigment under this name has 
found its way into the paint market which, while it 
apj>ears to have some of the features of zinc lead, is 
much bulkier, i. e., of lighter specific gravity. It is 
claimed for it that it consists of practically two-thirds 
zinc oxide in combination with one-third lead sulphate, 
and its selling price is considerably less than the cost of 
one-third white lead or sublimed lead and two-thirds of 
American zinc oxide. It is a Western (Missouri) 
product and it is well-known that all Western zinc ores 
contain more or less lead. When there is no objection 
to make a paint from part basic lead sulphate (sub- 
limed lead) and zinc oxide the writer can see no reason 
why this pigment cannot be employed profitably. 
While not as smooth a mixing or grinding proposition 
as that of white lead and American zinc oxide, it has 
none of the refractory, harsh texture of zinc lead, nor 
its settling tendency. It mixes and grinds fairly well 
in oil and will make a medium stiflF paste in the propor- 
tion of 87 J^ per cent, pigment and 12^ per cent, raw 
linseed oil. 

Mixing and Grinding Zinc Whites. 

When zinc oxides are to be ground in oil in paste form 
for the trade it is essential for good results that the dry 
zinc be stored in a dry place, because green or moist 
zinc oxide will neither mix well with oil nor grind 
smoothly, and when packed into containers in such 
condition does not keep or open up well when about to 
be used. Not only is it liable to open up with a crust 
on top, but also with lumps throughout the package. 
But when stored for too long a time dry zinc oxide is apt 


to become more and more transparent, especially in 
open containers where the air has free access to the 
pigment. In such case the zinc oxide, or at least a 
portion of it, undergoes a chemical change, turning into 
zinc carbonate, and it is well known to experts that 
carbonate of zinc is transparent and lacks the opacity 
or hiding power of zinc oxide. In large establishments, 
where large quantities of zinc whites are ground in oil 
for the trade, the best apparatus for the purpose is 
composed of a chaser of good power, with a bed pan 
eight feet in diameter and a 5,000-pound roller with well- 
adjusted scraper and gate opening into a mixer, while 
the mixer discharges zinc and oil onto the stone rollers 
of a suitable roller mill, that must also be carefully 
adjusted to give the paste a good finish and appearance, 
no matter how stiffly the material may be mixed. 
When ground on a stone mill the resulting product is 
either too soft or becomes too ropey on cooling. The 
advantage of the apparatus referred to will be seen when 
it is considered that the chaser exercises a condensing 
action on the pigment, thus requiring a lesser percentage 
of oil to form the paste than would be necessary in an 
ordinary mixer and stone mill. The material exhibits 
greater opacity and, as a great portion of zinc in oil is 
wanted for interior flat work by decorators, or at least 
was in use for such purposes before the advent of the 
so-called modem flat wall finishes, the zinc so ground 
was more easily flatted without drawing the oil. To 
illustrate why this is possible we will say that when a 
package containing 300 pounds of dry zinc oxide is 
emptied into a chaser of the type referred to and the 
crushing wheel run over the pigment for, say^ thirty 
minutes, and the zinc returned to the original package, 
the container will be little more than half filled with the 


800 pounds taken from the chaser. In other words, 
the zinc has been condensed to a little more than one- 
half of its original bulk. 

It is not necessary, however, nor would it be bene- 
ficial, to go to such extremes when grinding zinc in oil, 
because when done properly a portion of such density is 
imparted during the manipulation. The dry zinc is 
placed in the chaser with sufficient of the oil to lubricate 
the material while being mixed, and the weight of the 
crushing wheel gives enough of the condensing action to 
make it possible to get along with a smaller percentage 
of oil than is required in the ordinary process of grinding 
through a stone mill. Here an average of 18 per cent, 
of oil to 82 per cent, of pigment is required to have the 
paste go through the mill, while with chaser and roller 
mill the average will run 15 per cent, of oil to 85 per cent, 
pigment, all other features being equal. Furthermore, 
the daily production of the latter apparatus is at least 
double, and at times even threefold, as compared with 
that of a thirty-six-inch diameter stone mill. Of course, 
when the zinc oxide in oil is to serve as part of the base 
for ready-mixed paint it can be mixed in a rather soft 
form, and, in that case, nm through a rather open stone 
mill and the output increased to a very large extent. 
Zinc white for the trade is usually groimd in refined or 
bleached linseed oil and is in very little demand at 
present in poppyseed oil. Nor is raw linseed oil used 
for mixing with zinc for the trade unless so specified. 
Great care is necessary to have the oil as free as possible 
from moisture, as it tends to harden it in the package. 
Nor must zinc oxide be covered with water to keep the 
top of the material from forming a skin, because it 
acts as a hardener. When containers are not airtight. 


as is the case with the so-called wire rim or wire top 
pails or kettles, a good method to keep zinc contained 
in them from forming a skin or crust on top is to cover 
the material over with disks of strong parchment paper 
of the diameter of pail before adjusting the lid. When 
zinc oxide is ground in oil for stock and stored in bulk in 
large containers, the top of the paste should be covered 
with a little of the oil, in which it has been ground, which 
can be removed and used again in future grindings, when 
the paste is to be canned or otherwise disposed of, 

Ck>mbined Lead and Zinc Whites. 

Paint grinders have had, some time or other, a puz- 
zling experience in the grinding of combinations of pure 
lead and zinc paste paint, when the specification called 
for certain percentages of pigment and linseed oil, 
especially where raw oil was required. When the two 
pigments are mixed with the oil and then run through 
stone mills very close set in order to obtain good fine- 
ness the mills become heated much more rapidly than 
when either pigment is ground by itself. The only sure 
remedy to prevent lumps through the material after 
cooling is to keep it agitated after leaving the mill until 
it cools. 

A sure way to prevent this lump formation is to place 
in a power mixer the proper percentage by weight of 
white lead in oil and zinc oxide in oil, both ground to 
proper fineness and give the material a thorough mixing, 
then discharging it direct into the containers required. 
This will cost a trifle more for labor, but if judiciously 
arranged, it will pay to do it rather than take the risk of 
having the material rejected. 


Assuming that a certain white lead paint to be fur- 
nished in paste form is to be composed of the following: 
Sixty-six per cent, by weight of lead carbonate, 22 
per cent, of zinc oxide and 12 per cent, of raw linseed 
oil, a mixing of 73 pounds of white lead in oil and 27 
pounds of zinc, which, the latter having been ground at 
the rate of 22)^ pounds oil to 77J^ pounds dry zinc, will 
make a composition as per specifications, because there 
is usually a leeway of 1 per cent, on the oil permitted, 
either way, the usual proviso being, that paste must 
not contain less than 11 per cent, nor more than 13 per 
cent, by weight of well settled, pure, raw linseed oil. 
Whenever a chaser and roller mill is part of the equip- 
ment of a paint establishment, it is best policy to make 
use of it for combinations of lead and zinc, as well as 
for the grinding of the so-called combination whites. 
By long practice it has been determined that white paste 
paints of this combination, be they admixtures of lead or 
zinc oxide, sublimed lead or lithopone with barytes 
whiting, gypsum, clay or asbestine or any other inert 
white mineral are giving best results when manipulated 
on chaser and roller mills, instead of being forced 
through stone mills, where often they become over- 
heated and when put up for the trade and kept in stores 
or warehouses for any length of time, prove on opening 
by the consumer to be badly settled and caked hard in 
bottom of containers. While the heavy roller in the 
chaser makes the material compact, its being put 
through the mixer and over the rollers loosens it up 
again without, however, taking away density, thus 
preventing gumming up in the package. 



Manufacture, Composition and Uses of the 
Pigment, Which Has in Recent Years 
Come Into General Use. 

Lithopone or sulphide of zinc white has been in 
general use for twenty years or more in many industries 
where a white pigment of considerable body or hiding 
power is required that is not subject to change Uke 
lead carbonate and has not the brittle character of zinc 
oxide, besides being sold at a lower figure than either of 
these. Nevertheless it is still comparatively new to the 
general painting trade. Because of our tariff protec- 
tion its manufacture in this country has made great 
progress. Yet in spite of this and the duty imposed on 
it, the imports are still in excess of the quantity manu- 
factured here. A short history of its origin will no 
doubt prove of interest to our readers. 

As early as sixty years ago, zinc sulphide was first 
thought of as a pigment for coloring India rubber and a 
patent for the process of its manufacture was issued in 
England. But it was not until twenty years later that 
zinc sulphide and its manufacture was seriously con- 
sidered as a pigment for paint, and in 1874 a patent was 
issued for a process of manufacturing a white pigment, 
composed of zinc sulphide and barium sulphate, known 
as Charlton white, also as Orr's white enamel. This 
was followed in 1876 by a patent issued to a manufac- 
turer named GriflSth and the product, which was 
similar in character to Charlton white, was known as 


Griffith's patent zinc white. In 1879 another patent 
for a more novel process was obtained by Griffith & 
Cawley, the product made mider this process proving 
the best of the series placed upon the market up to that 
date. After that time many new processes were pat- 
ented, all, however, tending to the same object, that of 
producing a white pigment, composed of zinc sulphide 
and barium carbonate, the results, however, in many 
cases ending with failure. 

In the meantime, the chemical factories of Con- 
tinental Europe, principally in Germany, Austria and 
Belgium, had taken hold of the novelty and under the 
collective name of lithopone or lithophone, by numerous 
processes, produced various grades of the pigment, 
branding the respective qualities as red seal, green seal, 
yellow seal, blue seal, etc., or selling them under some 
fancy name. Of this we shall speak later on. The 
crusade against the use of white lead in the various 
countries of Continental Europe, assisted the manu- 
facturers, to a very great extent, in marketing their 
products, not only to industrial concerns, as has been 
the case in this country, until recently, but to the gener- 
al painting trade. Up to 1889 the imports into this 
country were comparatively small. At that time one of 
the largest concerns manufacturing oilcloth and lin- 
oleum in the State of New Jersey began to import and 
use Charlton white. Shortly after that other oilcloth 
manufacturers followed suit, replacing zinc white with 
lithopone in the making of white tablecloth, etc., and 
later on abandoning the use of white lead in floor cloth 
and linoleum. This gave an impetus to several chem- 
ical concerns, that erected plants and began to manu- 
facture the pigment. Competition among the manu- 


facturers and the activity of the importers induced 
other industries to experiment with lithopone, and the 
shade cloth makers, who formerly used white lead 
chiefly, are now among the largest consumers. Makers 
of India rubber goods, implement makers and paint 
manufacturers are also consumers of great quantities, 
and the demand is very much on the increase, as the 
nature of the pigment is becoming better understood and 
its defects brought under contrcJ. Large quantities 
find their way into floor paints, machinery paints, 
implement paints and enamel paints, while the flat 
wall paints that have of late come into such extensive 
use owe their existence to the use of lithopone in their 

Having thus described the origin and uses of the pig- 
ment, we now come to the question, what is lithopone? 
It is, in short, a chemical compound usually consisting 
of 30.5 per cent, zinc sulphide, 1.5 per cent, zinc oxide 
and 68 per cent, barium sulphate, but these proportions 
vary slightly in the diflFerent makes. Lithopone of this 
composition is sold as the highest grade, either as red 
seal or green seal, as it best suits the idea of the manu- 
facturer. Many manufacturers, especially in Europe, 
sell and also export other brands under other seals, con- 
taining 24, 20, 18 and as little as 12 per cent, of zinc 
sidphide with very small percentages of zinc oxide, the 
balance being usually barium sulphate, but sometimes 
certain portions of China clay or gypsum (calcium 
sidphate) or whiting (calcium carbonate). Such brands 
are not a chemical compound, but mechanical mixtures 
of the chemically compoimded lithopone and the ad- 
mixtures referred to. 


The brands of lithopone of the normal class, that of 
chemical manufacture, are marketed under such names 
as Ponolith, Beckton White, Jersey Lily White, Oleum 
White, Zinc Sulphide White, all of these being of 
domestic manufacture, and their composition is of the 
30 per cent, zinc sulphide type. The German manu- 
facturers and exporters of lithopone make use of fancy 
names for their brands and here are a few examples of 
these and the composition of the pigment: — 

Porcelain White, 32 per cent, sulphide, 68 per cent, 
barium sulphate. 

Durabo White, 24.5 per cent, zinc sulphide, 51 per 
cent, barium sulphate, 18 per cent, white clay, 5.5 per 
cent, infusorial earth. 

Blanc de Comines, 27 per cent, zinc sulphide, 70.5 
per cent, barium sulphate, 2.5 per cent, zinc carbonate. 

Neutral White, 26 per cent, zinc sulphide, 66 per cent, 
barium sulphate, 5 per cent, infusorial earth, 3 per cent, 

Edelweiss, 14.5 per cent, zinc sulphide, 84 per cent, 
barium sulphate, 1.5 per cent, carbonate of lime. 

A great number of other brands with fancy names 
have gone out of the German market, because of some 
defects in the processes of manufacture. The EngUsh 
exporters, as a rule, oflFer three or four grades of litho- 
pone, the lowest priced consisting of about 12 per cent, 
zinc sulphide, the best varying between 30 and 32 per 
cent, zinc sulphide. A white pigment of this composi- 
tion containing more than 32 per cent, zinc sulphide 
does not work well in oil as a paint, although in the 
oilcloth and shade cloth industries an article containing 


as high as 45 per cent, zinc sulphide has been used 
apparently with success. Carefully prepared lithopone, 
containing 80 to 82 per cent, sulphide of zinc with not 
over 1.5 per cent, zinc oxide, the balance being barium 
sulphate, is a white powder almost equal to the best 
grades of French process zinc oxide in whiteness and 
holds a medium position in specific gravity between 
white lead and zinc oxide. Its oil absorption is also 
fairly well in the middle between the two white pig- 
ments mentioned, lead carbonate requiring 9 per cent, 
of oil, zinc oxide on an average 17 per cent, and litho- 
pone 18 per cent, to form a stiff paste. There is one 
advantage in the manipulation of lithopone in oil over 
both white lead and zinc oxide, it is more readily mis- 
cible than either of these, for some purposes requiring 
no mill grinding at all, simply thorough mixing with the 
oil. However, when lithopone has not been fumaced 
up to the required time, it will require a much greater 
percentage of oil for grinding and more thinners for 
spreading than the normal pigment. Pigment of that 
character is not well adapted for use in the manufacture 
of paints, as it lacks in body and color resisting proper- 
ties and does not work well under the brush. In those 
industries, where the paint can be applied with machin- 
ery, as in shade cloth making, etc., it appears to be 
preferred, because of these very defects. As this sort of 
lithopone, ground in linseed oil in paste form, is thinned 
for application to the cloth with benzine only, and on 
account of its greater tendency to thicken, requires 
more of this comparatively cheap thinning medium, it is 
preferred by most of the manufacturers of machine 
painted shade cloth. Another point considered by 
them is that it does not require as much coloring matter 
to tint the white paste to the required standard depth 


as would be the case if the lithopone were of the stand- 
ard required for the making of paint or enamek. On 
the other hand, the lithopone preferred by the shade 
cloth trade would prove a failure in the manufacture 
of oil paints and much more so, when used as a pigment 
in the so-called enamel or varnish paints. Every 
paint manufacturer knows, or should know, that a pig- 
ment containing hygroscopic moisture does not work 
well with oil and driers in a paint and that with varnish 
especially it is very susceptible to livering on standing 
and to becoming puffed to such an extent as to make it 
unworkable under the brush. While the process of 
making lithopone is not very diflBcult or complicated, 
the success of obtaining a first class product depends to 
a great extent on the purity of the material used. 
Foreign substances in these are readily eliminated by 
careful manipulation, which, however, requires thorough 
knowledge and great care, as otherwise the result will be 
a failure, rendering a product of bad color and lack of 
covering power. 

The materials used in a successful lithopone plant 
comprise barytes (crude), coal, zinc spelter, oil of vitriol, 
common salt, sal ammoniac, sodium phosphate, chlorate 
of potash, calcium chloride and caustic soda. Taking 
the average figures for several years, the percentages by 
weight of the consumption of each of these materials are 
as follows : — Crude barytes, S7.30 per cent. ; bituminous 
coal, 26.59 per cent.; zinc spelter or scrap zinc, 9.63 
per cent. ; oil of vitriol, 22.05 per cent. ; rock salt, 3.39 
per cent. ; sal ammoniac, .44 per cent. ; sodium phos- 
phate, .14 per cent.; chlorate of potash, .31 per cent.; 
calcium chloride .13 per cent. ; caustic soda, .2 per cent. 
The average yield of Uthopone from this material was 


41 per cent of a normal grade, averaging 29.85 per cent, 
zinc sulphide, 1.6S per cent, zinc oxide and 68.52 per 
cent, barium sulphate. 

The cost of manufacture naturally depends, in the 
first place, upon the location of the plant, a plentiful 
supply of clear water, as enormous quantities are re- 
quired for the washing of the product; faciUties for 
discharging the materials from railroad cars or boats, 
economical methods of handling the same, up-to-date 
crushers, mills and furnaces. Neither must the placing 
of levigating tanks, filter presses and drying ovens or 
kilns be lost sight of and it will be noted that it requires 
quite a plant full of apparatus to manufacture a paying 
quantity of lithopone. On the other hand, to run it 
most economically, is to have it going day and night, 
with double shifts of men and a shut down only when it 
becomes necessary to clean out and repair furnaces, etc., 
because every shutdown means quite an item of expense 
and a liability to produce inferior products until the 
plant is again in normal working order. Without going 
into minute details we may say, that for a plant with a 
capacity of ten tons every twenty-four hours* a building, 
at a cost of about $25,000, fitted out with apparatus, 
costing as much more is required. The apparatus, 
including engine for running two reverberatory furnaces, 
a crusher for breaking the crude barytes, at least four 
large buhrstone mills, disintegrator, elevator, etc., and 
to furnish steam heat for drying rooms, consists of one 
or two reverberatory furnaces, a series of muffle fur- 
naces, lined tanks for the zinc sulphate and barium 
sulphide solutions, thirty vats of about 1,500 gallons each 
capacity for washing the product, filtering presses, trays 
for handling the filtrate and drying chambers for same. 


aside from numerous other tools and appliances. 
Where perfectly clear water cannot be had large tankage 
for filtering the water for levigating the product is 
absolutely needed. 

The process of manufacture itself begins with the 
preparation of barium sulphide, usually termed black 
ash, which consists of breaking up the crude baryta rock 
in a crusher and running it through a buhr stone mill to 
a certain size, about Uke a small pea, screening it to 
avoid the dust, which is liable to clog the furnace, 
adding to every 100 pounds of this broken rock about 
twenty pounds of bituminous coal of small pea size, and 
about ten pounds of common salt to assist fusion. 
This mijrture is placed in a reverberatory furnace, where 
it is heated to dull redness without admission of air. 
When the reaction has taken place the mass is placed in 
vats, digested and filtered. When the crude baryta 
rock contains, as is often the case, much clay, iron, etc., 
the pure barium sulphide must be leeched out and the 
foreign residue removed. When this black ash and its 
solution is being prepared, zinc spelter, zinc dross or 
scrap zinc or any available zinc salt is being dissolved in 
separate vats or tanks in sulphuric acid, forming a solu- 
tion of zinc sulphate. The barium sulphide solution 
and the zinc sulphate solution should be of a concentra- 
tion of 60 per cent, and at a temperature of 140 to 150 
degrees Farenheit, when they are poured together, and 
the zinc solution should be poured at double the rate of 
the barium solution, in which case a precipitate is 
obtained that must be filtered and dried. It is self- 
evident that when zinc dross is used and in any case 
unless refined spelter is employed, the zinc solution must 
be treated with a compound that will eliminate all traces 


of iron and other foreign materials. For this purpose 
chlorate of potash is added. The precipitate, after 
being filtered and dried, is now placed in muffle furnaces 
and heated at as high a temperature as 900 degrees 
Fahrenheit, when it is suddenly plunged into cold water. 
In calcining in the muffle furnace salammoniac to about 
1 per cent, of the dry weight of the pigment is added to 
assist fusion. When the material is thus prepared it is 
carried to the buhr stone mills by means of centrifugal 
pumps and pipes or by other mechanical appliance and 
there ground in the pulp state to the standard degree of 
fineness, and then conveyed to the washing tanks, where 
it is washed over as often as it is necessary to eliminate 
all traces of impurities, free sulphur, iron, etc. This 
often requires as many as twelve to fifteen washings and 
sodium phosphate and caustic soda are added in very 
small portions to aid in the process. Calcium chloride 
is also added as a bleaching agent when the whiteness is 
defective. A minute quantity of ultramarine blue is 
also one of the ingredients to assist in eliminating too 
creamy a cast. When the test shows the pigment to be 
thoroughly washed, it is filter pressed, the cakes so 
formed are placed on wooden trays, the trays stacked 
up on suitable trucks and these put into drying rooms 
usually built of metal and heated by exhaust steam, 
which is augmented by jets of live steam. When the 
cakes of Uthopone have dried, they are fed into the 
hopper of a disintegrator, which pulverizes the lumps 
into a powder of uniform fineness, and when this powder 
has been put up in barrels or casks of suitable size, the 
product is ready for the market. 

In our percentages of materials required to produce 
Uthopone of standard quality, we have included in the 
item of bituminous coal, not only the percentage for use 


in the black ash, but also the coal required as fuel for the 
engine and the furnaces. It must be noted that of late 
crude petroleum has become quite a favorite for firing 
boilers, furnaces, etc., on account of the greater heat 
produced, but it is an open question whether or not its 
use is not detrimental to the life of a furnace and whether 
it is really more economical. The one great feature 
about the manufacture of lithopone, as compared with 
that of white lead is in its quick manufacture, for a 
working batch of lithopone can be turned out in three or 
four days, whereas even quick process white lead will 
require at least one mpnth from the time the pig lead is 
unloaded, with one single exception, that of the so- 
called mild process of white lead. It stands to reason 
that the capital tied up in a Uthopone plant is very much 
smaller than in the case of white lead manufacture. 
Another advantage of the process as against that of 
white lead making is that the health of the workmen 
is not as much in danger, though by no means pleasant, 
on account of the vapors and the heat. The cost of 
manufacture, exclusive of the capital invested, but 
including repairs to apparatus, superintendence and 
labor should not exceed $10 per ton (2,000 pounds), 
while the cost of material, packages, etc., necessarily 
varies with the condition of the market. 

As stated in the beginning of this chapter, the white 
pigment known under the collective term Uthopone 
white, is becoming more and more appreciated, not only 
in the special industries referred to, but also by paint 
manufacturers and painters. That it required so long a 
time to bring this about was due to the many failures 
when it was being used for painting exterior surfaces 
without a thorough knowledge of its characteristics. 


That it should not be employed in place of zinc oxide in 
admixture with white lead (lead carbonate) and that 
driers with lead compounds should not be used when 
being mixed for spreading was well understood by chem- 
ists and most all paint manufacturers, but to the general 
consumer this information was a sealed book. Many of 
the so-called combination leads or combination whites 
had this zinc sulphide white as their base, because of its 
comparatively lesser cost and greater hiding power as 
against zinc oxide, and wherever discoloration or black- 
ening of white surfaces resulted on exterior, where such 
combination whites were used, misleading explanations 
were usually made. This is now becoming better under- 
stood and paint manufacturers will confine the use of 
lithopone to colored paints for exteriors and so far as 
clear white is concerned to interior painting material. 
The tendency of lithopone to become gray when exposed 
to the direct rays of the sun has caused many a sleepless 
night to manufacturing chemists engaged in the produc- 
tion of lithopone and, while the subject is becoming 
better understood from year to year, and while many 
claim that they have discovered the cause and a remedy 
for the trouble, it crops out every once in a while unex- 
pectedly with the very material for which a freedom 
from the effects of sunlight is claimed. When lithopone 
is mixed with water to a paste and applied to a strip of 
glass or other surface and inunediately exposed to 
direct sunlight, the white assumes as the water evapor- 
ates a gray color, sometimes it becomes nearly black. 
When the strip is removed to a dark place the material 
becomes nearly if not quite white again. This property 
of absorbing Ught and giving it out again is also noticed 
when Uthopone is ground in and thinned with linseed 
oil or varnish in neither of which any lead driers have 


been used. When such white paint is appUed on an 
exposed surface where the direct rays of the sun strike 
it before it has had an opportunity to dry thoroughly 
hard it will turn gray readily and, while it sometimes 
will regain its natural whiteness, such is not always the 
case. The reason for this has never been fully ex- 
plained, but the writer has tried out numerous samples 
of imported and domestic lithopone, all being of approx- 
imately similar composition in the percentages of zinc 
sulphide, zinc oxide and barium sulphate. Every 
sample was mixed with the same vehicle, damar varnish 
from the same package in like proportions and applied 
side by side on a strip of wood, previously coated with 
zinc oxide paint and exposed at the same time to the 
south during the day. No remarkable change occurred 
until next morning, after the sun had been out for an 
hour, when every one of the samples had become dis- 
colored to a greater or less extent, two of the ten sam- 
ples being nearly black, six having assumed the gray of 
agateware, while the other two showed a very light lead 
color tint. On examination it was found that none of 
the samples were dry, all showing the same decided tack. 
There had been a slight precipitation of dew during the 
night, which may account for the result, as it is a fact, 
that the presence of moisture in or on lithopone paint 
will aid in its discoloration by sunlight. The singular 
phenomenon in this test was, that after two days and 
nights, when the damar varnish had dried hard, all but 
the two darkest of the samples had regained their 
whiteness, while these two had assumed a dark cream 
tint. Whether the acidity of the varnish assisted in the 
discoloration of the samples the writer does not care to 
say, but he is quite certain that lithopone, when mixed 
with gloss oil, a solution of ordinary pine rosin and 


petroleum naptha, and applied to an exposed surface, 
as on the head of a barrel, standing in sunlight, will turn 
a dark gray in a few minutes without the presence of 
moisture. Still, that moisture will h^^ve a disastrous 
effect on paint made with lithopone when exposed has 
been proved by the writer, who tested out paints with 
lithopone as the base, thinned with linseed oil and 
manganese drier, to which various percentages of a 
watery emulsion was added. Even though the paints 
were tinted, the results were astonishing, the greatest 
change showing in the tests made with the paint having 
the greatest percentage of emulsion. 

There are many engaged in the manufacture of 
lithopone here and abroad who claim that they have 
perfected thfeir processes so as to overcome all the 
objections to its use on exteriors and even have obtained 
patents to protect their inventions, but it is wise to be 
skeptical and make use of this wonderful pigment 
where it is known to be safe. The results shown by the 
panels painted with lithopone on the Atlantic City test 
fence on which a very high grade of lithopone was used, 
seem to prove that so far lithopone, because of its lack 
of durability, not to speak of discoloration (which was 
not seriously considered) is not to be considered as a 
good exterior paint, at least not, when thinned in the 
same manner as lead and zinc paint. Summing up its 
advantages and prospects, we may say, that it has come 
to stay and that a great future is before it, if not in the 
general line of exterior painting and decorating, it will 
be for interior work and in industrial consumption, 
which will increase from year to year as the country 
grows still more and more. As stated before, it has 
within the last few years, made great strides in the 


manufacture of interior flat wall paint, where it is more 
sanitary than white lead paint, flatting far better than 
zinc white paint, and being more durable than cold 
water paint, at .the same time being moderate in cost. 
It has become indispensable with oilcloth and shade 
cloth makers, in the rubber making industry and to 
many paint manufacturers in the production of floor 
paints, ship paints and cheap grades of enamel. 

And it is in this pigment that the much-abused 
mineral, barytes or barium sulphate, has found a place 
where it has rehabilitated itself as the very useful ad- 
junct to paints, that it really is and always has been. 
Here is, where it does not serve simply as a make 
weight or extender, but as a helpmate. 

Lithopone White as a Pigment. 

Lithopone whites, showing by analysis less than 30 
per cent, zinc sulphide, are inferior grades made by 
adding barytes and possibly other extenders, such as car- 
bonate of lime, china clay or sulphate of lime in varying 
proportions. To find the contents of zinc sulphide, 
which imparts body and resisting power to color in the 
pigment, it is not always necessary to submit samples to 
analysis, but comparative value may be determined by 
physical test by comparing various samples with an 
adapted standard, making rubouts with color. The one 
showing most resisting power to color will be the one 
containing greatest percentage of zinc sulphide. Still 
the lithopone may have the normal percentage of zinc 
sulphide and yet be rather weak in resistance, and this 
is the case when the material has not been f umaced long 
enough, retaining some water of combination. When 
this is the case, it may be determined by the excessive 


quantity of vehicle required in grinding and by the 
rather slimy feel under the brush when worked out as a 
paint. That sort of lithopone is unfit for use in paste 
whites, that are afterwards thinned with oil or varnish, 
nor is it fit as a base for the modem flat wall finishes, and 
it is really preferred only by shade makers for painting 
shade cloth, because of the greater volume of oil and 
volatile matter it carries and the smaller quantity of 
color required to produce tints. Lithopone is readily 
recognized from zinc oxide by its smaller bulk and when 
the powders are treated by wetting up with dilute 
hydro-chloric acid. In the case of lithopone, sulphur- 
etted hydrogen is evolved immediately under slight 
effervescence, while zinc oxide remains dormant and 
emits no odor, excepting that of the acid. As is now 
well known, lithopone or any other compounds of zinc 
sulphide are sensitive to direct simlight, and while some 
makers claim that they have been able to produce a 
sunproof article, practical men are still very skeptical 
on that point. The writer has found several samples 
that were actually sunproof, yet in one instance the 
second exposure trial was a disappointment, while in 
sSSreral other cases the price was prohibitive in compar- 
ison with zinc oxide. There is no question but that vast 
improvements have been made diuing the past ten 
years in making the material more stable. The paint 
made from Uthopone is unaffected in its whiteness by 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas or sulphuric acid vapors, 
but must be kept free of lead or copper salts, as these 
will invariably discolor it. A quick test for its resist- 
ance to strong light or direct sunlight may be made by 
rubbing up each sample with white damar varnish in 
pestle and mortar and applying the several samples on a 
board previously grounded with zinc white, side by 


side, and exposing the board to the direct rays of the 
sun, shading one-half of the strips of paint in the most 
convenient way, so that whatever discoloration takes 
place during the setting or drying process may be readily 

Mixing and Grinding Lithopone. 

Lithopone is the most miscible of white pigments and 
can be readily ground fine on any good stone mill, one 
having esopus stones being best for the purpose. 
When ground in oil in large quantities, the chaser and 
roller mill apparatus is best and most productive, while 
for grinding bases for flat wall finishes, gloss whites, 
etc., the stone mill is preferable and for some of these 
the mills are best when water cooled. It is, for many 
purposes in certain industries, simply mixed to paste 
form without grinding in oil and then thinned down to 
the liquid form with such vehicles as serve the purpose. 
The paint grinder who supplies lithopone white of 
normal quahty in the paste form will find that with the 
chaser apparatus 12 pounds of a good refined linseed oil 
to 88 pounds pigment will produce a good workable 
material, while on stone mills he will require 14 pounds 
and 86 pounds, respectively. It would be unwise for 
him to purchase one of the lower grade lithopones, such 
as blue seal, yellow seal or black seal that contain less 
zinc sulphide than the green seal or red seal. It must be 
noted here that some of the manufacturers on the other 
side of the Atlantic brand the normal lithopone red seal 
and others green seal, so that either of these may contain 
30 per cent, zinc sulphide, while the other seals used 
may denote any percentage from 12 to 24 per cent. 
The paint grinder, when purchasing only the normal 
quality, does not require any of the other brands. 


because in mixing he can readily add the quantity of 
barytes required to reduce the percentage of zinc 
sulphide, when he has an output for goods of that class. 
This will avoid carrying an assortment of the material 
and he will not pay for its manipulation and carriage of 
the goods. 

A caution that will not be amiss, is to be very particu- 
lar before mixing lithopone in oil, to see that it is dry, 
not necessarily bone dry, but so that it does not cling 
to the scoop or shovel, but leaves those tools fairly 
clean. The dry material, as is the case with zinc oxide, 
should be stored in a dry place, as moist lithopone does 
not mix well with oil and much less so with the grinding 
vehicles that are used in lithopone bases for flat wall 
finishes and inside gloss whites. Here, as in all other 
lines of paint making, constant care and supervision is 
the great need for obtaining good results. 

When an apparatus has been used for grinding white 
lead it is natural that it should be most thoroughly 
scraped and cleaned before Uthopone is to be mixed and 
ground on same. This applies also when the change is 
reversed. When it comes to a chemical analysis of the 
goods, even fractions of 1 per cent, may be found and 
lead to a rejection of the goods with the incident loss of 
money and reputation. In fact, when it becomes neces- 
sary to mix and grind more than one pigment on the 
same apparatus, it pays to be careful. 


Grinding the White Bases for Liquid Paints. 

The methods of doing this most economically depends 
upon the arrangement of the building in which the 
ready-mixed paints are made and canned or packed for 
the trade. Naturally, the best arrangement is to have . 
a building three or four stories high, mixing the pigment 
with the oil on the top floor, in apparatus discharging 
directly into the hoppers of the mills on the floor below 
and chuting the ground base into liquid paint mixers on 
a floor below the milling or grinding room in order to do 
away with handling the material several times, which 
entails loss of time and loss by waste. This method is, 
however, not always feasible, unless in a factory where 
large quantities of standard paints are being made on 
certain formulas. Where paints are being manufac- 
tured on special formulas of diversified nature it is more 
convenient to have the various pigment bases ground 
and stored in convenient tanks separately, so that the 
required quantity from each can be drawn and placed 
into the liquid paint mixer and compounded with what- 
ever other bases constitute the formula. Thus, one 
tank would contain lead carbonate in soft paste form, 
another basic lead sulphate, another French zinc, 
while others would contain American zinc, zinc lead, 
lithopone, whiting or some kind of inert material that 
would be mixed for either pure white or tinted with the 
required colors in oil and thinned to the consistency 


suitable for application with the brush or for dipping 
purposes. In other paint factories again, the bases are 
conveyed in suitable trucks to the mixers, but no 
matter how disposed of, they are always ground rather 
soft, so as to mix readily and, in the case of liquid 
paints, it is immaterial what percentage of oil is being 
used in grinding the base, because it can be readily 
adjusted in the final manipulation so long as the exact 
proportion of pigment and oil in the base is known. 
When it comes to the bases for dipping paints or flat 
finishes it is diflFerent and more care is required, as an 
excess of oil will give trouble because in one case it will 
retard drying, in the other it will produce flashing. In 
grinding these bases for ready-mixed paints the mills 
best adapted are those with esopus stones, because the 
pigments used are not refractory and buhr stones do 
not take a good hold on soft material, as they polish 
too readily. There is a great advantage when such 
mills are provided with pans around the running stone, 
which keeps the soft material from slinging all over the 
frame and floor, thus preventing waste and untidiness 
about the mill room. 

We might say right here that in the grinding of white 
lead and white paints generally the men operating mix- 
ers and mills should be closely supervised in order to 
observe strict attention to having their own persons, as 
well as the apparatus as clean as possible, allowing no 
accumulation of waste, and before shutting down for 
the night or holidays to scrape down chutes and sides of 
mixers, scrapers and rims of mills, so that crust may not 
form over night or during shutdown and find its way 
into the product when starting up again. 


Grinding Bases for White Enamel Paints. 

Varnish, as a rule, is a rather delicate material and 
requires a great deal of attention, especially when it is 
being employed as a vehicle for grinding pigments of 
one kind or another. And, as our so-called enamels or 
gloss whites would not have or hold the luster expected 
from them without being made with large portions of 
gum varnish, we must consider how the base for the 
various grades should be manipulated. 

No matter whether the base to be prepared is to serve 
for air drying or baking enamel white, no manufacturer 
can meet with success in satisfying the trade unless he 
starts right from the very bottom by having his grinding 
room as dust free as possible and provided with heating 
apparatus, so that during the cold season the tempera- 
ture can be kept at a normal figure, say, about 70 de- 
grees F. The mixing room should be separate from the 
milling or grinding room and the former frequently 
dusted. When the base is ground in varnish or in a 
vehicle with a large portion of varnish it is best run 
through a water-cooled esopus stone mill until of the 
required fineness, while for bases with a vehicle of 
heavy-bodied oil a printing ink roller mill is best suited. 
Still, with skilful attention and care a good stone mill 
will serve the purpose in the latter case also. Over- 
heating must be avoided in any case, more especially 
when varnish constitutes the vehicle. The older 
method of making interior white enamel, known as 
china gloss, was to grind French zinc white in white 
damar varnish, which, as is well known, was simply a 
solution of damar resin or gum damar in spirits of tur- 
pentine (at the rate of 120 pounds gum damar to 
twenty gallons turpentine). The resin was either 


dissolved cold by churning it with turpentine in a re- 
volving drum or the solution was made by melting the 
resin in a kettle at low heat and adding the turpentine, 
the latter method giving the best product because free 
of moisture, but slightly yellow from the melting of the 
resin. Seventy pounds French zinc, ground in thirty 
pounds (about four gallons) of white damar varnish 
made a good base for china gloss and was also sold in 
paste form as French zinc in damar. When used as 
base for china glossing it was simply further reduced to 
flowing consistency with more white damar varnish. 
Another base for white enamel, now practically obsolete, 
was known as impalpable white in damar, and consisted 
of forty-four parts white lead of best selection, thirty- 
three parts French zinc white and twenty-three parts 
white damar varnish. On account of its good body 
(covering power) it was a favorite with casket manu- 
facturers and ornamental wood workers, also used it on 
enameled furniture. The great advance made in 
varnish manufacture during the past twenty years 
especially through the development with China wood 
oil, has had much to do with discouraging the use of 
damar varnish as a vehicle for white gloss paints. 
Unless these are made for a special purpose the use of 
white lead as a pigment base for enamel has been very 
generally abandoned and French process zinc white and 
the better grades of American process zinc have the 
call, while lithopone is gaining ground in the moderate- 
priced gloss whites. Here is where varnishes with 
small percentages of China wood oil find their chief use 
in white paint. 

Varnishes with China wood oil, however, are not 
suited as a vehicle for grinding zinc whites, because a 
zinc base so ground invariably shows a tendency to 


"pudding" up, and on thinning for use the thickening 
keeps on, producing a sort of jelly instead of a paint 
with body. Another varnish not suited for grinding 
zinc whites is one that is made with manila gum, which 
has a simular thickening tendency and invariably will 
give trouble. Where the base is required for quick 
air drying white enamel it is best to grind zinc white in 
damar varnish and depend upon a good white enamel 
varnish for the subsequent thinning, unless the varnish 
maker can guarantee a quick-drying grinding vehicle 
free from manila gum and China wood oil. When it 
comes to white enamel of great durability or for baking 
purposes, the zinc white can be ground in a special 
baking varnish or in a heavy-bodied linseed oil, similar 
to that used in grinding white printing inks. 

In Holland, the home of enamel paint making, and in 
England and Germany the manufacturers prepare a 
special linseed oil of heavy consistency by boiling with- 
out the addition of drying mediums and blowing air 
through it during the boiling process (known here as 
blown oil) and permit this oil to age in tanks. German 
painters know this as standoel, the name being derived 
from its being allowed to stand undisturbed for long 
periods. The zinc white is mixed with and ground in 
this oil or an oil bodied to syruplike consistency by 
boiling in varnish kettles, known to us as bodied or 
oxidized linseed oil, such as may be prepared by any 
expert varnish maker. After grinding, the white enamel 
base is set away to ripen in well-covered containers 
for at least two weeks, sometimes much longer, before 
it is reduced with varnish or other diluents, but of this 
we will speak later on. The chief point is that the 
ripening of the paste is of great importance in the 


final product, and it may be stated right here that much 
of the trouble found in the working of enamels is due 
to undue haste in thinning down the fresh-ground base, 
which is often still hot from the mills. 

Grinding of Quick-Drying Wliites. 

A number of quick-drying whites are in demand by 
the carriage and car manufacturing trade, as well as in 
a few other industries. Foremost among these is flake 
white in japan. The term "in japan" is used, as a rule, 
to indicate its quick drying, merely as a short descrip- 
tion. As japans are usually dark, mostly brown, it 
stands to reason that flake white, which is wanted for 
pure white jobs, cannot be ground in such a vehicle, 
hence color manufacturers will grind in a suitable 
vehicle of great paleness, generally a mixture of very 
pale hard gum varnish and turpentine, tempered with a 
small percentage of bleached linseed oil, according to 
the quickness of the varnish, which should be really in 
the nature of a rubbing varnish. The term flake white 
is often misconstrued, many in the trade believing it to 
be identical with zinc oxide, but it is not. Flake white 
is or should be same as Cremnitz white, a specially 
selected grade of lead carbonate deriving its name from 
the fact that, in the past, extra fine selections of white 
lead were sold in flakes, and when sold in cubes white 
lead was sold as Cremnitz white or Kremser white, 
deriving this name from the town of Krems, in Austria, 
where it was manufactured, pressed in cakes out of 
pulp lead and cut up into cube form, each of which was 
wrapped in blue paper separately and sold at a high 
price to artists that prepared their own colors in those 


days. Thus quick-drying white lead, whether it be 
furnished the consumer under the brand or trade name 
of "Flake White" or "Cremnitz White" or "Silver 
White in Japan," is a fine selection of dry lead carbon- 
ate, ground in medium soft paste form on a clean 
water-cooled stone mill, requiring about twelve pounds 
of the above-mentioned vehicle to eighty-eight pounds 
of pigment. Aside from being used under pale rubbing 
and finishing varnishes as a pure or a creamy white, it 
makes a very good base for very delicate tints on vehicle 
work of any kind where zinc white would not be elastic 
enough to stand the vibration incidental to vehicles or 
the exposure to the elements, and where lead in oil is too 
slow in drying for the rapid work demanded these days. 
It also serves very well as ground work for ornamental 
jobs where quick drying is required and where the finish 
is done with zinc white in a similar quick-drying vehicle. 
This is commonly known as zinc white in japan or in 
varnish, but its trade name is Chinese white in japan. 
Here the vehicle used in grinding should be still paler, 
and because of the tendency of zinc oxide to scale and 
crack it should also be tempered with more bleached 
oil, unless a longer varnish is selected. The zinc oxide 
for Chinese white is, or at least should be, the best grade 
of French process and free from moisture. Twenty to 
twenty-two parts by weight of the vehicle to seventy- 
eight or eighty parts by weight of the pigment will 
produce a paste of good consistency. The grinding 
must be done through a water-cooled stone mill that is 
very well cleaned and in a dust-free room. The mills 
with porcelain grinding disks that have been recom- 
mended for the purpose may serve well enough to grind 
artists' tube whites in a small way, but are more of a 
toy in a large establishment. 


Knifing in lead, glazing lead or draw putty, as the 
material is known to the carriage trade, is often called 
for by exacting painters, and there are several ways to 
prepare this. For general use a good formula is to mix 
and grind on water-cooled stone mill of at least twenty 
inches diameter sixty parts by weight of dry white lead, 
thirty parts by weight of pure white lead in oil, six parts 
by weight of good twelve-hour rubbing varnish and four 
parts by weight of coach or gold size japan, adding dur- 
ing the grinding about two parts pure turpentine. The 
result should be 100 pounds of finished material. Or if 
the material is to set more quickly, eighty-eight parts 
by weight of dry white lead, mixed with six parts each 
rubbing varnish and coach-grinding japan, may be 
mixed and ground as above, adding whatever portion of 
turpentine may be required to make it pass freely 
through the mill. White rough stuff is prepared in a 
similar manner, with the exception that, instead of all 
white lead, whiting or a mixture of whiting and pumice 
stone is used as pigment. One of the formulas is as 
follows: — Fifty-four parts by weight of dry lead, twenty- 
seven parts English Cliffstone Paris white, six parts 
rubbing varnish, three parts pale gold size japan, ten 
parts turpentine. Another formula producing a less 
unctuous product, but one that will sandpaper or rub 
more freely, is made by mixing twenty-eight parts by 
weight of white lead, twenty-eight parts powdered 
soapstone, twenty-eight parts flour of pumice, seven 
parts rubbing varnish, seven parts turpentine and two 
parts pale gold size japan. This will, when reduced 
with turpentine to brushing consistency, make a very 
good filling. 


Grinding Whites for Artists' Tube Colors. 

Among the standard whites for artists' use, and put 
up in collapsible tubes, there are offered to the trade 
white lead under the name Crenmitz white, flake 
white, silver white or Venetian white; zinc oxide under 
the name zinc white, Chinese white, snow white and 
permanent white. Blanc fixe (precipitated barium 
sulphate) is put up in tubes under the name of perma- 
nent white, while sometimes lithopone white parades 
under the same name, although it should have no place 
on the artist's palette. 

In order to produce white lead in oil for artists' use 
only the purest in point of whiteness should be selected, 
and mixed with poppyseed oil that has been bleached by 
settling and age, although nut oil (from the kernel of the 
walnut) will also work well. The mixture should be 
ground to impalpable fineness and of a stiffness that 
will not permit the oil to separate from the pigment. It 
will require from nine to nine and one-half pounds of 
oil to ninety and one-half or ninety-one pounds of white 
lead and a well-balanced stone mill of utmost cleanness 
to accomplish this. The stones of the mill must be 
well dressed, so that the paste white is not munched 
into a gummy mass during the grinding process, and 
it is well to see that the pigment is free from moisture 
before mixing it with the oil. Should the paste come 
out of the mill too soft it is best to let it become cool and 
return it again to the mill hopper, after adding more dry 
lead, passing it once more through the mill. If for any 
reason the desired stiffness of the paste white cannot be 
obtained in this manner and the addition of a wax 
emulsion is undesirable, it is best to run stiff pulp 
ground lead through a stone mill of small diameter, and 


in the resulting product the oil will not separate from 
the pigment. In such case the use of poppyseed or nut 
oil is impracticable. 

When grinding Chinese or zinc white for putting up 
for artists* use in tubes only the very best French 
process zinc is selected, and whenever possible the dry 
zinc should be somewhat condensed in a chaser, so that 
it is more compact when being placed in the mixer with 
the poppyseed or nut oil, when, during the process of 
mixing and grinding it will loosen up somewhat and yet 
not separate from the oil after being put away in collap- 
sible tubes. The average proportion of zinc and oil 
will be eighty-three parts by weight of the former to 
seventeen parts of the latter. The more mellow the 
texture of the zinc oxide the more readily and the 
smoother it will grind out. 

As before stated, when zinc oxide in the dry state is 
exposed to the air for a long time it undergoes a chem- 
ical change, turning from zinc oxide into zinc carbonate, 
the latter pigment being practically transparent, and 
this fact has been made use of by some European 
manufacturers of artists' colors in placing this pigment 
ground in oil at the disposal of artists under the name of 
glazing white or transparent white. There are no 
statistics obtainable as to what extent this material has 
been employed. 

Blanc fixe or permanent white or baryta white for 
artists* tubes is not made with natural barytes, but is 
the artificial pigment known to the trade as blanc fixe, 
usually made from a solution of barium chloride from 
which barium sulphate is precipitated by the addition 
of dilute sulphuric acid. Blanc fixe is distinguished 


from the ordinary or natural barytes by its greater 
fineness, greater bulk and body and by its purer white- 
ness, and last, but not least, its far greater absorption 
of oil. 

While the purest natural barytes may be ground into a 
paste with 8 to 9 per cent, of oil, i. e., ninety-one to 
ninety-two pounds of pigment to eight or nine pounds of 
oil (only inferior and off-colored grades require more oil), 
artificial barytes, or blanc fixe, requires anywhere from 
16 to 20 per cent, of oil to from 80 to 84 per cent, of the 
pigment, according to its fineness of division. 

Grinding White Pigments in Water. 

Although the demand in this country for whites 
ground in water without size for fresco or distemper 
work is not large, no color grinder's price Ust or cata- 
logue is complete unless the list of water colors contains 
flake white or white lead and Chinese white or zinc 
white. When the grinder is also a corroder of white 
lead or when a color-making estabUshment is connected 
with the factory where pulp white lead is being constant- 
ly used, the most simple way is to take the stiffer portion 
of such pulped lead and run it through a stone mill until 
enough of the excess of water has evaporated and the 
resulting paste is fine and of good consistency. Where 
this is not feasible, dry white lead is mixed with pure 
water, requiring about twenty-five pounds or* three 
gallons of water to seventy-five pounds dry lead, re- 
sulting in a finished product containing about 80 per 
cent, white lead. 

Dry zinc oxide, having great avidity for water, re- 
quires almost its own weight of water to form a good 


mixture to put through the mill, and when finished to be 
put in glass jars for the trade it consists of about 65 per 
cent, by weight of pigment to 35 per cent, of water. 

Zinc white ground in water to paste form has many 
uses in various industries and has been used in that 
form by calico printers after adding certain mordants. 
Furniture makers have made use of it for cheap work 
by adding it to glue size or with casein, thereby saving 
in the number of paint coats. Also used on white can- 
vas shoes with the necessary binder. 



The extenders, some of which are now also classed as 
reinforcing pigments, and which are mostly used in 
"letting down" white paste paints, as well as colors 
in oil, ready mixed paints, and are also useful in dipping 
paints, and special paint coatings are generally mixed 
and ground together with whatever white or colored 
pigments they are to be added to. But there are some 
exceptions to this rule, and under certain conditions or 
for certain reasons they are ground in oil or other 
vehicle in paste or semi-paste form to a certain degree of 
fineness and kept in that form to be used alone or added 
to other whites or to colors as occasion may require. 
We shall only describe those that are most commonly 
used, omitting the rare materials as being of little or no 
practical interest. 

Those that are of real practical interest to the paint 
maker and color grinder comprise natural barytes and 
precipitated barytes or blanc fixe, carbonate of barium 
and magnesia, the various grades of whiting, gypsum, 
marble dust, china clay or kaoUn, silex or silica, 
asbestine and starch. 

Natural Barjrtes (Barium Sulphate). 

This occurs in nature in a crystalline mass, known as 
heavy spar, and is mined same as iron ore, and is more 
or less contaminated with foreign material. When the 
crude article comes to the mill it is sorted and as much as 


possible freed from the foreign matter, which is usually 
sand or clay, but sometimes it is colored with oxide 
of iron running through the lumps in veins. The 
lumps are broken into small pieces through a crusher, 
and formerly these pieces were ground to a coarse pow- 
der in an edge runner mill or chaser, and then mixed 
with water in the hopper of a buhr stone mill, which 
ground it fine. Some well-equipped barytes mills did 
not use a chaser, but had double sets of mills, grinding 
from one into the other, thus saving handling or convey- 
ing apparatus. In addition to this the material so 
ground to pulp was allowed to run into levigating 
tanks, where it was washed and floated. After settling 
the top layer was drawn off and dried, then pulverized 
and put up for the market as floated barytes. This 
refers, however, only to material which was white 
enough when the levigation had taken place. Of 
course, the heavy or coarser portion that settled to the 
bottom of the levigation tank was once more returned 
to the mill in order to bring it to the standard degree of 
fineness. When the material is "off color,'' due to 
presence of iron, it is necessary to bleach it. This is 
done by running the water-ground barytes into tanks 
lined inside with lead and fitted with steam coils of lead 
pipe to enable the operator to heat the pulp and water. 
When the water is near the boiling point sulphuric acid 
is added, which dissolves the iron without affecting the 
pigment. When a sample taken shows that the bleach- 
ing process is complete, the acidulated water is drawn off 
and the pigment washed with fresh water, until every 
trace of acid has disappeared. The pigment so treated 
is usually whiter than the material that did not require 
bleaching. Water floated barytes is without question 
the best form in every respect, while the many attempts 


at air floating have not succeeded in producing its 
equal. Barytes is a very heavy pigment, its average 
specific gravity being 4.6, and a one-gallon can of the 
dry powder weighs anywhere from 15 to 18 pounds, 
according to its fineness. It is the most permanent 
white pigment known, being unaffected by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, acids and alkalies. 

It does not combine with oil, and the mixture of 
barytes and oil is simply a mechanical one. When 
mixed and ground in a chaser a stiff paste may be made 
with 93 pounds of barytes and 7 pounds of linseed oil, 
while running the mixture through a stone mill 92 
pounds of barytes and 8 pounds of oil will produce a 
fairly stout paste, providing the barytes is pure spar and 
not mixed with appreciable percentages of siUca or 
aluminum silicate. One gallon of paste barytes in oil 
mixed stiff on the chaser will weigh 27 to 273^^ pounds, 
while that run through the mill will not exceed 26 
pounds to the gallon. 

While barytes is or has been considered mainly as an 
adulterant or make-weight in paint, its function is now 
better understood, and so long as it does not parade in 
the guise of another higher priced pigment, there should 
be no objection to its use when not overdone. In the 
manufacture of conmiercial chrome greens it is prac- 
tically indispensable. 

Testing the Properties of Barytes. 

The paint grinder or color maker will select the 
barytes he requires by assaying for fineness and white- 
ness (absence of color) principally. It was the custom 
with some barytes manufacturers to add minute 


quantities of ultramarine blue to the pulp to disguise 
the yellow cast in some of their goods, but discriminat- 
ing color makers objected to the blued article, because 
when using it with certain colors as an extender the 
addition proved anything but beneficial. And paint 
grinders who used barytes as extender for white pastes 
did not favor it for the reason that it was an easy matter 
for them to do the blueing if such was deemed advisable. 

To test barytes for fineness, it is mixed with spirits of 
turpentine until the mixture is rather Uquid and spread 
with a spatula upon a strip of glass, when it must not 
scratch the glass nor show any coarse particles, but 
should present a uniformly smooth film, which after the 
evaporation of the turpentine will also indicate the 
whiteness of the material. Of course, the test is best 
made in comparison with an adopted standard. The 
test for absence of color by placing small hillocks of dry 
barytes on a piece of white paper and pressing down the 
hillocks with paper laid on top is sometimes misleading 
and not conclusive enough for the paint grinder or 
color maker, and this also applies to the practice of 
rubbing out the dry powder on paper with a spatula. 

Precipitated or Artificial Barytes. (Blanc Fixe). 

Chemically this material does not diflfer from the 
natural product, both being barium sulphate BaS04 
but blanc fixe, as the material is best known to the trade, 
is amorphous in texture, while the natural product is 
crystalline. Under the microscope this is best dis- 
covered, because no matter how well ground and how 
finely floated the natural product may be, it will reveal 


its crystalline form under this test. The practical 
consumer, however, need not go to that trouble, as he 
can readily tell from the bulk or specific gravity of the 
two pigments which is the natural and which the 
artificial. Blanc fixe in comparison with ordinary 
barytes is more opaque, much finer to the touch and 
absorbs twice, even three times, the amount of color; 
hence it is a far better extender for white pigments than 
the natural barytes. The reason that it is not in more 
general use for this purpose is its higher cost, which is 
over twice that of the very finest floated natural product 
and its greater absorption of oil. A good grade of 
blanc fixe in powder will weigh from 10 to 12 pounds per 
gallon, and while natural barytes requires on an average 
of 8 pounds of oil to 92 pounds pigment for a medium 
stout paste, blanc fixe requires not less than 15 pounds 
of oil to 85 pounds of the dry powder, and when extra 
fine even as much as 18 pounds of oil to 82 pounds of 

The greater oil absorption is not due to its lower spe- 
cific gravity (average 4.16), but entirely to its fine 
division. Blanc fixe is produced by adding sulphuric 
acid to a solution of barium chloride when barium 
sulphate is precipitated as a fine white powder. The 
precipitate is well washed with warm water to remove 
all traces of add, then if wanted in the dry form it is 
filtered, pressed, dried at low heat and pulverized. 
The bulk of the product, however, is after washing 
permitted to settle, the water drawn oflF, the pulpy mass 
thrown on filters until it consists of about 70 per cent, 
pigment and 30 per cent, water and sold in that form to 
the trade. 


Barium Carbonate (Witherite). 

Aside from heavy spar, which is barium sulphate, 
another form of barium occurs in nature, a carbonate of 
barium known as witherite. This is an earthy mineral, 
nearly white, that is insoluble in water, but dissolves in 
strong acids. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid with 
eflfervescence similar to any other carbonate. The 
solution when evaporated will crystallize and then 
forms a barium salt known as barium chloride, from 
which, as we have mentioned before, blanc fixe is 
precipitated by the addition of sulphuric acid. When 
witherite is calcined at intense heat it turns into ba- 
rium oxide, similar to burnt lime or calcium oxide. 

Barium carbonate or carbonate of barytes, as it is 
sometimes called, has a specific gravity of 4.1, and its 
chemical formula is BaCoa, while its oil absorption 
and density are very similar to that of blanc fixe, 
but being a carbonate it is not unaffected by sulphur 
gases or acids like barytes or blanc fixe. It is there- 
fore, not a safe pigment in paint, and one firm of 
paint manufacturers in the Middle West has been 
driven out of business by their indiscriminate use 
of it in all of their paint products. Some fifteen 
years ago they made great claims for their goods, 
and many of the most prominent hotels and large 
buildings, as well as a great many railway stations 
and equipments, were painted with the material, 
with the result that in a very short space of time 
the coatings of paint either changed color or disin- 
tegrated, according to local conditions. The next 
important of the pigments under consideration is 


Carbonate of Lime (Calcium Carl>onate) 

the raw material in lump form being known as chalk, 
while when prepared for the use of the paint grinder or 
putty maker and the trade in general it is called by the 
collective term whiting, being classed according to 
grade as English cliffstone Paris white, American Paris 
white, gilders' whiting, Spanish whiting and commercial 
or common whiting. Marble dust also is calcium 

The Paris Whites. 

Cliffstone Paris white is sold in both lump and pul- 
verized form and is largely used in potteries for making 
the white glaze with zinc oxide. For admixture with 
fine grades of paint and in the manufacture of paste 
driers for plate printing inks, etc., it is preferred to any 
other grade, because when properly prepared it does 
not contain more than traces of grit. The method of its 
manufacture is similar to that of any other grade, with 
the exception that this and any other grade known 
as Paris white is levigated and floated. The crude lump 
chalk is broken up into small pieces in crushers, and the 
pieces of hard flint that occur in the chalk are removed 
as carefully as possible, as they play havoc with the 
mills, and the remainder of flinty substance not removed 
by picking is removed in the levigation and floating pro- 
cess, when the coarser particles settle to the bottom of 
the tanks and are known as tailings. The taihngs are 
^removed from the tank and disposed of before a new 
batch of the ground pulp is put in for levigation and 
floating, while the fine material is placed on steam dry- 
ing pans in order to evaporate the water. In this 
process the chalk is ground with water, and the so-called 
bolted English cliffstone white, as well as the bolted 


American Paris white, are really the pulverized lumps» 
as they come from the drying apparatus, put through a 
disintegrator or pulverizing apparatus. The average 
English cUflfstone Paris white will show one-quarter of 1 
per cent, of quartz or silica, while American Paris white 
will be found to contain from 1 to 2 per cent, of that 
substance, the balance being calcium carbonate in the 
form of chalk. 

Common or commercial whiting is obtained by 
powdering the crude chalk without paying any atten- 
tion to picking out the flinty material or to levigation 
and floating. This grade of whiting will show as much 
as from 8 to 12 per cent, of grit in the form of silica 
(sand). It is mostly used for making glaziers' putty. 

Gilders* Bolted Whiting. 

This grade is most called for. It derives its name 
from being used by picture frame makers for the ground 
of their moldings by mixing the dry whiting with glue 
size (and lately with a size made from casein), while 
decorators who prepare their own kalsomines also use it 
to a very great extent. This is simply the pulverized 
common whiting sifted or passed through bolting 
cloths to separate the coarse particles. 

When Spanish whiting is called for at the present day 
gilders' whiting is usually sold under that term, while 
formerly it was similar to EngUsh cliff stone or American 
Paris white ground in water to a pulp, and this formed 
into cylindrical cones in molds and then dried. 

Selecting and Testing Whiting. 

The paint maker who uses large quantities of whiting 
will be discriminating in the selection of the material, 
and most likely find it to his advantage to carry several 


grades in stock, as he would hardly care to use common 
whiting for anything but the making of glaziers' putty. 
Whiting, even the better grades, is mostly slightly 
alkaline, and therefore unfit to be used in admixture 
with Prussian or Chinese blue and other colors aflFected 
by alkalies. The litmus paper test is sufficient to deter- 
mine the presence of lime. Sometimes by-products of 
chemical works are oflFered as whiting that are very 
alkaline, and although much better in whiteness than 
the whitings prepared from chalk direct, are unfit for 
use in paint. Whiting is sometimes colored with iron 
rust, and while this will not be harmful in many in- 
stances, it will not serve its purpose when mixed with a 
pigment of pure whiteness. 

Whiting should be tested for fineness in the same man- 
ner as barytes, i. e., diluted with spirits of turpentine 
and spread on a strip of glass with a spatula, comparing 
its texture with a standard of known quality. Its 
absence of color can be determined by placing the stand- 
ard whiting side by side with the samples in small 
hillocks, wetting these with spirits of turpentine or 
making rubouts in bleached oil. The material is so 
low in price as compared with other pigments that it 
would hardly be possible to find anything to use in 
admixture, excepting perhaps the by-products of chem- 
ical works referred to above. 

The Value of Whiting in Certain Paints. 

Whiting has been classed as an adulterant in paint, 
but this applies only where it is used in replacing a 
higher priced material without any tangible reason. 
As we shall see in the case of putty, there is no pigment 
that will take its place, and in any number of special 


paints its presence is quite necessary. So» for instance^ 
in some dipping paints that are sold in paste form to 
implement makers and others, where it would be a waste 
of money to use high priced colors without any extender 
or filling material. Most of the other extenders are too 
apt to settle and cake hard in the tanks, because of the 
volatile thinners used to bring the paints to the right 
consistency for dipping, while those of very low specific 
gravity are not well adapted to the purpose. In certain 
kinds of machinery paints, such as fillers, where the 
material is applied with the spatula or knifed in, a 
certain portion of whiting is beneficial. In fact, wher- 
ever paint is not exposed to sulphur gases a reasonable 
percentage of whiting is in place. In nearly every spec- 
ification for paints issued by railroads, excepting in 
whites, an amount of not less than 2 or 3 and not over 5 
per cent, of carbonate of lime (whiting) is called for, 
and government specifications permit the presence of 
whiting or carbonate of lime in all oxide of iron or earth 
paints to that extent. A certain percentage of whiting 
with red lead in oil prevents it from sagging or running, 
and grainers add whiting to their color in oil to keep it 
from flowing together after wiping out or combing. 

Whiting does not work well when added to a pigment 
in oil that is to be thinned with varnish. It is very apt 
to show up granular. Whiting when thoroughly dry 
will average from 8 to 9 pounds per gallon in weight, 
according to fineness. Taking American Paris white as 
a basis, a paste of whiting and oil will consist of 82 
pounds pigment and 18 pounds oil, weighing when 
ground about 16 poimds per gallon. In semi-paste form 
75 pounds pigment and 25 pounds oil a gallon after 
grinding will weigh about 13 pounds. In liquid form 


60 pounds dry whiting ground with 40 pounds of oil 
will weigh 11 pounds per gallon. Whiting mixes well 
with an emulsion of oil and water in a paint made from 
lead carbonate, but does not wear well if used for prim- 
ing wood, because the water of the emulsion is absorbed 
by the wood, and there is not sufficient binder left in the 
paint, causing it to peel or scale. 

Marble Dust. 

Marble Dust, besides being used in cheap putty, has 
been largely employed in place of whiting in low-priced 
paste paint, because, aside from being lower in price 
than whiting, it absorbs less oil in grinding. A paste, 
that when made with Paris white will require 18 per 
cent, of oil for a fairly stout consistency, will require 
only 14 to 15 per cent, of oil when made with marble 
dust of good fineness. But marble dust, no matter how 
finely pulverized, will never be as amorphous in texture 
as whiting, and when used in liquid paint is apt to settle 
badly, causing hard sediment in bottom of container. 
Hence it is very seldom used in the preparation of ready- 
mixed paint. It has been found in very low-priced paste 
wood fillers, but cannot be recommended even here. 

CSiina Clay or Kaolin in Paint. 

When we use the terms china clay or kaolin, we refer 
only to the white earthy pigments of silica and alumina, 
that are used in paints and colors. We pass by the 
species of earth known as pipe clay, potters' clay or fire 
clay, for which there is no use in paint making, because 
of their color and other special characteristics. While 
the general term for white clay is kaolin, this name is 


used among our trade for the white clay mined in var- 
ious parts of the United States, principally in Alabama 
and South Carolina, but also in some Northern local- 
ities. This will answer many purposes in the line of 
paint manufacture, but where a really soft and very 
white material of this character is required the imported 
article known as china clay, which is mined and prepared 
for export at Cornwall, England, is preferred. Pig- 
ments equaling this English china clay are also found in 
other countries, notably in Germany and France, but 
for comniercial reasons hardly ever imported into this 
market. G. H. Hurst, in his work on "Painters* 
Colors, Oils and Varnishes,'" describes the origin, and 
also the manufacture of china clay, as it is being carried 
on at the clay works at Cornwall, so that it will be un- 
necessary to devote space to the subject here. All the 
white clays for use in paint must consist of silica and 
alumina with some combined water, otherwise they will 
not fulfill their function. The texture varies somewhat 
according to this composition, some being more Unc- 
tuous than others. If silica were not present in the 
pigment it would have no tooth whatever and with oil 
produce a liverlike mixture. The china clay that by 
chemical analysis approaches closest to the following 
composition may be considered best for general use in 
paint; 47 per cent, silica, Si02; 39 per cent, alumina, 
AL2O8; 13 per cent, water, H2O (allowing 1 per cent, 
for free moisture, magnesia, potash and iron). The 
color maker will, however, prefer the pigment that is 
entirely free of iron oxide. Domestic kaolin will vary 
somewhat from this analysis, generally consisting of 
more silica and showing appreciable fractions of one 
per cent, of iron oxide and lime. Still fairly large 
quantities are being used of the domestic article in many 


special paints, where light weight per gallon is desirable. 
When china clay is imported it comes in large casks, 
two to the long ton, and the clay is in lump form, 
usually containing anywhere from 6 to 10 per cent, 
moisture that has to be driven oflf before it can be bolted 
for the use of the paint maker, hence the price of bolted 
China clay is so much in advance over the quotation of 
the importer. Enormous quantities of this clay are 
imported for industrial purposes, where it is used in the 
pulped form and in that case the amount of moisture 
cuts a figure only as to its weight. The clay absorbs 
some moisture in transit and on being stored in the open 
on wharves, hence the large percentage of water usually 

Tests for and Use of China Clay or Kaolin. 

The pigment, domestic or imported, is classed as 
hydrated siUcate of alumina and should therefore be 
insoluble in water, alkali or dilute acid solutions. It is 
decomposed, however, by long boiling with strong 
sulphuric acid, forming alumina sulphate in solution and 
a precipitate of sihca. The finer the grade the more 
greasy the feel between the fingers, while domestic 
kaolin always feels more rough, though it may be 
perfectly free from grit. To test for fineness, spread it 
mixed with turpentine on a strip of dry glass, treating a 
selected standard similarly. This test by permitting 
the turps to evaporate will also serve to test whiteness or 
absence of discoloration. Some china clays or kaolins 
are more opaque than others, and when the pigment is to 
be used as an extender for white paint, the most 
opaque should be selected, while when used for reducing 
color that with less opacity is best, as it does not absorb 
so much of the color, which is usually much higher in cost 


than the clay. A simple test will determine this. Weigh 
out one drachm of each clay to be compared, also for 
each sample of clay 3 Troy grains of ultramarine blue 
and on a slab of marble or glass, mix the clay and blue 
with as many drops of oil as is necessary to make a rub- 
out, comparing all on a strip of glass, side by side, the 
clay that is colored most deeply by the blue being the 
least opaque, because it does not resist color as much as 
that which is more opaque. If this test is carried out 
accurately it will also show which of the clays requires 
most oil by noting the consistency of the rub-out. 

China clay is not used to the extent it deserves in 
paint making, because of its great oil absorption and on 
account of its becoming rather transparent when 
ground in oil. It should not really be classed as an 
adulterant for the reason that it does not pay to use it as 
such, as there is more oil required to mix and grind it 
than is the case in grinding some of the pigments that 
are really adulterated. The average specific gravity of 
china clay or kaolin is 2.25, and a gallon of bolted or 
pulverized diy clay packed will not weigh over 6J^ to 
6^ pounds. It requires 30 pounds, or nearly 4 gallons 
of linseed oil to mix 70 pounds dry china clay to a stiflF 
paste, while 55 pounds of oil and 45 pounds of clay will 
be about the right consistency to be spread with a brush. 
Wherever whiting is barred out as an extender for heavy 
pigments for the reason that the presence of carbonate 
of lime makes the paint subject to disintegration from 
contact with sulphur gases, or that the alkalinity of 
whiting affects the color, as is the case with Chinese or 
Prussian blues, china clay or kaolin will be the best 
pigment to replace it. It is really a better suspender 
for heavy pigments than the ordinary grades of whiting 


and only its higher cost, and the fact that it is so great an 
oil absorber, are against its more extended use. Bolted 
Enghsh china clay has also been offered to the trade 
under the name of Enghsh kalsomine for use in tints 
with colors that are not alkali proof, such as blues, 
greens and reds. Many Uquid fillers for soft woods, or 
in fact, most of them contain china clay as the only 
pigment, while it has also been used in part as pigment 
for paste hardwood fillers along with some other white 
mineral substances or with starch. It is not so long 
since, that it was the custom to prepare the lower 
priced shade cloth by running muslin through a size 
prepared by cooking equal parts by weight of cheap 
starch and china clay in water to a paste, coloring same 
with anihne colors, and running the muslin so filled 
or painted over three heated cylindrical rollers of a 
calender, thus obtaining a fine and fairly well wearing 
finish on these low-priced shades. 

Sulphate of Lime (Calcium Sulphate). 

To this class belong gypsum (or terra alba, as it is 
often termed by its Latin name, meaning white earth), 
selenite and calcined plaster or, as it is more familiarly 
known, plaster of Paris. Gypsum is found in many 
parts of the globe, the cleanest and least oflF color variety 
coming from Nova Scotia, while abundant quantities 
are found in Michigan, Colorado, California and other 
States, as well as in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, al- 
though the mineral is somewhat discolored from iron 
oxide. Gypsum is the form preferred for use in paint 
making. It is chemically a hydrated calcium sulphate, 
having the formula Ca SO4, 2HaO, meaning that it 


has two molecules of water in combination. Normal 
gypsum should consist of 46.5 per cent, sulphuric 
anhydride, SO3, 32.5 per cent, calcium oxide, CaO, and 
21 per cent, water, H2O, or rather 79.04 per cent, sul- 
phate of lime and 20.96 per cent, water of crystalliza- 
tion. When heated thoroughly to a temperature of a 
few degrees above 300 degrees F. gypsum loses its water 
of crystallization and is converted into an opaque white 
powder that when mixed with clear water has the prop- 
erty of setting into a hard mass, in which state we know 
it as calcined plaster or more popularly as plaster of Paris 
and known to chemistry as anhydrous sulphate of 
calcium with the formula Ca SO4. However, gypsum, 
when heated in a furnace in admixture with sulphate of 
iron (copperas) may be dead burned so as to render it 
incapable of taking up or absorbing water again. The 
U. S. Navy Department in their specifications for 
Venetian red expressly refer to this feature and will not 
permit this red to contain sulphate of lime in any other 
form, while previous to the time of issuing these speci- 
fications the provision was that the presence of any 
sulphate of lime not fully hydrated was suflScient cause 
for rejection. The specifications issued by railroads 
whenever sulphate of lime is permitted in connection 
with oxide of iron paints still adhere to the rule of having 
it fully hydrated. The writer inclines to the belief, 
which is based on years of observation, that the U. S. 
Navy Department is on the safe side with their provi- 
sion of having the calcium sulphate dead burned and 
probably more so than the railroad chemists who adhere 
to the previous rule of permitting no other than the 
fully hydrated form of calcium sulphate. 

It seems like splitting hairs when authorities condemn 
the use of gypsum in paint for the sole reason that it 


has been discovered that one part of gypsum is soluble 
in 500 parts of water. 

Calcined Plaster (Plaster of Paris). 

is not fitted or suited for a paint extender, A few 
decades since, the very brilliant business manager of a 
large paint factory, led on by the no less brilliant chief 
of the laboratory of a large corporation, both of the 
gentlemen referred to having since passed away, con- 
ceived the idea that anhydrous calcium sulphate 
(calcined plaster) first being mixed and ground on dry 
color mills to impalpable fineness with a certain 
percentage of nearly chemically pure red oxide of iron 
in place of using the hydrated calcium sulphate (gyp- 
sum) and then mixing and grinding the product in oil 
in the usual way would produce a Venetian red of 
greater brilliancy and body. Tests were made accord- 
ingly and carried on for about a month or so, when the 
manager was satisfied that he had made a great dis- 
covery. Orders were issued to substitute the plaster 
for gypsmn in all Venetian reds so manufactured and 
inside of three months some 80 tons or more had been 
distributed to jobbers, dealers and consumers. All was 
going well until the spring season arrived, when some 
painters who had used the red color on brick fronts 
reported that after a driving rainstorm beating on the 
fresh paint it spotted white on drying. Several others 
who had used water on top of their pails containing the 
red to keep the pgjbnt from skimming over reported that 
the color had set hard in the pail for several inches from 
the top. After a thorough investigation the complaints 
were found justifiable and the reds were withdrawn from 
the market and remodeled by rehydrating the calcined 


plaster contained therein which^ although at no small 
cost, succeeded very well, as was proven by repeated 
trials. The parties in question had not taken into 
calculation that linseed oil takes up water and that, in 
consequence, the water, coming in contact with the 
paint after being spread, would cause the setting of the 

Gypsum for Various Purposes. 

Alabaster and Derbyshire or satin spar are extra fine 
grades of gypsum, not always pure white, and chiefly 
used for making ornaments. Satin spar especially 
comes in long, fibrous pieces. Selenite is another form 
of gypsum, large blocks of which may be foimd in the 
Rocky Mountains and the Indian Territory. The 
material is not hard, but transparent and will cleave like 
mica, but while mica will stand heat, selenite falls into a 
white powder under its influence. Is not a good form 
of gypsum for oil paint, but will serve the purpose of a 
white pigment for water paint when first heated and 

Gypsum as Extender for Oil Paint. 

Gypsum is tested for fineness in the usual way by 
rubbing up with turpentine and alone does not work well 
under the brush. It is readily colored by the oil it 
is ground or mixed in, no matter how colorless and 
transparent the pigment itself may be. When used 
with paint it is always considered as an extender or 
adulterant because of its comparatively low price. 
When used as extender for white lead or any other white 
paint it does not improve the hiding power of the paint, 
rather the reverse, but it will not discolor white, and in 
that connection it is useful. A further use for it is as 


an extender for solid colors from whose brightness it does 
not deduct, but rather improves the tone. Take, for 
instance, a color like chemically pure Indian red or red 
oxide of iron. K ground in oil and thinned for use the 
color will look dull when painted alongside of the same 
red that has been extended or stretched with 50 or 60 
per cent, of gypsum. Ultramarine blue extended 
with gypsum will look far more brilliant than the 
straight color, though of course it will not cover up so 
well. The one great drawback to an extended use of 
gypsum is, that when used in large percentages, espec- 
ially with oxide of iron pigments, it is so very prone to 
settle and cake hard in bottom of containers, even when 
in stout paste form. When it can be used in connection 
with a portion of whiting or asbestine, or even with 
china clay, it will not be so bad on the settling, but it is 
at its worst when barytes or silex are present. 

Testing Gypsum for Use in Paint. 

Gypsum is tested for fineness in the usual way by 
rubbing up with turpentine in comparison with an 
approved sample and may be wet up with water in order 
to see that no error has been made as it has happened 
that partly calcined gypsum was shipped. A sample of 
the material should be dried at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 
so that any excess of moisture be driven oflf without 
disturbing the water of crystalization. It has been the 
experience of the writer that, when gypsum had been 
allowed to remain too long on steam drying pans, al- 
though they were heated with exhaust steam only and 
the temperature hardly ever showing up higher than 150 
degrees Fehrenheit, the material had lost several per 
cent, of its combined water; at least, it was so found by 


the chemical laboratory test, that had two weeks pre- 
viously found the goods normal in receipt. Gypsum 
has an average specific gravity of 2.33 and weighs 7 
pounds per gallon packed dry, though some shipments 
that have absorbed moisture in transit will be found to 
weigh as much as 8 pounds. When gypsum has been 
well freed from moisture by drying, 80 pounds of pig- 
ment and 20 pounds of linseed oil will produce a medium 
stiflf paste, weighing about 15 pounds per gallon, while 
14 pounds pigment and 26 pounds of oil will make a 
semi-paste, weighing about 13 pounds per gallon and 63 
pounds pigment and 37 pounds of oil would be a liquid 
transparent paint, weighing about llj/^ pounds per 
gallon. Gypsum and china clay with or without the 
addition have been used some years ago as the pigment 
for paste wood filler, but we have good reasons to be- 
lieve that at least the use of gypsum in this connection 
has been pretty generally abandoned. 

Silica or Silex and Its Uses. 

Silica or silex chemically considered is oxide of silicon 
and represented by the formula: Si02. When either 
is pure, they are insoluble in any other but hydroflouric 
acid, which readily dissolves them, especially on the 
addition of a trifle of sulphuric acid. Strong acids have 
no other action upon the pigment, except that of 
dissolving out such impurities as lime, oxide of iron, etc. 
Strong caustic solutions of potash or soda dissolve 
silica, when boiled, producing water glass, known as 
silicate of potash or silicate of soda according to the 
nature of the alkali used. Sand, flint, quartz are silicic 
anhydride and simply known as silica, but when ob- 
tained from flint it is known to paint men as silex, while 


when derived from sand or quartz it is called silica. 
Under the microscope the latter shows a spherical 
form, while silex is more prismatic in the formation of 
its particles. This feature has been made use of in the 
manufacture of paste wood fillers for hard open pored 
wood, it being claimed that the structure of pure silex 
causes the particles to interlock and fill the pores or 
grains of wood far better than the round particles of 
silica. However this may be, so much is certain, that 
good silex in a filler will show up the natural beauty of 
the grain in wood far better than when the filler is 
made from silica or day, the latter obscuring the effect 
somewhat by lack of transparency. On the other hand, 
when it comes to paint, the use of silica as a reinforcing 
extender is preferable to silex by far, for the reason that 
silex is much more refractory in grinding than silica and 
to purchase silex of the required fineness is prohibitive 
on account of cost. Very fine floated silica can be 
purchased at one-half, even at one-third of what silex 
of similar fineness would cost. The use of silica in paint 
has been condemned by many, simply because its func- 
tion was not as well understood as it now is. There is 
no question but that silica adds porosity to paint, still 
if the paint is otherwise well balanced with opaque 
pigments, such as lead and zinc in a white and dense 
black, red or brown in a colored paint, the addition of a 
reasonable percentage of silica will prove far more 
beneficial than barytes, as it carries so much more oil, 
or than whiting or clay, because it is not so apt to peel or 
scale in the presence of moisture in the surface, while it 
is, like barytes, unaffected by sulphur gases. As 
the result of researches during the past decade it has 
been discovered that contrary to the older authorities, 
a moderate portion of silica in combination with solid 


pigments, as lead, lampblack or carbon black, chrome 
greens, oxide of iron and even red lead will produce good 
non-abrasive, rust-preventative paint for iron or steel. 
Of course, the percentage of such addition should be 
figured on the opacity of the pigments it is to be com- 
bined with. For instance, 15 pounds of carbon black 
and 85 pounds of silica would not make as porous a paint 
as would 75 pounds of native red oxide and 25 pounds of 

Testing and Grinding Silica. 

The quartz, sand or flint from which silex or silica is 
produced, differs according to location of the mines, 
but the best method is to heat the mineral at very 
high temperature and then plunge into cold water, which 
process makes it so brittle that it will break down more 
readily. For use in fillers or paint the floated article is 
the only proper one to use. To test the material for 
purity,* weigh out, say, 10 grains of the suspected article, 
boil it in hydrochloric acid in a test tube, filter off the 
silica, wash to free it from the acid, dry and reweigh it. 
The loss or difference in weight represents the Ume which 
is present in the sample. For fineness and color test as 
suggested for gypsum or barytes. Silica is a great 
absorber of oil in grinding, as it requires 30 to 32 pounds 
of oil for grinding 68 to 70 pounds of the fine floated 
silica to a medium paste. Its specific gravity averages 
2.45 and its dry weight per gallon is about 7 pounds. 
When ground in oil and permitted to stand about it has 
the tendency to separate from the oil and set hard to a 
greater degree than gypsum, but when mixed and 
ground with pigments of low specific gravity, it holds 
pretty well in suspension, especially in a vehicle of good 


One of the most popular paste wood fillers ever made 
in this country was composed of silex and was patented, 
but the patent has been extinct for many years. Starch 
was used as a means to hold the silex in suspension in the 
vehicle for a time, but later on additional patent claims 
described the suspensor as flour middlings. At the 
present day the use of starch or flour is very little in 
vogue, the manufacturers depending upon the vehicle 
for holding the silica or silex in suspension. 

Ma^eslum Silicates. 

Pumice stone, a volcanic substance, is a porous silicate 
^f alumina and alkaline earth mineral. Asbestos is a 
fibrous silicate of magnesia and calcium, and this is why 
that extender, known as asbestine, that has during the 
last ten years come to the forefront in paint making, 
which is really a silicate of magnesia and slightly 
alkaline, but without the fibrous texture of asbestos or 
amianth has been given that name. Asbestine pulp, 
as a certain variety of the material mined at the foot of 
the Adirondack Mountains is known to the trade, al- 
though it is sold in the dry powdered form, belongs 
really to the soapstone or talc variety. But it is not as 
unctuous as either of those, has a harder texture, and is 
of whiter color than either soapstone or talc. Soap- 
stone or talc is used for toilet powder and as a lubricant 
by shoemakers, also on dancing floors, in fillers, putties 
and cements, but not as a rule in paints. Asbestine 
pulp or asbestine in its various varieties has been used 
for many years by manufacturers of liquid paints, not 
so much as an adulterant, but rather to make the paint 
more buoyant in order to keep it from settling to any 
extent, as this pigment is of very low specific gravity 


and a great oil absorber. This feature, however, de- 
pends on the location where it is mined, as there is a wide 
divergence in that respect. Its specific gravity varies 
between 2.3 and 2.7 and its oil absorption is between 30 
and 36 per cent., or in other words, to make a paste in 
oil will require 70 pounds of the heavier asbestine to 30 
pounds of oil or 64 of the lighter asbestine pulp to 36 
pounds of oil. If manipulated in a chaser a stiff paste 
could be produced in either case with 10 to 15 per cent, 
less of oil. 

Asbestine is used to some extent in making liquid 
fillers for soft wood, and with the proper kind of varnish 
the material holds far better in suspension than China 
clay, and certainly much better than silex or silica. 
Mixed with silicate of soda (water glass) it makes a very 
good fireproof coating. Asbestine is as inert as barytes 
or silica, and does not undergo a chemical combination 
with oil or water, but will be found sometimes more or 
less alkaline, and while it may be safely used as an 
extender with most any color, it has been found to be 
active on Prussian or Chinese blue when used in large 
percentages in admixture. 

Ma^eslte or Ma^esia. 

Magnesia, when found in the natural state in the 
form of carbonate, Mg CO3, is known as magnesite. 
It does resemble crude chalk in appearance, but is 
heavier in specific gravity than the latter, usually 3.06 
on the average. It has been used by certain color 
makers in place of barytes as an extender for chrome 
green, and the product was known as magnesia green, 
but it has not come into general use as an extender for 
white or colored pigments in oil paints, but is ground 


and levigated with water and oflfered on the market in 
pulp form as magnesia white for special trade. Cal- 
cined magnesia, however, is the form in which magnesia 
is used in some paints, not as an adulterant, but as a 
means of keeping heavy pigments in suspension. It is 
produced by burning the carbonate, when it changes the 
carbonate into magnesium oxide, Mg O. Oxide of mag- 
nesium, called magnesia for short, is a white powder so 
light in gravity that a gallon of it does not weigh over 
twelve ounces, and when three pounds of it are mixed 
with eight pounds of oil it makes a very stiff mix, and a 
gallon of the paste when ground will not weigh over nine 
pounds. Only very small portions can be used in paint 
for suspending the heavier pigments, because of its 
taking away from their covering or hiding power. 
Where cost is not against it, it is being used in liquid 
fillers, either alone or with silica or clay. It can be 
made into a plastic mass with glue size or gum water 
and glycerine and formed to imitate various articles. 
Mixed with asbestine or soapstone and soluble glass in 
weak solution it serves as a fireproof cement. 

There is still another form of magnesia, the sulphate. 
It occurs in nature as epsomite, and when artificially 
made we know it as epsom salt. In this form it has no 
value whatever in paint. When this is calcined, mag- 
nesium oxide is produced, but the economical way to 
produce the oxide of magnesia is to bum the carbonate. 

Starch and Its Use in Fillers. 

Starch cannot be considered as a pigment any more 
than flour. And while rye flour years ago was used in 
fillers and to a certain extent in roughstuff, the practice 
has been abandoned long since. It is well known that 


starch is a vegetable principle contained in many 
plants, and especially abundant in the various grains 
such as wheat, rye, rice, com, oats, etc., in seeds such as 
beans, acorns, peas, etc., and in tuberous roots as arrow 
roots and more especially in potatoes. But the starch 
of commerce, such as we have to deal with, is mainly 
from com or wheat and from potatoes. It is a white 
opaque powder, and its specific gravity is very low — 
1.5. It is insoluble in alcohol, ether or cold water, but 
when united with boiling water and permitted to cool, 
the mixture forms a soft transparent paste. It can be 
made soluble by heating to the boiling point with 
glacial acetic acid or glycerine. By treating starch with 
dilute acids at 212 degrees F. it changes into that soluble 
substance we know as dextrine. When tested under a 
powerful microscope the various kinds of commercial 
starch may be distinguished from one another by the 
form of its grain or granules. 

Potato starch grains resemble an oyster shell in form; 
wheat starch grains are mostly round or nearly round, 
while com starch grains have a mark in the center 
similar to a cross or the letter Y. When starch is 
mixed with cold water it does not form a dough or 
become sticky like flour, but sets rather hard and is 
stirred with difficulty, especially when too much starch 
is used, twelve pounds of starch to one gallon of water 
being all that may be used for thorough saturation. 
It is hardly worth while to mention that to make a paste 
with starch, it is first saturated with cold water and then 
mixed with boiling water, four ounces of com starch 
mixed with one-half pint cold water, and then briskly 
stirred and beaten with one-half gallon of boiling water 
makes a fine transparent paste. 


Starch has been used in paste fillers for hardwood to 
keep the mineral pigments, such as silex, clay or gypsum, 
from setting hard in the package, but of course low 
priced com starch is the favorite brand for the purpose. 
As much as 20 per cent, of the total weight of dry 
material has been added of com starch. It is also the 
dry material in the most favored brands of floor crack 
fillers that are being successfully used in private 



This section will be devoted to the grinding of col- 
ored pigments in oil for the use of the painter and decor- 
ator, the artist, and for the various industries requiring 
such material, as well as for use in tinting ready-mixed 
paints, incidentally touching on printing and litho- 
graphing inks. At the same time the preparation and 
grinding of quick-drying colors, known as japan colors 
or coach colors, will be treated, suggesting the proper 
vehicle for each pigment, whether it be coach grinders* 
japan, japan gold size, varnish, etc., and how they are 
best tempered for certain special purposes. Colors 
ground in water without size (so-called distemper 
colors) and graining colors will also come in for a share, 
as well as tinted paste paints. To facilitate reference 
as to certain colors, each pigment is treated by itself, 
whether it be ground in oil, japan, varnish, water or any 
other vehicle, and the pigments will be taken up in 
alphabetical order, under separate headings, such as 
blacks, blues, browns, etc., etc. Under these headings 
each pigment belonging to the class will be dealt with, 
giving a short description of its nature, tests for value, 
how to select and treatment in mixing and grinding and 
nature of vehicle best suited for same, as well as the 
average percentages of pigment and oil or other vehicle 
required. A few remarks bearing on apparatus will not 
be amiss. No matter what the nature of the pigment 
may be, a thorough mixing is most beneficial, because it 
facilitates grinding; but permitting a mixer to run until 
it becomes heated is disastrous, especially in instances 
where the vehicle is japan or varnish, because it tends 
to render the mixing gummy on account of the evapora- 


tion of the volatile portion of the vehicle. Nor is it 
good practice to add the pigment too rapidly to the 
vehicle in the mixer, for the reason that it not only pro- 
duces imperfectly mixed material, but requires excessive 
power, which is wasteful expense. This is also true of 
the mills in grinding the colors in no matter what the 
vehicle may be, but, of course, more so, in the case of 
japan or varnish colors. Every mill should be well 
balanced and the grinding surface of the stones fre- 
quently dressed (i. e. made sharp) and given low 
breasts, so that the material can pass freely from the 
feeding eye of the mill to the grinding surface, otherwise 
it will not only gum up the material or make it ropy, 
but will waste motive power. The speed at which the 
mills should be nm depends, of course, very much upon 
the diameter of the mill stones, but also upon the nature 
of the material. We shall consider this for the various 
colors as we go along, but may say that in the case of 
soft pigments, such as, for instance, lampblack, will 
yield a larger output per mill and per hour when the 
mill stones are of the Esopus (soft) variety than could 
be had if they were French buhr. The latter, however, 
are really necessary in the grinding of hard, gritty 
material, as in this case the material would be more apt 
to grind the surface of the stones, rather than the 
opposite. Years ago, the ideas of the practical color 
grinders as to fine grinding of oil colors, as well as coach 
colors, leaned toward limited diameters for the mills, 
and in some large plants may be found even to-day 
rows of iron mills of eight-inch diameter, though they 
are disappearing very fast and even mills of fifteen-inch 
diameter are being thought too small in diameter for 
some of the managers of paint factories of the present 
day. Mills of twenty-inch diameter are preferred, and. 


when kept in good running balance and well dressed 
with proper grinding surface, colors in oil or japan may 
be ground out as fine as on a mill of eight or twelve inch 
diameter. But it is not every color grinder that has a 
large enough demand to run a sufficient quantity 
through a twenty-inch mill, and it would not pay him 
to use that size mill for a small quantity. Therefore, 
the original twelve-inch or fifteen-inch water-cooled 
stone mill is best adapted for the purpose. For grind- 
ing large batches of colors of light gravity in oil, such 
as lampblack, dropblack, etc., twenty-four-inch or even 
thirty-inch mills may be used to advantage, while for 
those of heavier gravity, such as mineral browns and 
reds, ochers, chrome greens, mills of twenty or twenty- 
four inch diameter are better adapted. Chinese or 
Prussian blues, raw and burnt sienna, raw and burnt 
umber and chemically pure greens — in fact, any 
color that is apt to be thrown from the flange of 
the running stone should be put through mills of not 
over twenty-inch diameter, same to be provided with a 
metal pan that is fastened to the legs of the mill frame 
and makes a gutter, catching the drippings from the 
flange of the lower stone, to which is fastened a scraper 
that cleans the gutter of color, discharging it through a 
gateway into the container provided for the purpose. 
That there is a very decided saving in the adoption of 
this plan should be very evident to the practical color 


Bone Blacks. 

Bone black, made from calcined bones, is found on 
the market in several grades, that made from freshly 
calcined bones being purest and best in tone. Re- 
covered bone black, known as sugar house black, is also 
calcined bone black, used for refining (bleaching) sugar, 
which if not properly washed contains vegetable matter 
that prevents the black from drying as well as the 
freshly calcined bone black. While cheaper, it is not a 
safe pigment for paint, and the bulk of it is really used, 
without having been washed for fertilizing purposes on 
account of its contents of phosphate of lime. Bone 
black is often confused with animal black, which, how- 
ever, is an error, as bone black must not contain any 
other material but the charred bones, while animal 
black contains all the charred or calcined refuse of 
animal matter, such as hoofs, horns, hair, skins, bones, 
leather, etc. Animal black varies to a great extent in 
bulk, density, staining power and hue, while bone 
black made from freshly calcined bones shows very little 
variation in depth of tone, bulk or strength. Pure 
bone black very seldom shows more than 15 per cent, 
carbon and 78 per cent, of ash that consists of 60 to 62 
per cent, of phosphate of lime, the balance being car- 
bonate of lime with traces of alumina and silica, some- 
times also of iron. The color grinder will test bone 
black, which is usually offered under the name of pow- 


dered drop black, for fineness of texture, for tinting 
strength with white and for oil absorption. When 
bone black requires less than 45 per cent, by weight 
of oil to 55 per cent, of the dry powder to make a smooth 
paste it should be viewed with suspicion as to purity, 
and when black is offered under that name that re- 
quires over 50 per cent, of oil to 50 per cent, by weight of 
black it is either not pure bone black or contains free 
moisture. Any kind of black should be bone dry 
before mixing in order to grind freely and make a 
smooth paste, more especially when it is to be ground 
in japan or varnish. Pure bone black is preferred by 
many carriage painters on account of its tooth as against 
the softer imported ivory blacks, though where intense 
covering capacity is desired, as well as absence of the 
grayish hue, the denser animal blacks or bone black 
with the addition of gas carbon black is preferred. 
While the various government service branches in their 
specifications for drop black in oil insist on pure bone 
black for the pigment, very few color grinders are plac- 
ing a black of this kind on the market under the drop 
black label, as they strengthen the bone black by the 
addition of some Prussian blue or gas carbon black. 
This applies to the oil black. As may be gleaned from 
the price lists on colors in oil, the black listed as coach 
or drop black is quoted at similar price and the con- 
sumer will find the same quality in the container, no 
matter whether the label reads drop black or coach 
black. Bone black is very slow drying in oil, and, 
where not bound by specifications, the color grinder 
will do well to use a vehicle consisting of good boiled 
linseed oil or of 95 per cent, raw linseed oil and 5 per 
cent, first-class oil dryer. 


Drop Blacks. 

Drop blacks in japan, as noted above, may be made 
by mixing bone black alone or with an addition of gas 
carbon black or a very fine grade of well calcined 
lampblack, or a high grade of animal black, with what 
is known to the trade as color grinders' or coach japan, 
grinding until fine through water-cooled mills of twenty 
or twenty-four-inch diameter, taking care to keep the 
millstones from becoming overheated, also the product 
from skinning over by exposure to draught from open 
doors and windows. It is essential that the millstones 
are sharp and well balanced, because otherwise the 
material will gum up and make the addition of extra 
thinners necessary, which in turn will render the cover- 
ing power of the black deficient. The less the number 
of runs a black in japan will have to pass through the 
mill the better for the opacity of the finished product. 
In some instances it has been found beneficial for the 
binding properties of these blacks to mix and grind 
them as stout as possible and when fine enough to pass 
the paste once more through the mill with the addition 
of a few pounds of good rubbing varnish to each fifty 
pounds of paste, thus obtaining a buttery product that 
breaks up readily in turpentine. Bone black is very 
seldom, if ever, ground in straight varnish, as it re- 
quires a pigment of lighter gravity for making the better 
grades of black varnishes for engine finishing and other 
work of that class. 

Color grinders' or coach japan for grinding drop black 
must be of good body, free from turbidity or sediment 
and should weigh not less than eight pounds six ounces 
nor morfe than eight and one-half pounds per gallon. 
Must be free of benzine or heavy naphtha (now known as 


turpentine substitutes), containing no other solvent or 
volatile matter but pure gum spirits of turpentine. 
Kauri gum is preferred by some consumers as the base 
of the japan, while others prefer it made with gum 
shellac. The black that is ground with japan made 
from kauri gum will set more slowly, drying more 
thoroughly, however; while, when ground with gum 
shellac japan, it will bind more rapidly, permitting 
parts touched up with it to be varnished over quickly 
without rubbing up, which cannot be done with black 
ground in the kauri gum japan. The average quantity 
of pigment and vehicle for a drop black in japan is 
equal parts by weight when pure bone black is being 

For a denser drop black in japan would suggest 
forty pounds bone black and four pounds high-grade 
gas carbon black, both mixed together dry and dried 
over night in a temperature of at least 140 degrees F., 
then mixed with say fifty-six pounds of color grinding 
japan, and when fine a last run should be given, adding 
four pounds either of japan or rubbing varnish, which 
will make up for loss in grinding, yielding 100 pounds 
finished black out of a mixing of 104 pounds. Or 
animal black that contains at least double the quantity 
of carbon that is contained in bone black (which may 
be determined by assaying it with white for tinting 
strength, in comparison with bone black) may be used, 
mixing forty-eight pounds of the dry powder ^with 
fifty-two pounds japan, grinding fine and adding a few 
pounds of japan or rubbing varnish on the last or fin- 
ishing run. 

Ordinary bone black or animal black has no place on 
the palette of the artists, and these pigments are not 


put up in artists' tubes under the name of drop black, 
Ivory black takes their place in that line. But they 
will be found in the distemper color list as drop black 
ground in water without size and are used by grainers 
when doing work in distemper and also by show card 
artists, who add glue or dextrine size for binding med- 
ium. When fifty pounds of dry bone black in powder 
are mixed with sixty-five pounds of water and the mix- 
ture is run through a color mill until fine, the result will 
be about 100 pounds of so-called drop black in pulp. 
The term is derived from the ancient custom of grinding 
the calcined bone black or animal black in water, throw- 
ing the resulting pulp on a filter, then forming the 
stiff pulp into drops of different sizes that were placed in 
drying rooms and so offered to the trade, that in those 
dayij, consisted mainly of painters who by the use of 
slab and muUer, or small hand mills, manipulated what 
small quantity of color was required for their purpose. 
The writer, as late as twenty years ago, purchased a 
lot of English drop black in the form of cones that 
weighed from eight to twelve ounces apiece and were 
baked so hard in drying that it was necessary to run 
them through a powerful crusher and then several times 
through a buhr stone mill in order to reduce them to 
powder. This practice is now obsolete, and the so- 
called drop blacks are obtained in powder of varying 

Carbon Blacks. 

Carbon Black. — While nearly all black pigments, and 
especially those most in use for paint making, owe their 
coloring principle to the element, carbon, when we at 
the present day speak of carbon black we mean the 
hydro-gas-carbon black produced by the combustion of 


natural gas, the soot of which is collected on revolving 
plates and removed therefrom by fixed scrapers. When 
this gas carbon black was first placed on the market it 
commanded a price fully six times higher than it can 
now be bought for in quantity and was then, on account 
of its great staining power, mostly used for printing inks 
of a high type. Some twenty-five years ago, when in 
the Middle West the flow of natural gas was at its 
height and the demand for this black was not as great 
as it now is, it was offered at prices ranging from 25 to 
60 per cent, less than those asked for it at present. At 
that time the average color grinder did not understand 
the manipulation of this black as it is understood to-day, 
and the black itself was not as well prepared, being 
much more granular and containing quite a large per- 
centage of moisture. The black was then packed in 
sugar barrels containing fifty pounds net, but when kept 
in imheated warehouses or sheds it absorbed anywhere 
from 6 to 10 per cent, or more of moisture, which kept 
it from drying when ground in oil, even if certain per- 
centages of siccative were added when mixing. 

The present-day practice of packing this pigment in 
paper sacks not only keeps it from absorbing moisture 
in transit and storage, but prevents waste and facilitates 
handling and also cheapens the cost of packages. 
While carbon black has been ground and sold as lamp- 
black or has been made use of in strengthening inferior 
grades of lampblack, that practice is pretty well aban- 
doned, as the discriminating consumerof to-day is better 
posted than formerly, and can readily tell gas carbon 
black from lampblack by its hue and the tint it produces 
when mixed with white. Good lampblack burned from 
oil, when mixed with zinc white one part by weight of 


the black to 100 parts by weight of zinc white, produces 
a bluish-gray tint, while carbon black produces a dull 
gray tint that would be called a smoky gray by most 
painters. Carbon black, in comparison with the better 
grades of pure lampblack, has a brownish hue, but is 
really blacker than any other form of black pigment. 
It has a granular form, but mixes more readily with 
water than lampblack of the better grades, and this is 
also a guide to distinguish it from lampblack. Take a 
glass tumbler or beaker of clear water and sprinkle a 
small portion of the black to be tested on the surface of 
the water and if carbon black it will soon sink to the 
bottom of the vessel, while lampblack burnt from oil 
will remain on top, even if container is shaken. Carbon 
black requires from four to five times its weight of 
linseed oil, according to its condition of dryness and 
fineness, to form a paste, and is best run through iron or 
steel mills, although it can be ground on soft stone mills, 
but the output on the iron mills is greater. Carbon 
black is not found as such in color grinders' price lists or 
catalogues, but, nevertheless, large quantities are 
ground in oil and listed under other names, generally 
velvet black or marine black. 

The specifications of many railroads and other cor- 
porations are so designed that it is necessary to use 
carbon black along with inert mineral bases to obtain 
the depth of the standard furnished for black paint for 
equipment, as ordinary lampblack will not produce the 
black required. Printing ink manufacturers use enor- 
mous quantities of carbon black, but only the finest 
selected grades are used for lithographers and plate 
printers' purposes. These are ground on roller mills in 
specially prepared oil, known as burnt oil or litho- 
graphers' varnish. 


Carbon black, as a base for black varnishes, must be 
specially selected for fineness and depth, and any that 
leans toward the very brown or grayish hue should be 
rejected for this purpose. Small quantities going a 
great way in this line, it pays the grinder to have a dry- 
ing apparatus or oven, heated by exhaust steam or 
other economical means, fitted up with iron racks, on 
which the black may be placed in iron pans, so as to 
have all possible moisture driven off, as the black must 
be ground in varnish and moisture is to be avoided if 
good results are desired. The varnish in which the 
black is to be mixed and ground should correspond in 
quality to that which is to be used in thinning the black 
base to the consistency desired for use, and it depends 
upon the body of the varnish how much black can be 
incorporated. The grinding, of course, must be done 
on a water-cooled mill that is in perfect balance and 
condition, and great care is required to keep the mill 
from becoming overheated. It may take anywhere 
from eighty-five to ninety pounds of varnish to from 
ten to fifteen pounds of the black, depending on the 
more-or-less volatile nature of the varnish. Varnish 
that is inclined to liver or jellify with the black must not 
be used, as the resulting black varnish would be a failure. 

Carbon Black in Form of Charcoal. 

Charcoal blacks include blacks made from soft woods, 
the best being that charred from the willow, but some of 
the wood pulp mills have also charred their refuse and 
offered the resulting product as charcoal or carbon 
black. The latter has not found much of a market, as 
its texture seems to be too fibrous and refractory in 
grinding in oil or water. Charcoal black made from 


willow twigs, however, has been made use of in some 
special structural iron paints, and has been especially 
recommended in that connection by late researchers in 
paint problems, with what real practical value is yet 
to be fully determined. It is claimed, however, that it 
has rust inhibitive properties, while gas carbon black 
is said to lack that feature. 

However this may be, gas carbon black is a safe pig- 
ment when used with the proper inert material. It is a 
queer fact that this pigment has a specific gravity 
of 1.85 and requires anywhere from 80 to 84 per cent, 
of oil for grinding, while willow charcoal black has a 
specific gravity of 1.40 and yet requires only 35 to 40 per 
cent, of oil for grinding. This can only be accounted 
for by its very coarse texture. Vine black is very sim- 
ilar to willow charcoal black in every way — specific 
gravity and absorption of oil, texture, etc. Coal 
blacks have been put on the market under the name of 
carbon black, but have been found to promote rust and 
will not pass chemical investigation, for which reason 
these pigments are undesirable. 

Frankfort black is a pigment that derives its name 
from the fact that it was originally made in that town, 
Frankfort-on-Main, in Germany, being calcined in 
closed vessels until thoroughly charred, consisting of a 
mixture of vine twigs, hop vine, the pressed residue of 
grapes, peach and prune stones, ivory and bone chips 
and shavings — ^in fact, every imaginable residue of 
that character. The calcined pigment is ground up 
in water, then well washed and floated and finally 
formed in drops and dried. The average chemical 
composition is about 60 to 65 per cent, carbon, 3 to 5 
per cent, moisture, the balance mineral matter, con- 


taining more or less phosphate of lime, according to the 

amount of bones or animal matter used in calcination. 

This black shows much variation and is scarcely ever 

used by color grinders at the present day in the United 


Ivory Black. 

While many in the trade do not make a distinction 
between drop black or bone black and ivory black, the 
latter, nevertheless, is, or at least should be, made from 
the waste of ivory in turning and cutting of ornaments, 
etc., but, as there would not be enough to go around for 
the demand of the trade, the manufacturers of ivory 
black make use of animal bones, selected especially for 
this purpose, especially the knuckles and shins of bo- 
vines, while ordinary bone black of extra fine texture and 
hue is also sold under the name of ivory black. The 
chief features that distinguish ivory black from ordinary 
bone black are greater fineness and brilliancy, and that 
it contains a higher percentage of carbon, which runs 
between 17 and 18 per cent., as against 14 to 15 per cent, 
in ordinary bone black. While the specific gravity of 
bone black is 2.70 on the average, ivory black has a 
gravity of 2.60 to 2.65, but resembles bone black in all 
other respects, excepting fineness and depth. The best 
ivory blacks were obtained from the Taunus in Ger- 
many, through some German and English exporters, 
and the selling prices at one time were rather high, in 
some of the better grades reaching four or five times the 
price of ordinary powdered bone black, and even now it 
is treble that of the latter. As to the grinding of ivory 
black, all that has been said in reference to bone black 
applies here, excepting that a trifle more vehicle is 
required for mixing and grinding in oil as well as in 


Unless specifically required, ivory black is not ground 
in oil for the trade, but bone or animal black is so 
labeled. For the use of the coach and carriage trade, 
however, ivory black is ground in coach japan or gold- 
size japan and sold at an advance in price under the 
label of "Coach Ivory Black" or "Ivory Drop Black/* 
As it was the custom of the manufacturers of ivory 
black to add some blue, either Chinese or Prussian 
blue, also ultramarine blue, to the black to increase its 
depth in oil, the color grinder must look sharp toward 
avoiding the use of a blued ivory black when grinding 
it in japan or varnish for this trade, for the reason that 
the user thins the black with turpentine, which will 
make the blue float to the surface, and in finishing the 
surface with varnish there will be a smoky or greenish 
effect, according to the nature of the blue used. There 
is no black pigment that excels ivory black in brilliancy 
for fine coach and carriage work, and for high-grade 
enamel making a base made by grinding ivory black in 
varnish has no superior. The proportions of black and 
varnish required vary according to the consistency of 
the varnish used in grinding. Ivory black is supplied 
to artists ground in poppy seed or nut oil, although there 
seems to be no special reason for selecting such a 
vehicle, as linseed oil, well settled by age, will serve the 
purpose fully as well. 

Lamp Blacks. 

Lampblack without question is the black pigment 
most conmionly used of all the line of oil colors, and no 
assortment of these is complete without it. Of course, 
very large quantities of lamp black are sold in the dry 
powder, packed in round papers or square paper boxes 


from one-fourth pound to one pound. The brands 
most popular are known as Germantown, with a special 
trade-mark, such as "Eagle" or "Bear," etc., for the 
best grade, also "Old Standard," or "Ordinary," "Star," 
"Coach Painters\" "Sign Writers\" or other fancy 
names. These do not interest the color grinder, as he 
buys the material in bulk, packed in casks, barrels 
or sacks. While formerly Germantown lamp black in 
bulk was a favorite with color grinders, the keen com- 
petition of the last two decades forced them to look 
for lamp black of greater staining power and induced 
lamp black manufacturers to cater to this want. To be 
up with the procession every color grinder must have 
for his best brand at least a lamp black that will, when 
ground in oil to the usual paste consistency, show twice, 
or nearly twice, the tinting strength of the better grade 
of Germantown lamp black, and when separated from 
the oil in which it is ground in a chemical analysis it 
must not show more than two-tenths of 1 per cent, of 
mineral ash if it is to pass the specifications issued by 
government service departments. Nor must such black 
show any unbumt oil or tarry matter, as their presence 
retards the drying of the pigment when ground in oil. 
To ascertain the presence of such undesirable matter a 
very simple test is sufficient. A small hillock of the dry 
black is placed on a piece of perfectly white blotting 
paper and the black saturated with sulphuric ether. 
The ether will be absorbed by the blotter, forming a 
ring or halo on the outside of the black, and if any em- 
pyreumatic matter is present in the black the ring will 
show yellowish or brownish discoloration, whereas if it 
remains clear the black is free from such deleterious 
matter. The next thing is to test the black for absence 


of grit and also to try it out for tinting power by assay- 
ing it in the usual manner with zinc white, comparing it 
with an adopted standard. 

To be perfectly safe when selecting grinders' lamp 
black on large orders or contracts the color grinder 
should secure enough of each black offered to make a 
practical mixing and grinding, so as to ascertain the 
exact percentage of oil required for each brand of black 
under consideration, and by making his tests for 
fineness and strength with the finished products in 
comparison with one another he will have no trouble to 
decide which of the blacks it is most advantageous for 
him to use. A lamp black of this description has a 
specific gravity of 1.80 to 1.84 and will require seventy- 
five to seventy-six pounds of oil for every twenty-four to 
twenty-five pounds of the dry black to form a buttery 
paste that will break up nicely when being thinned for 
use. To grind it in oil iron or steel mills are preferable 
to stone mills, because increasing the output, while buhr 
stone mills should not be used at all for grinding lamp 
black in oil. Lamp black of the class here described 
is soft and esopus stone mills will turn out a smooth 
paste. All of the foregoing refers to lamp black made 
from residuums of oils, fats, greases, petroleum and tar 
oils. When black is offered that is made from vege- 
table matter it can be readily identified by its harsher, 
coarser texture and its heavier gravity. A grinders* 
lamp black of the above description when packed in 
flour barrels will weigh no more than thirty pounds net. 
while a sugar barrel will hold about forty-five pounds — 
a sugar barrel will hold about sixty pounds of a fairly 
good grade of Germantown lamp black. Commercial 
lamp black as a rule is very heavy in gravity and a flour 


barrel will hold as much as 100 to 120 pounds, but it is 
scarcely ever used in color grinding, excepting, perhaps, 
in cheap black paints where it is necessary to economize 
in the use of oil. 

As we have remarked when speaking of carbon black 
it is very difficult to mix oil lamp black with water, and 
when lamp black is wanted ground in water carbon 
black is, as a rule, substituted for it, although by the 
exercise of much patience lamp black can be mixed and 
ground in water. Place the required quantity of dry 
black in a mixing pot of convenient size, then put water 
on the powder, little at a time, to saturate and let stand 
over night. Making the water alkaline with carbonate 
of soda will also aid in obtaining a mixture, one ounce 
of soda to twenty-five pounds (three gaUons) water. 

Lamp black in japan is not much called for at present, 
still it is listed by coach color manufacturers and is being 
used by sign painters for quick work and for similar 
reasons by some coach and carriage painters. For this 
purpose it is best ground in three parts coach japan and 
one part turpentine, rather stiff in consistency, on a 
twenty-inch or twenty-four inch water-cooled mill (iron 
or steel mill preferable) and then to every forty-five 
pounds of the product should be added five pounds of 
good rubbing varnish, running this mixing loosely 
through the mill. A good average formula would be 
as follows: — ^Twelve pounds grinders* lampblack, 
twenty-seven pounds coach japan, nine pounds gum 
spirits of turpentine, equal to forty-eight pounds. 
Result, about forty-five pounds paste. Add five 
pounds rubbing varnish. Final result, fifty pounds 
lamp black in japan, with excellent working, drying and 
binding properties. 


Lampblack in oil in tubes is not called for by artists, 
but sign writers favor it put up in large tubes, as well as 
tin cans, under the brand, "Sign Writers' Black/' 
Some makers simply grind lampblack in boiled linseed 
oil with a portion of drier, while others again grind gas 
carbon black in raw or boiled linseed oil with sufficient 
japan drier. The latter being more jet black is in favor 
as a ground for smalting black signs. 

Black Lead (Graphite or Plumbago.) 

This has hardly a place on an oil color list, yet it 
belongs properly to the group of black pigments. Years 
ago we only had the natural mineral at our command, 
but for some time it is produced also by artificial means. 
By this we refer to the product of the Acheson Graphite 
Company, who claim that this is purer by far than the 
purest natural graphite. The Acheson graphite, it is 
claimed, contains 94 per cent, pure carbon, the balance 
being silicious matter with traces of almnina and iron. 
There are, however, offered to the trade natural graph- 
ites containing 90 per cent, or a trifle over of carbon, and 
it is really a question of choice for the color grinder, 
unless the artificial product is specified. The natural 
graphite with 90 per cent, of carbon averages about 2.5 
specific gravity, while the artificial is not above 2.25. 
Either of these will require about 45 per cent, of oil, or 
say, forty-five pounds oil to fifty-five pounds pigment to 
form a paste. The artificial pigment does not hold well 
in suspension, is very apt to cake hard in bottom of 
container — ^much more so than the natural graphite. 
To hold the pigment in suspension an inert extender, 
such as asbestine or a bouyant clay, is beneficial, the 
only drawback being that graphite of itself has not a 


great deal of opacity. When not tied down by specifica- 
tions the color grinder or paint maker can remedy this 
deficiency in body or hiding power by the addition of 
lampblack, especially when, as it is often the case, 
black graphite is called for. 

Mineral Black. 

So far as the demand by painters is concerned, this 
might be as well omitted from the lists of oil colors. 
But there is quite a demand for it from industrial con- 
cerns, where a great deal of metal is to be coated. 
However, there is no established standard for the mate- 
rial sold under this name, with the exception of specifica- 
tions issued years ago by the United States Navy 
Department, which call for a black paint to be composed 
of natural mineral containing not less than 15 per cent, 
carbon, 5 per cent, lead oxide in the pigment, balance to 
be inert material as occurs in nature with bituminous 
shale, etc., to be ground in boiled linseed oil. The 
black fillers mined in Pennsylvania near Muncy form a 
basis for blacks of this class and also for iron fillers, etc. 

What is known and sold to the trade as dry mineral 
black differs however, from the fillers in question, as 
well as from that which is specified by the Navy De- 
partment. As a rule, it is not a safe pigment to use 
with oil, as it appears to contain a great percentage of 
soluble salts, principally iron sulphate, and we would 
caution grinders to make very close examinations of the 
material offered before adopting same for use in oil 

There are a few other black pigments to which we did 
not refer because they are practically obsolete, there 
being no demand for them. These comprise candle 


black, lead black, manganese black, Prussian black, 
and prussiate black, and black lake, which latter fades 
rapid on exposure to light and air. Prussian black is 
simply Prussian blue blackened by calcination. Prus- 
siate black can only be used as a decolorizing agent, 
being a residuum from yellow prussiate of potash. 
Lead black is the black sulphite of lead and has no 
place in color grinding. Manganese black is simply 
black manganese oxide. 



Antwerp Blue. 

Antwerp blue is now seldom in demand, although up 
to about fifteen years ago it was called for ground in 
poppyseed oil for artists' use, also in japan and varnish 
for special coach work, and even in water for fresco 
work. At that time it was imported from France or 
Belgium packed in cases of ten kilos and marked 
"Bleu Minerar* (mineral blue). It is as difficult to 
obtain it to-day from New York importers as it is to find 
a needle in a haystack. There is nothing so remarkable 
about the color or tone of this blue, but, while the text 
books say that it is almost identical with Prussian blue, 
only paler in color, the color grinder will find it ex- 
tremely difficult to match the particular shade of the 
Antwerp blue that is furnished in artists' tubes by 
Winsor and Newton and Continental manufacturers 
of artists* colors. Some color maker friend will tell him 
to take three or four pounds Prussian blue and one 
pound alumina hydrate, mixing the two pigments and 
have the exact tone and shade, but if he accepts the 
advice he will be disappointed. Our advice is to select 
a Prussian blue that lacks the bronze cast, but is 
strictly pure, adding one^part finest blanc fixe by weight 
to two parts of the dry blue, and if the shade is not pale 
enough lighten the color with the addition of as little 
French zinc white as possible. Made by this method, 
the pigment is not so apt to liver in oil or japan as it is 
when made with alumina^ydrate, besides it will have 


better body. To grind in poppyseed oil, figure on 35 
per cent, vehicle and 65 per cent, pigment, for coach 
color figure on 40 per cent, gold-size japan and 60 per 
cent, pigment, for distemper color figure on equal parts 
pigment and water for mixing. 

Berlin Blue. 

Berlin blue is not listed in the catalogues of paint 
manufacturers in the United States. The pigment 
belongs to the Prussian blue group and the name simply 
a synonym for commercial purposes. Will be dealt 
with under "Prussian Blues." 

Bremen Blue. 

Bremen blue consists mainly of hydroxide of copper 
CUH2O2) with small portions of copper carbonate 
(CuCOs), and so far as its use in oil is concerned it is 
obsolete. Even in its dry form, as it was sold to decor- 
ators for distemper and fresco painting, it has been 
replaced by ultramarine blue and imitation of cobalt 

Blue Verditer. 

Blue verditer, a copper blue very similar to Bremen 
blue, is still in use by artists to a small extent, both in 
oil and in water, especially in the latter form, but, not 
being permanent to light, the demand is very limited. 
The pigment varies considerably, according to the 
method of manufacture, hence it is difficult to give an 
accurate figure as to its absorption of oil in grinding, but 
40 per cent, poppyseed or nut oil and 60 per cent, by 
weight of pigment is about a good average to figure on. 


Brunswick Blue. 

Brunswick blue is simply an extended color, consist- 
ing of Prussian blue and barytes and in such proportions 
as the fancy of the maker or his selling price and profit- 
making idea would dictate. It may consist of 10 per 
cent. Prussian blue and 90 per cent, barytes or of equal 
parts blue and barytes, and it is not at all necessary to 
have the blue extended by the color maker — ^in fact, it 
is far more economical and more accurate to let the 
addition of the extender be made in the mixer when 
getting ready to grind it in oil. To make a batch of 100 
pounds of Brunswick blue in oil with only 10 per cent, 
color in the dry pigment, place in the mixer seventeen 
pounds Prussian blue that has been ground fine in 
linseed oil in the proportions of equal parts by weight of 
pigment and oil, add seven pounds more raw linseed oil 
and seventy-six pounds finest floated barytes. If the 
blue is free of paint skins and the barytes really fine, a 
thorough mixing will make the paste smooth enough 
for such a low-priced blue, otherwise run it through a 
mill until smooth and fine. 

Taking for granted that the Brunswick blue is to 
consist of 50 per cent, pure color in the dry pigment, a 
mixing on these figures will give the desired result: — 
Sixty-five pounds Prussian blue in oil, as above, add 
thirty-two and one-half pounds of finest barytes and two 
and one-half pounds raw linseed oil, and follow above 

This suggestion would apply also to this blue in 
japan, with this proviso, however, that here a 10 per 
cent, pure color in the pigment would not answer, but, 
figuring on a blue to consist of 60 per cent, pure coloring 
matter and 60 per cent, barytes, we would conclude that 


the mixing should be based on the following: — ^Place 
in the mixer seventy pounds pure Prussian blue that 
has been ground fine at the rate of 40 per cent, pigment 
to 60 per cent, by weight of gold-size japan and add 
twenty-eight pounds finest floated barytes (bone dry) 
and two pounds gold-size japan or good rubbing varnish. 
Mix thoroughly and if not smooth enough give it one 
run through mill to finish. This is not pure Prussian 
blue, and it is not to be offered as such, but as 
Brunswick blue in japan, and if the materials are all 
right in the first place it will be an excellent working 
material. It is made on the same plan and rather a 
little better than the coach colors and colors in oil that 
made one manufacturer inunensely ridi some thirty- 
five years ago. 

Chinese Blue. 

Chinese blue is reaUy a fine grade of Prussian blue, 
having a much better luster than the ordinary grade, 
and when in the lump form its fracture must show a 
decided bronze cast or luster, by which Chinese blue is 
distinguished from the ordinary Prussian blue. It 
should have a somewhat greenish undertone in compar- 
ison with the violet of the Prussian blue. When used 
for tinting whites, Chinese blue must give a clear sky- 
blue tint, neither leaning to green nor to the lavender- 
gray. In selecting the dry blue for grinding in oil, the 
color grinder must examine the powder, if he buys in 
that form, for softness, as it is very difficult and expen- 
sive to grind a hard blue that has been dried too rapidly. 
It should also be very thoroughly examined to see that 
the powdered material has not been scorched in the mill, 
as it is very apt to catch fire from the accidental 


presence of iron. The utmost care is necessary in mix- 
ing and grinding the blue in oil, japan or varnish to not 
only exclude particles of iron, but also to prevent 
overheating. Well-dressed soft stone mills, running at 
fairly slow speed, are best adapted to grind this blue, as 
well as Prussian blue, as excessive heat will ruin the 
tone and luster of these pigments. Pure Chinese blue 
requires its own weight of linseed oil to produce a com- 
mercial paste, but if wanted of extraordinary tinting 
strength it may be ground at the rate of 66 pounds dry 
blue to 33 pounds linseed oil and 11 pounds turpentine. 
The result, however, will not be over 95 to 96 pounds 
paste, as a good portion of the turpentine will be lost 
through evaporation during the grinding process. 
This practice will hardly appeal to the manufacturer of 
the present day and the lesser cost of oil will induce 
grinders to use all the oil consistent with producing a 
marketable article. 

When a color grinder desires to place an extended 
blue on the market he will scarcely use the higher- 
priced Chinese blue, but make use of an ordinary Prus- 
sian blue, hence Chinese blue, when so labeled, will 
usually be found strictly pure. While Chinese blue is 
preferable to Prussian blue in artists' tubes, it is not 
weU adapted for grinding in japan or varnish for the use 
of the coach and car painter on amount of its bronze 
luster, which, if the blue is used solid, floats up when the 
color is thinned with turpentine, and in drying the sur- 
face, instead of showing a deep blue eflFect, gives a 
brownish surface when under varnish. This is most 
noticeable when Chinese blue is being used to make a 
composite green for coach work instead of the bronze- 
less Prussian blue of the violet tone. 


Prussian Blue. 

Prussian blue, also known as Paris blue or Berlin 
blue, requires the same general treatment and precau- 
tions in mixing and grinding as Chinese blue, differing 
from the latter only in the method of making the dry 
blue and in the more or less marked absence of bronze 
luster. The paler shades of Prussian blue resemble 
Chinese blue to a great extent, producing the clear sky- 
blue tint with white, while the darker shades usually 
give the lavender-gray tint with white. For admixture 
with black and yellow in making composite greens, 
however, the dark Prussian blues are best adapted for 
the reasons above mentioned. Before mixing Prussian 
or Chinese blue in oil or japan or varnish it is essential 
to have the pigment almost bone dry, and unless it can 
be procured in that state the pigment should be mixed 
in a steam-jacketed apparatus at a temperature of not 
over 140 deg. F. to drain oflF all the moisture possible. 
Where much of the blue is being manipulated, a so-called 
sifter and drier will not prove very expensive, while in 
smaller establishments the pigment may be dried on 
metal pans in a drying oven or drying room. This is 
especially necessary when the blue is to be ground in 
gold size japan or varnish, but it is also beneficial for 
ordinary oil color. Equal weight of pigment and lin- 
seed oil will produce a satisfactory paste, when good 
pure Prussian blue is used, while for the coach 
color trade it should be mixed and ground in gold size 
japan, when about 40 per cent, by weight of pigment 
and 60 per cent, of japan will be the average proportion. 
For making blue enamel a practically bronzeless blue 
should be ground in, say, 75 pounds rubbing or finishing 
varnish to 25 pounds of the dry blue, the quality of the 


varnish to depend upon the purpose for which this 
varnish base is required, but also upon its properties as a 
grinding vehicle. 

When Prussian blue as an oil color or paste paint in 
oil is to be extended, alkaline extenders must not be 
used. This bars out the use of whiting, asbestine and 
blanc fixe or barytes, unless the last two pigments are 
well washed and prove to be inert by test. Floated 
silica, gypsum, china clay, floated barytes and blanc 
fixe (the two last named if free of alkali) will serve as 
extenders, the best being a mixture of china clay and 
gypsum. Whiting and asbestine always show appre- 
ciable traces of alkalies, and the presence of these is very 
apt to change the tone of the blue to a reddish tinge. 
While Prussian or Chinese blue cannot be made use of 
by decorators in distemper painting, so long as they 
employ a whiting base there is some slight demand for 
these blues and color grinders who have a color-making 
establishment connected with their factory will not mix 
and grind the dried blue in water, but will use the pulp 
instead, simply making it smooth by running it through 
a mill. 

Bronze blues, reflex blues, steel blue and night blue, 
or whatever may be the fancy names given to that class 
of pigment, are of the Prussian blue group and charac- 
teristics and used for special purposes, principally for 
the preparation of printing and lithographing inks. 
The manufacture of these inks is usually carried on as a 
special line of business, and the larger establishments 
prepare their own colors from the raw materials. So, 
for instance, in manipulating Chinese or Prussian blue, 
as well as the special blues referred to in the last para- 
graph, the pulped blue is not dried by heat, unless there 


is an excess on hand, which it is desired to market in the 
dry state. The pulp blue that is about to be used for 
ink is either well drained of its water (the so-called 
liquor) or filter-pressed and then placed in a horizontal 
mixer, containing bronze blades for beating the pulp and 
provided with a steam jacket to drive off the moisture. 
While the pulped blue is thus beaten, the so-called burnt 
oil or lithographer's varnish of the required consistency 
for the kind of ink wanted, is added, a portion at a 
time, which facilitates the evaporation of the moisture, 
at the same time keeping the pigment soft and in fine 
division. From this mixer the ink is placed on mills 
with three rollers of hardened steel, or, still better, of 
fine polished porphyry, until fine enough to pass the 
test. The usual proportions for mixing and grinding 
are from 30 to 38 pounds of blue, figured dry, and 67 to 
70 pounds of lithographers' varnish No. 1 or equal parts 
by weight of No. 1 and No. 2. 

Leather blue is also of the Prussian blue type and is 
called for by leather dressers, who require the blue 
ground fine in linseed oil, of which they add certain 
portions to the black dressing that they prepare for 
their use by heat. The paste for this purpose should 
consist of 45 parts by weight of bronzeless blue and 65 
parts by weight of pure well settled linseed oil. It is 
added to the black for the purpose of giving the dressing 
greater density and greater depth. 

Celestial blue of commerce is not in demand as an oil 
color by the trade, and what little is still being purchased 
is in the dry form and does not interest the color 
grinder, as it is simply a very much extended Prussian 
blue that may contain anywhere from 6 to 20 per cent, 
by weight of blue, balance being natural barytes, as 
there is no standard for blue of that name. 


Cobalt and Ultramarine Blues. 

True cobalt blue is only interesting to the color 
grinder so far as its use by artists is concerned, while for 
all other purposes the artificial ultramarine, known 
to the trade as imitation of cobalt blue, which can be 
obtained in several grades and shades, is being placed at 
the disposition of the consumer.^ While true cobalt 
blue is of great permanency and unaffected by the most 
destructive agencies, it is too high in cost for general use, 
and really the artificial ultramarine, sold as imitation of 
cobalt blue, gives a much more brilliant color effect. 
However, the latter should not be put up for the use of 
the artist, excepting when label states plainly that it is 
artificial or imitation. True or genuine cobalt blue is a 
compound of the oxides of cobalt and alumina with 
some phosphoric acid, occasionally. It works better as 
a water color than it does in oil, and is highly valued on 
that account among moist colors used by artists. 
Grinding it for artists* use in oil to be put up in tubes 
will require 86 per cent, dry pigment to 66 per cent, by 
weight of bleached poppyseed or nut oil, either of 
which is preferable to linseed oil for this purpose. 
Cobalt blue has a greenish tone, that when viewed under 
gaslight is more or less violet. True cobalt blue is 
readily distinguishable from its imitation by being 
unaffected in contact with acids and strong alkalies 
that affect the artificial brands. It has also been known 
as Thenard's blue and aziu« blue. Its cost being pro- 
hibitive, it is not placed on the market as a coach color 
or as an enamel. 

Cobalt blue smalts, a glass consisting of a double 
silicate of cobalt and potash with such impurities as the 
oxides of iron and calcium^ was very largely ground up 


in various vehicles and sold as cobalt blue before the 
advent on the market of the lower-priced imitation of 
cobalt blue made by the manufacturers of artificial 
ultramarines. The latter show a far more brilliant 
color eflFect, much stronger hiding and staining power 
and are not affected so much in tone by electric or gas- 
light. Imitation of cobalt blue is oflFered to the color 
grinding trade in various depths of shade, the marks of 
the best quality being C. S. or C. 9, another lower- 
priced brand being marked C. C. or C. I. When pale 
shades are required, a portion of French process zinc 
oxide added to the blue will produce very fine light 
effects. These blues are for many purposes more desir- 
able than some of the artificial ultramarine blues, as 
they make colder blue tints with white, not leaning so 
much to the purple or violet rays. Nor are these 
imitations of cobalt blue so readily affected by the pre- 
sence of alkahes, as is the case with the soda ultrama- 
rines. For mixing and grinding the best grades of imi- 
tation of cobalt blue in oil, figure on 35 per cent, oil to 65 
per cent, pigment, but when zinc is added to produce a 
lighter shade reduce the percentage of oil proportionate 
to quantity of zinc used. For making an azure blue 
color in oil or japan, when zinc oxide can be employed 
as base, imitation of cobalt blue should serve best as 
coloring matter, but when white lead forms the base, 
Chinese blue will prove superior for standing exposure. 
This blue is favored to some extent for carriage paint- 
ing, especially for striping and should be ground in pale 
gold size or rubbing varnish, and when toned with a 
small portion of zinc oxide produces a rather pretty 
blue stripe. But it will prove very effective as a body 
color for some small vehicles. To mix and grind the 
pigment for this purpose, figure on 54 per cent, by 


weight of Super. Imitation Cobalt Blue, 6 per cent, of 
best French zinc (no more) and 40 per cent, of pale gold 
size japan, or 35 per cent, of this and 5 per cent, good 
pale rubbing varnish. Imitation of cobalt blue is not 
favored as a base for blue enamel on account of its 
settling tendency in liquid form. To grind it in water 
for distemper work, figure on 70 per cent, pigment and 
30 per cent, water. As cobalt blues do not appear in 
lists of second or third grades of oil colors, we need not 
mention extenders for this blue, but we may say that it 
is very necessary to examine these blues as well as 
artificial ultramarine blues for the presence of free 
sulphur before mixing the pigment in any oil, japan or 
varnish vehicle. Either free sulphur or free soda will 
give trouble in grinding, as either will act on the vehicle, 
producing a gummy paste of livery tendency that also 
tends to cake in the containers. The writer has had 
occasion to reject supplies of ultramarine blue that had 
such a strong odor of sulphur that it required no chem- 
ical test. However, it is always best to take no chances 
when the material gives the least cause for suspicion. 

Ultramarine blue in its true or native state is found in 
Tibet, Persia, China, Siberia and in the Andes of South 
America as a mineral, called *'lapis-lazuli." It is 
mostly found in pebbles, associated with a gangue of 
iron pyrites, limestone or other rocky substance, 
according to the formation of the earth in which it is 
found. The process by which the mineral is made into 
a workable pigment is not interesting to the color 
grinders, as it may be said to be a classic or dead, 
rather than a live paint material, excepting perhaps for 
the ceramic art and a small class of artist painters. 
Suffice it to say that the native product lacks the 


brilliancy of the best grades of artificial ultramarine 
blue. It is very harsh and granular in texture and some- 
what refractory in grinding. In oil it is rather trans- 
parent, while the artificial product is more opaque and 
has far greater tinting power. To grind true ultrama- 
rine blue in oil for the use of the artists it will be found 
that 60 per cent, of oil to 40 per cent, of pigment are a 
good average to figure on, but as the specific gravity 
varies considerably these figures are not to be depended 
upon. True ultramarine blue is not put up as a dis- 
temper color, and if any one desired it in that form and 
did not mind paying the price it would have to be man- 
ipulated specially for such demand. As such occurrence 
is hardly liable to happen, we will pass on to the con- 
sideration of artificial ultramarine blues. There are 
two distinctive processes or methods of preparing this 
pigment, one being known as the sulphate ultramarine, 
the other as soda ultramarine, the latter having the 
violet undertone, the former leaning to a more greenish 
tinge. In either process the constituents are nearly 
similar, comprising kaolin (china clay), sodium sul- 
phate, sodium carbonate, sulphur, coal or charcoal, 
rosin, quartz and infusorial earth. All of these are not 
used in one operation, if, for instance, quartz is used, 
infusorial earth is omitted and vice versa, or when 
charcoal is used, coal is omitted and so on. When 
sodium sulphate is used less sulphur is added to the 
batch, but in that case the sodium sulphate must be 
increased proportionately, and the more sulphur is used 
in soda ultramarine the deeper the shade and tone. 

Sulphate ultramarine blue may be recognized by its 
having a slightly greenish-blue cast when ground in oil, 
while soda ultramarine blue has a violet-blue character. 


The former shows more silica and less sulphur and 
sodium in an analysis, and when tested for tinting effect 
with white gives a clearer blue, less grayish tint, than 
the latter. The better grades of ultramarine blue show 
average analysis as follows: — Sulphate ultramarine 
blue — Silica, SiOa — 48,5 per cent.; alumina, AI2O8 — 

23.2 per cent.; sulphur, S — ^9.6 per cent.; sulphur 
trioxide, SO3 — 2.6 per cent.; sodium, Na«0, 12.8 per 
cent.; water, HO2 — ^3.3 per cent. Soda ultramarine 
blue — Silica, Si02 — 40.8 per cent.; alumina, AlaOs — 

24.3 per cent.; sulphur, S — 13.6 per cent.; sulphur 
trioxide, SOa — 4.4 per cent.; sodium, Na^O — 14.7 per 
cent.; water, H2O— 2.2 per cent. The former is much 
paler in shade, the latter very much deeper. The 
better grades of soda ultramarine blue are preferred for 
bluing white pigments, because the whites so blued are 
not so apt to green off, especially when varnish is used in 
reducing the white for application with the brush or for 

Color grinders know what a large variety of grades 
ultramarine blues are offered in and how the selling 
prices of the dry blue differ, as well as the advance in 
the market prices of to-day, as compared with those of 
years ago. There was a time not so very long since 
when there was spirited competition and the makers of 
ultramarine sold the color at ruinous prices, but since 
the consolidation of interests both in \bis country and 
abroad the prices have gone up at least 75 per cent, 
from those referred to. It is not our purpose here to 
extol any special brand or manufacture, but we must 
state that the brands manufactured in the United 
States are always preferred on comparison of quality 
and prices to those imported from abroad, excepting in 


rare instances, where extra brilliant, soft material is 
required and higher cost not considered. There being 
a dozen or so of grades listed, of which at least one- 
third will interest the color grinder for his various pur- 
poses, it is up to him to test samples oflFered him by the 
manufacturer for brilliancy of tone, shade, fineness, 
softness of texture, tinting power and clearness of tint 
produced with white. One part of the dry blue mixed 
with 25 parts French zinc white, rubbed out to the 
utmost is the best guide for this. As the percentage of 
silica and alumina, etc., in ultramarine blue does not 
figure much in the oil absorption for grinding the oil 
color, it is not necessary to go to the trouble of grinding 
specimen batches, as in the case of blacks, rubouts 
being sufficient for testing ultramarine blue. 

For grinding ultramarine blue in oil for the trade the 
one that has the strongest staining power should be 
selected, and the average mixing will require two-thirds 
by weight of pigment to one-third by weight of linseed 
oil. Refined oil is preferable to raw or boiled oil, as it 
will give the blue a clearer tone and appearance. For 
coach color the blue with the cleanest tone is preferable 
to that of the greatest staining power. 

For coach work and automobile painting this blue 
should be ground in pale gold size, as the brownish 
color of the ordinary coach japan is apt to impart 
dullness to ultramarine blue. Care must be taken that 
the pigment is bone dry before mixing, and for extra 
fine work the blue is best ground in pale rubbing varnish 
with a portion of turpentine, 40 per cent, by weight of 
gold size japan or 32 per cent, of rubbing varnish and 6 
per cent, turpentine to 60 or 62 per cent, by weight of 
pigment will be required to produce a smooth paste. 


For ultramarine blue enamel a small portion of best 
French zinc added to the pigment, not enough, however, 
to aflFect the shade to any great extent, will be beneficial, 
as it will tend to hold the color in better suspension 
when reduced to brushing consistency. The pigment 
in this case, when intended for air-drying enamel, is 
best groimd in pale gold size, but when it is intended to 
serve as the base or coloring for baking enamel, that is 
to be stoved, at fairly high temperature, the grinding 
vehicle should be baking enamel varnish of the proper 
selection and the pigment and varnish should be about 
equal portions by weight. 

Artificial ultramarine blue, while not as permanent as 
the natural, is on the lists of artists' tube colors, as it is, 
when properly selected, deeper and more brilliant and 
very much lower in price. The finest and softest 
imported ultramarine blue in the form of drops should 
be ground in poppyseed oil to rather stout paste, and if 
good aged oil is used in the grinding the oil will not 
separate from the pigment when the color is squeezed 
from the tube on to the artists* palette. The separa- 
tion of oil and pigment can be entirdy avoided if the 
blue is groimd in a mixture of 75 parts of bleached 
poppyseed or nut oil and 25 parts of palest litho- 
grapher's varnish, which latter will in no way interfere 
with the durability and permanency of the color, 65 
parts by weight of the ultramarine blue in drops to 35 
parts by weight of the oil mixture will be about the 
right proportion. 

Ultramarine Blue in Distemper. 

For this purpose the sulphate ultramarine should be 
selected, and when 70 pounds of the dry blue are mixed 
with about 40 pounds (or nearly 5 gallons of water) 


and run through a stone mill until fine, the result should 
be 100 poimds of a smooth paste that will keep well for 
months in well-sealed jars. 

Ultramarine Blue for Barrel Paints. 

Since the petroleum trade began to assume its great 
proportions half a century ago, enormous quantities of 
barrel paints have been made, and for a time at least 
the greatest consumption was in blues, because the 
practice was to paint only the heads of the oil barrels in 
white or yellow or buflF; while the bilge of the barrels 
were mostly painted in various shades of blue, the base 
of which was ultramarine, because whenever Prussian 
blue was used as tinting color, the paste, on standing 
about, suffered a change in a short space of time, not 
only becoming much lighter in shade, but also turning to 
a dull greenish tint. This is partly due to the alkaline 
properties of the carbonate of lime (whiting) in the 
pigment, but more so to the acidity of the rosin in the 
benzine and rosin liquid, which is the vehicle for barrel 
paints in paste form. As a rule, blue barrel paints in paste 
form for the petroleum and cottonseed oil trades and 
whatever other trades will use them to a minor degree are 
composed of a low-priced ultramarine blue. American 
zinc white or lithopone and whiting (chalk) or a mixture 
of whiting and terra alba (gypsum), ground in a vehicle 
commonly known as gloss oil, and consisting of about 
425 pounds of mediimi colored rosin, dissolved with or 
without heat in 60 gallons petroleum spirit (62 deg. 
benzine). The heavy benzines now on the market will 
not answer the purpose, being too slow in evaporation, 
causing the paint to require too long a time to dry. 
Rosin is now practically 150 per cent, higher than it was 


five or six years since and benzine is nearly three times 
the price of one year ago. As neariy all consumers or 
concerns using these paints have their own standard 
shades, it is not practicable to give a formula here, but 
we may say that because of the keen competition among 
grinders the margins of profit are very small, even if the 
goods can be sold in very large quantities. 

Miscellaneous Blues. 

Lime blue, a pigment made from solutions of copper 
salts with the addition of sal ammoniac and quick lime, 
really a mixture of copper hydroxide and calcium 
sulphate, has gone out of use and a cheap grade of 
ultramarine blue has taken its place. 

Caeruleum is the name of a blue found on the decora- 
tions of ancient temples, but its preparation is a lost art, 
and what little is now sold under this name to artists 
appears to be a combination of the oxides of cobalt and 
tin. Indigo blue, too, does not interest the color grind- 
er, excepting for its use in specialties, such as printers' 
ink or for pharmaceutical use. It is best purchased in 
the lump form, as the powder is often badly adulterated. 
The color and tone of indigo can be successfully imitated 
by a mixture of Prussian and ultramarine blue by adding 
sufficient ivory black. If the color grinder has occasion 
to use it he had best steep it in alcohol for a few days, 
beat the mixture up fine and evaporate the alcohol 
before adding the oil or varnish. 



The pigments comprising this group include asphal- 
tum, bistre, bitumen, Caledonian brown, Cassel or 
Cologne earth, mineral or metallic brown, sienna, raw 
and burnt; umber, raw and burnt, sepia and Vandyke 
brown. Asphaltum is of far greater interest to the 
varnish maker than it is to the color grinder, the latter's 
chief use for it being for the artist's color Ust. For this 
purpose only the genuine Egyptian or Syrian asphaltum, 
as the product from the Dead Sea is known to commerce, 
should be selected as other grades vary too much in 
their nature, containing too great a percentage of 

To prepare asphaltum for artists' use in the safest 
manner is to take the grade referred to and subject the 
crushed material to a slow heat in an iron kettle, 
gradually raising the temperature to 480 deg. F. imtil 
it becomes like a cinder, then, when cooled, crushing it 
to a powder, which is soaked over night in enough 
spirits of turpentine to cover it and then mixed with and 
groimd in borate of manganese boiled linseed oil of 
good body until impalpably fine. In this way the color 
is not treacherous as are some of the asphaltums pre- 
pared as an oil color for artists with the addition of wax, 
shellac or Venice turpentine. When asphaltum is 
wanted for water color painting or for overgraining in 
distemper, it is treated by heat as above to drive off the 
hydrocarbons, when the powder may be stirred in a 
solution of strong anmionia, thus giving up its coloring 
matter to a great extent. The solution is then precip- 


itated by adding acetic acid, the top liquor decanted and 
the precipitate washed to remove both alkali and acid as 
much as possible. This done a Uttle gum arabic or 
dextrine and glycerine is added and the mixture partly 
dried to acquire the right degree of consistency. Aside 
from this the color grinder has not any use for as- 
phaltum, excepting in the form of varnish that comes to 
him in ready prepared style. 

Bistre is used as a water color only and very rarely at 
that. It is the collected soot of beechwood, and when 
well washed with hot water until no more soluble matter 
is extracted, the soot is dried and ready for use after the 
gum water and glycerine are added. It is sold as moist 
color in cakes, has a rich brownish-yellow tint and is 
used as a wash for water color paintings, but is not very 

Bitumen is simply another name for asphaltum, and 
what we said about the latter applies here. Bitumen of 
Judea is simply the asphaltum procured from the Dead 
Sea, where it is said to be cast up by the water. 

Caledonian brown is hardly known here and may be 
simply classed as a native brown oxide of iron, consisting 
of quite a high percentage of manganese oxide in com- 
bination with iron oxide. In the raw state it almost 
resembles a light shade of metallic brown, but when 
calcined or burnt it looks like an inferior Vandyke or 
Cologne brown. 

Cappagh brown, which is referred to at length in some 
of the text books from the other side of the Atlantic, 
has very little interest to the color grinder on this side, 
there being no demand for colors of that description, 
and we cannot really see why an artist should have a 
desire to have colors of the character of this type on his 
palette, no more so than he should care for Prince's 


metallic or other mineral browns. However, an analy- 
sis of Cappagh brown by A. H. Church, in his "Chem- 
istry of Paint and Painting,*' would indicate that this 
pigment only diflFers from Turkey or Cyprus umber in 
so far that it shows a much greater percentage of man- 
ganese dioxide and less ferric oxide, while the total 
percentage of the two oxides is about the average of the 
totals found in umber, when the diflFerence in hygro- 
scopic and combined moisture is taken into consideration. 
Cassel or Cologne browns (or earth) are pigments of 
natural origin. They vary in composition and are 
imported into this country under the name of Vandyke 
brown and will be considered imder that caption. 

Mineral or Metallic Browns. 

Mineral browns, or, as they are more familiarly 
known, metallic browns, are pigments containing more 
or less sesquioxide of iron with a portion of inert 
materials as they occur with the iron oxide in nature, 
such as alumina, silica, with traces of lime and man- 
ganese. These ores are found in their best composition 
in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania, but also 
in Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama. The ores found 
in Pennsylvania are in two varieties, one being natural 
hydrated oxide or iron, while the other form is carbonate 
of iron (siderite). In either case the ore is calcined for 
several hours at red heat, which process changes the 
hydrated oxide as well as the carbonate to the sesqui- 
oxide. The highest percentage of sesquioxide produced 
from the siderite form of ore does not exceed 45 per cent, 
while it mostly averages 38 per cent, sesquioxide of iron 
(Fe^Oa) only. The metallic brown prepared from the 
natural hydrated ore reaches as high as 72 per cent, of 
Fe^Os, but many prefer the former grade, especially for 


making brown roof paints in the liquid form, its specific 
gravity being much lighter, keeping in better suspension 
in the paint. As is well known, metallic or mineral 
brown paint is specified by a number of railroad cor- 
porations as well as by the Army and Navy Depart- 
ments and the various U. S. Lighthouse Districts, and 
the Isthmian Canal Commission have purchased mil- 
lions of pounds by contract. While most of this brown 
is used for painting wooden surfaces, such as freight 
cars and freight stations, way houses, bridges, etc., it is 
a fact long established that a well-prepared metallic 
brown, no matter what it may contain in its composition 
as to the percentage of sesquioxide of iron, and if free 
from any appreciable traces of sulphur and groimd in 
and thinned with pure Unseed oil and a minimum of good 
drier, makes a good protective paint for iron or steel, as 
well as for wood. The government service specifica- 
tions are especially emphatic in barring out any metallic 
brown deliveries that show in the pigment sulphur in any 
form that would equal more than 2 per cent, of sul- 
phuric anhydride. Mineral or metallic brown should be 
ground very fine in the dry state, especially when the 
paste or semi-paste is to stand the test for fineness 
prescribed by government and railroad specifications, 
otherwise the grinding will not only become expensive, 
but it is difficult to maintain the standard shade on 
accoimt of the heat generated in the mills, and by 
running the paste through very close stones it is Uable 
to become gunmiy and will not break up so readily on 
mixing, a point on which much stress is laid. 

Iron or steel mills are not adapted for grinding min- 
eral browns nor can roller mills be recommended. Buhr 
stone mills of 24 to 80-inch diameter, with hoppers of 
good capacity and a good grinding surface, are best for 


these pigments. For a heavy paste 78 per cent, dry 
pigment and 22 per cent, raw linseed oil. is required to 
grind the metallic brown of light gravity, while for the 
heavy gravity brown, that runs from 60 to 70 per cent, 
in sesquioxide of iron, 20 per cent, oil to 80 per cent, 
pigment will be sufficient. A gallon of 231 cubic inches 
of the former will weigh 17 to V7\i poimds, while of 
the latter grinding a gallon will weigh 18 poimds net. 
When it is specified that the brown shall not contain in 
the pigment over 40 per cent, of sesquioxide of iron and 
that the consistency be that of a semi-paste, showing 
approximately 76 per cent, of dry pigment and 25 per 
cent, raw linseed oil, a gallon of this semi-paste should 
weigh 16J^ poimds net. 

The practice of mixing the dry mineral or metallic 
brown by hand in the oil should be discouraged by the 
manufacturers of the dry pigment as well as by color 
grinders and their representatives, because many 
roofers simply use cheap mineral oil or even kerosene for 
mixing the pigment for painting tin roofs, thus causing 
the metal to corrode very rapidly, while if the pigment 
was properly enveloped in linseed oil the paint would give 
protection for years- There are oflFered to the paint 
market some earths as mineral or metallic browns that 
contain very little oxide of iron and are no better than 
ordinary colored clay or slag, the'use of which should be 
carefully avoided by reputable manufacturers. 

Italian and American Sienna Earths. 

We are placing sienna earths in the group of brown 
pigments for the reason that they^really diflFer vastly 
from yellow ochers in both tone, strength and chemical 
constituents, at least so far as the] percentages of the 
latter are concerned. 


Sienna earth, or natural sienna, so called after a 
town in Italy, not very far from Rome in the hills, 
where underneath the top layers of earth over the rocks 
the material was at one time found in abundance, is a yel- 
low pigment with a more or less brownish red tinge in the 
solid and a more or less yellowish undertone. It 
differs from the best French yellow ocher by having a 
much deeper color, more than twice the tinting power, 
containing only two-fifths as much silica, only one-third 
as much alumina and from two and one-half to three 
times as much ferric oxide, and in addition to this from 
one to one and one-half per cent, of manganese oxide, 
to the presence of which is due the difference in color. 
The localities where sienna earth is found are not con- 
fined to the original one near the town of Siena, but 
all through Tuscany and in the Hartz Mountains of 
Germany, earth of similar quality is foimd. In the 
United States in Pennsylvania deposits of sienna earths 
are found, and in the mountain ranges of Virginia good, 
rich deposits have been developed. The present com- 
mercial offerings to the trade vary from very strong 
decided yellow toned earths to those of a decidedly 
russet tone. Up to twenty years ago no painter would 
have purchased the yellow raw siennas that are great 
favorites with some painters to-day, because of the 
strong yellow tints produced with white, thereby dis- 
placing yellow ochers to quite an extent. The raw 
sienna in oil on the market up to that time was the kind 
that when ground fine in oil showed up with excellent 
transparency and when used for staining white lead 
made an excellent oak graining ground without any 
other addition. A certain old-estabUshed firm of oxide 
and color makers discovered a mine of earth in Virginia, 
which they developed and found to be very high in oxide 


of iron with all the other constituents of sienna in com- 
bination. At that time the movement for pure oil 
colors of exceptional strength was at its height and the 
firm in question floated, dried and powdered part of the 
earth, while they calcined another part, thus obtaining 
very strong raw and burnt sienna that when groimd fine 
in oil, put all the Italian sienna in the shade for tinting 
power, because while the latter required more than its 
own weight of oil for grinding, these new products only 
required 40 per cent, of oil for the raw and 35 per cent, 
for the burnt. The concern in question, by diligent 
advertising among color grinders, sold so much of the 
product that the best veins in the mines were exhausted 
in a very few years, and later mining did not produce 
the strong products. Still it was the start among the 
consumers of oil colors to favor the raw sienna, produc- 
ing the yellow tint with white. Ordinary domestic 
siennas, that grind well in 35 per cent, oil to 65 per cent, 
of pigment and resemble the tone of the old-fashioned 
Italian goods, are rather dull, somewhat gritty and lack 
tinting power. The following will give a good idea of 
an average Italian raw sienna of fair quality in compar- 
ison with average domestic product: — 



Combined water(HaO) 9.67 

Ferric oxide (FejO,) 53.83 

Alumina {Mfi^) 5.85 

Silica (SiO,) 28.25 

Calcium carbonate (CaCog) 1 . 12 

Manganese (MnOj) 1.28 

Total 100.00 



Combined water (H,0) 10.84 

Ferric oxide (Fe^Oa) 32.18 

Alumina (A1,0,) 15.60 

Silica (SiO,) 38.10 

Calcium carbonate (CaCo,) 8. 17 

Manganese (MnO|) 1 .76 

Total 100.00 

All the hygroscopic moisture had been removed 
before the analyses were made. The siennas of which 
analysis is shown here required 52 per cent, raw oil to 
48 per cent, pigment by weight for the Italian and 36 
per cent, raw oil to 64 per cent, pigment in the case of 
the American for mixing and grinding, producing a good 
buttery paste in each case. 

Discriminating painters will not take kindly to the 
native sienna, unless it is of the exceptional strength 
referred to above, and even then they will prefer the old 
fashioned Italian material, when it comes to graining 
in oil or distemper, where the tone is of importance. 
The same applies when it comes to a selection of raw 
sienna for artists' tube color, while for grinding in japan 
the softer Italian grades are also preferred. Artists 
will prefer the browner surface tone in raw sienna and 
the nearer it comes in its general tone and the tint 
produced in admixture with white to the raw or natural 
sienna oflFered by Winsor and Newton, the better it is 
liked by them. Raw Italian sienna of that grade re- 
quires more than its own weight of oil for mixing and 
grinding, and will run about 40 of pigment to 60 of oil by 
weight. Car painters, who use raw sienna in japan for 


graining purposes on quick jobs also prefer this type, as 
it works more easily and is not so apt to sag or run, as 
those that carry an extra high percentage of oxide of 
iron. It seems rather queer, but is an established fact, 
that yellow ochers and siennas, that show exceptionally 
high percentages of iron oxide do not work as well under 
the brush as those of a lower percentage. Presumably 
this is due to a lack in the portion of gangue required to 
give the characteristic properties desirable in each. 
While in a mixed paint, such voids can be filled, it is 
not feasible to effect this in an oil color for several 
reasons. First of all, any experienced analyst would 
discover the deception and brand it as an adulteration, 
and secondly the addition so made would not produce 
the effect as completely as is done by nature. Raw 
sienna is, as noted above, used as a water color, ground 
to a fine paste without size, by grainers and in dis- 
temper work, and 50 pounds pigment mixed with 60 to 
65 pounds of water will produce 100 pounds of finished 
paste. It is put up like all distemper colors, preferably 
in well sealed glass jars, because otherwise it will soon 
become dry and hard, on account of the evaporation of 
the water. 

Mizing and Grinding Burnt Sienna. 

Burnt sienna, whether it be the Italian, the domestic 
or from any other source, is the product obtained by 
calcining or roasting the natural or raw sienna earth, 
at moderate red heat. This process drives off the 
combined water in the raw earth to a greater or lesser 
extent, but hardly ever fully, as to do so would give a 
very dark brown product, while the brighter and redder 
toned siennas are much preferred and command the 
higher price. The brightness of tone does not depend 


entirely upon the temperature and length of time used 
in calcining, but to a greater extent upon the quality of 
the natural earth. The so-called red fire burnt siennas, 
so highly valued for their brilliancy of tone and rich- 
ness of tint, that were imported years ago from Italian 
sources, are hardly met with now, excepting in rare 
instances, due, it is said, to the mines being exhausted, 
which may be partly true, but it is also a matter of fact 
that the average manufacturer will not pay the price 
asked, when the consumers themselves look more for 
tinting strength, than for transparency and brilliancy 
of tone. What has been stated as to the history of raw 
sienna applies to the burnt material equally as well, and 
some of the burnt siennas of exceptionally strong 
staining power show as high as 76 or more per cent, 
sesquioxide of iron. As a matter of interest we give the 
result of the analyses of a good average burnt sienna of 

Italian and American origin: — 

Italian. American, 

per cent. per cent. 

Combined water, HjO 2.96 2.12 

Ferric oxide, Fe^Oa 57.23 88.18 

Alumina, Al^Oa 6.40 16.87 

Silica, SiO, 81.08 89.12 

Calcimn carbonate, CaCo, 1 .80 2.56 

Manganese MnOa 1-^ 1-^ 

Totals 100.00 100.00 

As in the case of the raw siennas, the hygroscopic 
moisture had been removed from the samples before the 
analyses were made. The practical grinding trial of 
these two lots, after drying the material on steam heated 
pans for several days at temperatures averaging 135^ F. 
required 46 pounds of raw linseed oil to 54 pounds 
pigment in the case of the Italian and 34 poimds of the 
same oil to 66 pounds pigment for the American sienna. 


resulting in a buttery paste of lighter bulk in the former, 
than was the case with the latter, which resembled more 
the compactness of burnt ocher. Burnt sienna, that is 
largely used, ground fine in oil for grainers, as well as 
for tinting purposes, and even in composite colors, such 
as olive greens and some bronze greens, as well as in 
pigment stains for imitating cherry and mahogany, is at 
its best when of a somewhat deep red, but not brown 
overtone, with good transparency, which is most desir- 
able for stains, as well as for graining work. The usual 
run of American sienna will not answer for that purpose, 
no matter how closely it resembles the Italian importa- 
tions. When grinding burnt sienna in oil or in japan, 
excessive heating of the mills tends to deepen the color 
and in many instances make it appear richer, but it also 
makes the staining power more or less deficient. The 
best mills for grinding burnt sienna are those equipped 
with buhr stones of 20 to 24 inches diameter, and these 
should not make over 60 revolutions per minute. The 
temperature of the color in oil should at no time exceed 
150 ** F., otherwise the product will be grainy on cooling, 
especially if the pigment contained some hygroscopic 
moisture on mixing with the oil. For grinding burnt 
sienna in japan, 20-inch water cooled mills are best, and 
if the pigment consists of finely powdered sienna, the 
grinding stones may be of the esopus variety. In 
grinding sienna in japan, the less heat is developed in 
the milling the less the loss of volatile matter in the 
japan and the less tendency of the finished product to 
be gummy or tending to liver. 

The average requirements for mixing and grinding 
good qualities of Italian burnt sienna in oil may be 
figured at equal parts by weight of pigment and raw 


linseed oil, while for the japan color a fairly safe average 
would be a mixing of 44 pounds of pigments and 58 
pounds color grinding japan, yielding 100 pounds 
finished product, balance being lost through evapora- 
tion of some of the turpentine in the japan and the 
hardening of some of the color on scrapers and flange 
of running stone, as well as in the hopper. 

On lots smaller than 100 pounds in one batch, 10 
per cent, loss will not be too much to figure on. As 
mentioned in the case of raw sienna for artists' tubes, 
only the old time standard of material should be selected 
in burnt sienna as well and the more brilliant the over- 
tone of the pigment, the more favorably the color will be 
received by the user. In grinding burnt sienna for the 
artist, extreme care for obtaining the highest degree of 
fineness and absence of all grit must be exercised, and 
burnt sienna of that character will require not less than 
55 to 60 pounds of poppyseed oil, and 40 to 45 at most of 
pigment. For burnt sienna in distemper, a grade of 
rich, deep color, not too high in oxide of iron, should be 
selected, so that it may work well for the grainer as well 
as for the fresco artist. Must be free from grit and 
ground fine in water, and figures may be based on 50 
pounds pigment and 65 pounds water, which batch 
should yield 100 pounds paste as it comes from the mill. 

Before closing our remarks on sienna, we may state 
that the specifications of the various service depart- 
ments of the United States Government bar out any 
sienna, raw or burnt, that is not equal to the best 
Italian grade on the market or that contains more than 
5 per cent, of lime in any form. 


Selecting, Mixk^ and Grinding Umber. 

Umber earth, as it is called in its native state, is 
found in many localities, but the best undoubtedly 
comes from the island of Cyprus, Other inferior qual- 
ities are found in England, Wales, France and the 
United States. That found in Germany is known as 
Cologne earth. The umbers, both raw and burnt, that 
are imported into this country nearly all come through 
Italian merchants, some of whom bring them over to 
their country from Cyprus, assort them into grades and 
calcine or bum the largest portion in their own factories. 
Livomo (Leghorn) is the port from whence most all of 
the Italian ochers, siennas and umbers, along with 
pumice stone, talc, tripoli, etc., are exported, although 
there are a few houses in Rome in this exportation 
business. Ctf late years some Greek merchants have 
attempted to export crude umber into the United 
States in a large way, attempting to dispose of large 
cargoes here, but the writer has not heard that the 
scheme was really successful. The reason for this fail- 
ure can be attributed to the fact that in the first place, 
the crude material requires careful sorting, and that a 
great deal of useless ballast in moisture and waste 
material would have to be freighted, and, above all, 
there is no established factory in this country where 
sorting and assembling the material could be done at as 
low a cost as it can be done in Italy at establishments 
equipped for this very purpose. The importation of 
umber, raw and burnt, in lump form, has fallen off to a 
considerable extent, but to a greater degree in the raw 
or crude state. It used to be the practice of a few of 
the largest color grinding establishments in this country 
to import raw umber earth as well as burnt umber in 


pieces and in lump form, and drying out the mining 
moisture in the raw earths in kilns or on steam pans, put 
the pieces or lumps through crushers and then pulver- 
ize the same on dry color mills of 30 to 42-inch diam- 
eter buhr stones. This, of course, meant considerable 
expense, when the loss in drying and the cost thereof, as 
well as the handling and grinding was figured, but even 
when there was as high as from 23 to 32 per cent, mining 
moisture, the total cost of the powdered raw umber was 
considerably below the price charged for the imported 
powdered goods, and the product was far more uniform, 
and still lower in price or cost than was charged by some 
of the jobbing houses or importers for similar qualities. 
The difference can be accounted for in several ways. 
There was a certain percentage of mining moisture 
allowed by the exporter on the other side, the tariff 
on imwrought earth was very low in comparison with 
the finished dry umber in powdered form, and there was 
neither the middleman's profit nor warehouse or storage 
charges to be paid the importer. Then again, the 
goods coming in very large quantities by sailing vessel 
or tramp steamer, the freight was lower, also, than the 
usual rate. This system of importing the material in 
the lump form could, as a matter of expediency, be 
carried on only by very large consumers, who were in 
possession of the dry color grinding apparatus and the 
storage room, as well as wharfage or railroad siding 
facilities. However, some of the few concerns that still 
adhered to this practice, have lately abandoned it and 
are purchasing the powdered goods instead. 

Selections and Analysis of Raw Umber. 

The best quality of Cyprus raw umber has a peculiar 
greenish cast, which we usually term olive, and its color 


is due to ferric oxide of iron and quite a large percentage 
of dioxide of manganese, to which latter is also due its 
good drying quality when ground in linseed oil. Some 
specimens have a somewhat dull reddish or yellowish 
cast. These, however, produce a poor tint with white. 
The olive toned raw umber, makes a much warmer tint 
and is especially favored by artists and decorators. 
Raw Cyprus umber consists essentially of hydrated 
ferric oxide of iron, manganese dioxide and silica and 
silicate of alumina, with lime in small percentage and 
minute portions of phosphoric acid. A very good 
sample of Cyprus raw umber, after drying out all the 
hygroscopic moisture, gave the following analysis: — 
Combined water, 8.84 per cent.; ferric oxide, Fe203, 
51.20 per cent.; manganese dioxide, Mn02, 13.16 per 
cent.; carbonate of lime, CaCoa, 2.12 per cent.; 
alumina, AI2O3, 3.18 per cent.; silica, Si02, 21.27 per 
cent.; phosphoric acid, P2O5, 0.23 per cent. Total, 
100 per cent. 

Against this we will mention the analysis of a sample 
of bone dry American raw umber, which was.considered 
the best specimen of that class found in a number of 
years: — Combined water, 10.85 per cent.; ferric oxide, 
Fe203, 20.13 percent.; manganese dioxide, Mn02, 9.26 
per cent.; carbonate of lime, CaCOa, 6.12 per cent.; 
alumina, AI2O3, 13.37 per cent.; silica, Si02, 27.56 per 
cent.; calcium sulphate (gypsum), CaC04, 2.71 per 
cent. Total, 100 per cent. 

This specimen of American raw umber when rubbed 
out in oil had a yellowish brown tone, as against the 
olive of the Cyprus umber and lacked the semi-trans- 
parency of the latter, as well as its richness. Had a 
dull appearance in comparison, that a practical painter 


would describe as having "no life/* In testing the 
staining power or strength for staining white, the Cyprus 
specimen gave a strong, warm, brownish tint with a 
tinge of green, while the American umber produced with 
the same white a weak, cold stone gray. 

Grinding Raw Umber in Various Veliicles. 

As will be seen from the chemical analysis of raw 
umber, it contains quite a high percentage of manganese 
dioxide, which constituent exerts a strong drying 
injfluence on linseed oil, even when it is not incorporated 
with the oil by heat. Umber, whether raw or burnt, that 
is put up in containers for the trade where it is liable to 
be held in storage for long periods, should not be mixed 
and ground in boiled linseed oil. Not only on account 
of its liability to form skins, but for the reason that 
when used in large portions with white to obtain certain 
effects on exterior painting, it would if not used judi- 
ciously by omitting much of the dryers, exert the same 
bad injfluence on the life of the paint, as if an excess of 
dryer had been used. If the dry pigment is in fine pow- 
der and of soft texture, it is best ground on 20 or 24- 
inch esopus stone mills, running at no higher speed than 
that suggested for grinding sienna, as too high a tem- 
perature in the mill is very apt to darken its natural 
color. If it is harsh in texture, buhr stones are required 
to grind it down to proper fineness without needing 
many runs. Raw Turkey umber of good average qual- 
ity will require its own weight of raw linseed oil to pro- 
duce a smooth paste, while American raw umber usually 
requires thirty-five pounds of raw oil to sixty-five 
pounds pigment for one hundred pounds of paste. 


For use as a japan or coach color, none but the best 
grade of raw Turkey umber of the olive hue should be 
selected, and it is best to temper the very quick drying 
of the color somewhat by the addition of raw linseed oil, 
this addition depending upon the strength of the japan. 
The usual proportions being 46 per cent, by weight of 
pigment, 50 per cent, japan and 4 per cent. oil. 

For artists' tube color only the very warmest olive 
toned raw Turkey umber should be selected and ground 
very fine in poppyseed oil, on stone mills of small 
diameter, not permitting too high a temperature, so as 
not to dull the natural tone. Here as in the ordinary 
oil color, oil and pigment will be about equal in weight. 
While raw umber is not used to any great extent ground 
in water, it is all the same necessary to have it on the 
list of distemper colors, as it is desirable for producing 
certain effects in fresco or distemper painting. To 
produce one hundred pounds of finished paste will re- 
quire a mixing of sixty pounds water with fifty pounds 
pigment, the loss being caused by the evaporation of 
the water during the grinding process. 

Selecting, Mixii^ and Grinding Burnt Umber. 

What we know as burnt Turkey umber is the Cyprus 
raw umber, burnt or calcined in the lump form and is 
imported into this country in this as well as in the pow- 
dered form. It runs from light reddish brown to a vio- 
let brown, its tone depending upon the nature of the 
raw material it is calcined from. The roasting or 
calcination drives oflf some of the combined water in the 
raw material and imparts a warmer tone, deeper color 
and more translucency to the pigment. 


It is scarcely worth while to dwell in detail on the 
chemical constituents of burnt umber, as they are 
practically the same as in the raw pigment, with the 
exception that the combined water being present in a 
reduced percentage, the other constituents will show a 
relatively higher percentage. Burnt Turkey umber with 
a reddish brown tone makes a stronger stainer, but the 
pigment with a neutral tone that leans, when rubbed 
up in oil, to the oUve with a tinge of the violet and 
produces when used with white a tint that has a sus- 
picion of lavender-gray with its drab effect, is far prefer- 
able to the almost terra cotta brown tint produced by 
some of the reddish toned burnt umbers. The prin- 
cipal feature is a warm, rich brown in the solid color, 
because this is best for the use of grainers and stainers, 
where most of the color is really used. American burnt 
umbers, though there are some very good specimens 
offered, are unfit for these purposes, being too opaque 
and not rich enough in color. Nor will it carry enough 
oil to serve well as a stain. Burnt Turkey umber 
should be ground on similar mills and at same speed as 
mentioned for sienna, but the temperature need not be 
watched as carefully, as the tone is not so liable to suffer 
from excessive heat. The average percentage of raw 
linseed oil and pigment may be set down at forty-seven 
of the former and fifty-three of the latter, while Amer- 
ican burnt umber may be mixed and groimd in the pro- 
portion of 60 per cent, pigment to 40 per cent, oil, if of 
good selection. For grinding burnt umber in japan and 
for artists' tubes, the same rule applies as for raw umber; 
while for distemper and fresco work, burnt umber is an 
important part in the Ust, being used to a very great 
extent, especially for graining in distemper. It may 


be mentioned that as a rule burnt umber is not as diffi- 
cult to grind fine as the raw pigment and buhr mills are 
not absolutely necessary. 

The Use of Sepia as a Water Color. 

Sepia scarcely interests color grinders in general, as 
it is mostly used as a water or moist color. It is made 
from the ink bag of the cuttle fish, the gland so-called, 
in which this fish secrets the blackish brown liquor for 
defensive purposes. These bags can be bought in the 
dry state and boiled in a solution of soda, that dissolves 
the color, but not the bag. The liquor is then filtered 
and neutralized with hydrochloric acid, which throws 
down a precipitate that is washed and dried. Sepia 
is of a color between asphaltum and Vandyke brown, 
very strong, and while it will mix with oil, it is hardly 
ever so used. Still it is almost indispensable on the 
palette of the artist for water color painting, but is not 
used in distemper work. 

Selection, Grinding and Use of Vandyke Bro^m. 

Most of the so-called Vandyke browns imported into 
the United States are known on the other side as Cassel 
earth or Cologne brown. They are of organic origin, 
peat mixed by natiure with more or less earthy matter. 
They have a rich warm tone, generally much darker 
than the darkest shades of burnt umber, although they 
vary somewhat in depth and are assorted light, medium 
and dark. Vandyke brown is not permanent enough 
when used for tinting, although with white it produces a 
pecuUar lavender gray tint. But it is almost indis- 
pensable for graining in oil or water and for staining 


furniture. Oilcloth makers also use it ground in oil to a 
great extent, but it is a very slow drying pigment and 
should be well dried to expel the hygroscopic water 
before mixing and grinding in oil. Requires to be 
ground in strong boiled oil or at least the addition of 
strong drier. Being very light in specific gravity, about 
55 pounds of pigment and 45 pounds of oil will make a 
fair paste, and a 24-inch mill will be the best size for 
grinding in large batches. When the paste is required 
to be rather stiff, an iron mill is better adapted than 
than stone mills. When grinding in japan, a very quick 
drying coach japan is the best vehicle. It should be 
also on the distemper color hst, as it is used quite 
frequently for graining, 50 pounds pigment and 60 
pounds water will produce one hundred pounds finished 



In green pigments there is quite a large field and 
greens really form a most interesting part of the general 
subject of color grinding, not only in oil for the trade in 
general, but also for the coach painter and the artist. 

Foremost in the line of greens is what we call chrome 
green, which, however, is known on the other side as 
Brunswick or royal green, an intimate mixture of chrome 
yellow and Prussian blue, while what is known to Eng- 
lish and Continental painters as chrome green, must be 
designated here as chromium oxide green or oxide of 
chromium green. In the oil color lists will be found 
such names as bronze, bottle, Quaker green, also Paris 
green and verdigris, and any number of fancy names for 
green in oil, which are, however, chrome greens, sold 
under proprietary brands of varying compositions, none 
of them being mixtures of pure chrome yellow and pure 
Prussian blue, but more or less extended with barytes 
or blanc fixe, china clay and sometimes gypsum. In the 
coach color list we find these mixed chrome greens 
under such brands as chrome green, brilliant green, 
coach painters' green, milori green, in shades from extra 
light to extra dark, and the proprietary names or 
brands are legion. Then there are such as emerald or 
Paris green for ornamental and striping, work and 
ultramarine green. Aside from these are popular 
brands of composite greens, such as Brewster, bronze, 
Merrimac, royal, Russian, Siberian green, in which 
green always predominates, but in which black forms an 


important part as well, aside from small percentages of 
other colors. In the lists of artists' colors will be found 
a fine grade of Paris green, branded as a rule emerald 
green or Schweinfurt green, while oxide of chromium 
green will be found under this name or emeraude green, 
sometimes also labeled Guignet's green, while green 
earth is branded terre verte or Verona green, also sap 
green and ultramarine green. Mountain green (mal- 
achite) is used very seldom by artists for oil painting. 
Green cinnabar consists of various mixtures of Prussian 
blue with zinc yellow or strontium or Guignet's green 
with a very small portion of strontium or barium 
yellow. There is very little call for greens in dis- 
temper in this country, although some color grinders 
hst bronze green, emerald green, chrome green, terre 
verte or Verona green, ultramarine green and verte 
emeraude (oxide of chromium green). 

C!ommercial Oirome Green in Oil. 

While government service specifications, when send- 
ing proposals for chrome green to manufacturers, call 
for an intimate mixture of at least 98 per cent, chrome 
yellow and Prussian blue, permitting the presence of 
not over 10 per cent, lead sulphate, the color consuming 
trade in general has very little use for a green of that 
composition for many reasons, although on some 
occasions chemically pure chrome green is called for, as 
will be seen below. In these instances, however, there 
is no restriction as to the percentage of lead sulphate pre- 
sent and the color grinder, when purchasing dry chrome 
green of chemical purity, will select those of the greatest 
staining power at equal price. If lead sulphate is 
present in excess, this will show up in the testing pf 


tinctorial strength. As a matter of course, he will 
also consider richness of tone, softness of texture and 
oil absorption, as no matter how high the price of oil 
may go, it will hardly ever reach the price of chemically 
pure chrome green, pound for pound. 

Some twenty or thirty years ago the trade did not 
think of purchasing any so-called chrome green that did 
not carry in its pigment portion anywhere from 80 to 90 
per cent, by weight of barytes, and some proprietary 
brands of this green that carried in the pigment as much 
as 25 per cent, coloring matter found a ready market at 
fair prices. The chemically pure green being so very 
opaque and of such great tinctoral power, it was deemed 
unwise and wasting money not to extend the pigment 
with barytes to the extent mentioned. Later on, 
when the crusade for pure colors was under way, the 
paint and color grinders, by common consent, adopted 
25 per cent, color and 75 per cent, barytes as a standard 
for a medium shade of chrome green, with a slight 
variation for the deeper shades. In those days the 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing at Washington 
bought their annual supply of chrome green for plate 
ink of that composition. To-day this branch of the 
government service purchases chrome yellow of the pale 
lemon shade and Prussian blue, doing the mixing 
themselves and adding base white or barytes, according 
to a formula that is a department secret. The most 
prominent manufacturers of wire cloth at that time 
purchased the green for painting the cloth ground in 
oil, using many tons during each season of a blue toned 
chrome green of the 25 per cent, pure color and 75 per 
cent, barytes type. They found, however, much loss 
by settling in the dipping tanks and changed to 50 per 


cent, pure color and 50 per cent, clay in the pigment and 
still later found that the chemically pure green was 
cheapest for their use in the end. About five or six 
years since the wire cloth makers agreed to abandon the 
use of green on wire cloth and to print the cloth in 
black only. That green wire cloth was less in demand 
may be accounted for by the fact that some manufac- 
turers used greens for painting the cloth that were not 
even ground in paste form, but dry green job lots, 
simply mixed with inferior thinners. The consequence 
as a rule was, that the cloth, when in the storerooms 
of jobbers and dealers but a short time, lost its coating 
of green paint by flaking oflf at the slightest touch. 
Numerous have been the attempts of color makers to 
furnish chrome greens to grinders on other bases than 
barytes, but all of them have proven futile, so far as 
their use for the painter was concerned, because 
painters, especially house painters, want a green that 
has a tooth and filling properties, both of which are 
furnished by fine barytes. So long as chrome green in 
oil, when properly thinned for exterior work, as trim- 
mings, blinds, etc., covers fairly well in one coat over a 
lead colored primer, it is the material desired by that 
class of trade. 

The Grinding of Chrome Green in Oil 

for the trade is still done by many color grinders in the 
same manner as it was in the long ago, that is, they pur- 
chase various shades of chrome green that are ex- 
tended by the color maker with barytes, either in the 
precipitation tank or on a mill by mixing barytes with 
dry chrome green that has probably been stretched 
or extended in the wet way, the additional barytes being 


added simply to meet lower prices. Trial mixings and 
grindings made years ago by several firms to produce 
conmiercial or proprietary brands of chrome green in oil 
by mixing certain portions of chemically pure green, 
barytes and oil, instead of mixing and grinding the dry 
extended green in oil, failed, as it was found, on long 
standing, that the grinding was not homogeneous, the 
color on opening containers set aside for six months or 
more, floating on top, while the barytes had caked in 
hard sediment in the bottom and was found almost 
devoid of color. Whether this was due to the coarse 
nature of the barytes or to the use of a poorly made 
chemically pure green, was difficult to determine. We 
beheve both factors helped to make the scheme a failure. 
Yet there was one color manufacturer in the country 
who conceived and carried out this idea, not only in 
greens, but in other strong colors, and who thus simpli- 
fied his manufacturing methods and grew immensely 
rich thereby. Instead of having a dozen or more lots 
of greens of various compositions, he got along with a 
stock of three or at most four shades of chemically pure 
chrome greens, which he had ground fine in oil, then 
added as his trade required it, a certain percentage of 
fine floated barytes and sufficient additional oil, giving 
this mixture one final rim through the mill, thus obtain- 
ing a smooth paste that was liked by the trade and for 
which he obtained better prices than most color grinders 
who spent more money for manipulating a lot of barytes 
green through the mills. His wisdom was in keeping a 
very large stock of one grade of barytes only and that 
of the whitest and finest floated grade, while other color 
grinders and color makers proved penny wise and pound 
foolish by purchasing off colored and coarse barytes, 
thinking that anything was good enough in a color like 


green in their desire to save a few dollars per ton. 
Furthermore, the color grinder referred to, by following 
his method was always assured of uniformity of the 
goods, a feature that is doubtful when the extended dry 
green is purchased or made in the same factory where it 
is afterwards ground in oil. The failure above referred 
to strengthened the belief on the part of some color 
grinders and color makers that in order to make an 
extended green that would not separate after being 
ground in oil, it was necessary to make it in the color 
maker's tub, so as to color or rather fasten the color on 
the barytes, which is or at least appears to be an uncon- 
firmed theory, as a mixture of Prussian blue and chrome 
yellow cannot act as a dye upon a substance like barytes. 
It is simply a mechanical mixture in either case, no 
matter how it is done. 

For this reason, if the color grinder has not any special 
object in view, he can, instead of carrying a stock of 
extended chrome greens, minimize it by purchasing 
chemically pure green of such shades as he needs and 
mix such portions by weight of these and fine, floated 
barytes with the oil and grind it, thus always being 
fairly certain of a uniform product so long as the chem- 
ically pure green is up to standard, which he can deter- 
mine in the usual way, testing for color, tone and tinting 
strength. The constituents of chrome green being 
Prussian blue and chrome yellow, the mills on which 
they are to be ground should be run at moderate speed 
and soft or esopus mill stones are best for grinding these 
greens, the diameter of the mill should be commensurate 
to the quantity of the batch or to suit the demand. 
Twenty-four-inch mills are probably best, but thirty- 
inch mills are not too large if run at a speed of not ove 


thirty-six or forty revolutions per minute. When a 
batch of chrome green is being mixed, it should be so 
arranged that the mixing of oil and pigment is complete 
before machinery is stopped for a time, because imper- 
fect mixings have been known to take fire when dry 
green was lying on some linseed oil. As to the percent- 
age of oil required for mixing and grinding these greens 
for the trade, we will give the following figures that are 
subject to some variations, according to the gravity of 
the chemically pure green and the nature of the barytes. 
Chemically pure green that contains more lead sulphate 
than others, will require less oil for grinding and the 
deeper the shade of green, the greater the oil absorption. 
Assuming that a commercial chrome green is wanted, 
that is to consist of 25 per cent, pure color in the pig- 
ment and is to be of a medium shade, it will require 
twenty-one pounds chemically pure chrome green, 
medium, dry; sixty-three pounds floated barytes and 
sixteen pounds raw linseed oil to produce one hundred 
pounds paste. To turn out one hundred pounds of 
paste of a 20 per cent, green of similar shade, will re- 
quire seventeen pounds chemically pure chrome green, 
medium, dry; sixty-eight pounds floated barytes and 
fifteen pounds raw linseed oil, but the former should 
turn out a trifle stouter than the latter. There are 
chrome greens in oil on the market that contain only 10 
per cent, pure color in the pigment and some even less. 
A medium shade of this type would consist of about 
nine pounds chemically pure chrome green, medium 
dry; eighty-one pounds barytes and ten pounds of oil, 
not always necessarily pure linseed oil. A reputable 
color grinder will hardly ever place his name on the label 
of goods of this type. 


The proportions of pigment and oil here given, as 
above noted, are for greens of medium shade, but for 
greens of extra deep shade these percentages will differ 
to quite an extent. For instance, a 25 per cent, green 
of extra deep shade would be made up of twenty pounds 
dry pigment, sixty pounds barytes and twenty poimds 
oil for one hundred pounds paste, while a 10 per cent, 
green of that shade would require eight and three- 
fourths pounds dry pigment, seventy-eight and one- 
fourth pounds barytes and thirteen pounds oil for one 
hundred pounds p^te. Chrome greens of the latter 
type were extensively sold to wagon and implement 
manufacturers, dry and in paste form. Since the con- 
solidation of the agricultural implement and wagon 
making interests, very little green of that composftion is 
ever sold any longer in paste form to those trades, as 
they purchase their requirements in the color line in the 
dry form and do their own grinding. Chemically pure 
chrome greens tfl^ manufactured by color makers in 
two forms, the nitrate of lead greens and the acetate of 
lead (sugar of lead) greens. The last named are usually 
stronger in staining power and of yellowish undertone, 
while the former, which are higher in price and believed 
to be more permanent, are of the blueish type. These 
seem to be rapidly going out of the market and are used 
only for special brands in oil on account of the cost. 
The difference is in the chrome yellow used for the mix- 
ing with the Prussian blue, one being made with nitrate 
of lead yellow, the other with acetate of lead yellow, 
that made with the latter being lowest in cost of pro- 
duction. To grind chemically pure green in oil in paste 
form requires on the average for the medium shade 
seventy pounds dry color and thirty pounds linseed oil, 
for light shades seventy-two pounds dry color and twen- 


ty-eight pounds oil, for deep shade sixty-eight pounds 
color and thirty-two pounds oil, and for extra deep 
shade sixty-four to sixty-six pounds color and thirty- 
four to thirty-six pounds oil to form a paste of good 
consistency, that will break up readily on thinning for 
use. But as stated above, the demand for green of this 
character by the general trade is limited and not many 
jobbers or dealers will carry it in stock. However, 
the color grinder who makes a full line of paints in liquid 
form, also will find the chemically pure greens in paste 
form of decided advantage for many purposes where the 
heavy gravity of barytes is objectionable, as he can use 
such paste green as a base for stains or in composite 
greens. We shall speak of this in detail under the cap- 
tion of paint making later on. 

Chrome Greens in Japan. 

In this line we find the chrome greens, when so listed 
of the same type, as the 25 per cent, greens in oil, while 
those listed as coach painters' green are usually stronger 
in color, running as high as 33 to 40 per cent, actual color 
and in some rare instances as high as 50 per cent. Some 
proprietary brands, such as brilliant green, and a few 
others with fancy names, such as full strength green, are 
chemically pure, while milori green is of varying com- 
position, anywhere from 50 per cent, color to pure. 
This latter green should be a peculiarly rich shade of 
green to deserve that name, but such is not always the 
case. Chrome green for coach and car work is best 
ground in gold size japan, because the brown color of 
ordinary color grinding japan is apt to have an effect on 
the tone of the green in drying out on the surface and 
the subsequent coats of varnish cannot overcome this. 


nor can a coat of color and varnish remedy such defect. 
When figuring on the proportions of pigment and japan 
necessary for grinding these greens in japan, it is neces- 
sary to allow for the loss by evaporation of the volatile 
portion of the japan, which sometimes is quite large. 
Assuming that a deep shade of chemically pure chrome 
green, which, if ground in oil, requires thirty-two 
pounds liquid to sixty-eight pounds of dry color, it will 
require forty pounds gold size japan to from sixty-three 
to sixty-four pounds color to produce one hundred 
pounds of the finished product, which must be ground 
on a water cooled esopus stone mill of not over twenty- 
inch, diameter, with a speed of not over thirty-six to 
forty revolutions per minute, as the temperature of the 
color should never exceed 110*' F. Chrome greens 
are very delicate and easily spoiled by overheating. 
If water cooled stone mills are not part of the apparatus 
at the disposal of the color grinder, a water cooled iron 
mill of sixteen or eighteen-inch diameter will do the 
work, provided the grinding surface is not too dull. 

This applies equally to the extended chrome greens in 
japan, a 25 per cent, green requiring, if of medium shade, 
eighty pounds pigment and twenty-three pounds of gold 
size japan to produce one hundred pounds finished color. 
Here the color grinder will find it of advantage to make 
two operations, which may seem a trifle out of the way, 
but will make a better product at less cost for power 
and wear on the mills. Instead of mixing the dry color 
and barytes in the gold size and giving the mixture 
several runs, the chemically pure green is first ground 
fine or almost fine in the japan and the barytes added to 
the product on the last run with the additional thinners, 
if any be required. For the 25 per cent, green of 


medium shade as above, grind twenty pounds chemical- 
ly pure green, in say twelve pounds gold size japan, and 
add to this on last run sixty pounds barytes and ten 
pounds more of gold size japan. This should produce 
100 pounds of quick drying, medium chrome green, 
that when thinned with pure spirits of turpentine, will 
cover very well on coach or fine wagon gears or bodies 
over the proper ground work, even in one coat. Many 
so-called express greens are of this type when a green of 
blueish tone is used. 

When a very deep shade of chrome green in japan is 
wanted in this commercial quality, less pigment and 
more gold size japan is required, same as is the case in 
an oil color green. For instance the shade is extra dark, 
grind nineteen pounds of the chemically pure green of 
that shade in say fourteen pounds of gold size japan to 
standard fineness, add fifty-seven pounds dry barytes 
and twelve pounds more of gold size japan, run the mix- 
ture through the mill once or twice more and the product 
should be 100 pounds quick drying, extra deep chrome 
green. It is self-evident that when this method of mix- 
ing and grinding is adopted the barytes must be of 
impalpable fineness and soft texture, and as blanc fixe 
(precipitated) barytes is not usually in fine powder, 
even when fairly soft in texture blanc fixe must be mixed 
with the dry green at the very start and both ground 
together in gold size japan to a finish. Taking for 
granted that a color grinder desires to place upon the 
market an extended chrome green of rather light 
specific gravity that will spread over more surface than 
the ordinary commercial brand of coach painters' green, 
and yet be lower in cost than a chemically pure chrome 
green, it is open to him to use blanc fixe in place of the 


natural floated barytes. Blanc fixe can be bought in 
the dry powder, but it is well to determine carefully that 
it is really dry, and the same is also necessary with the 
green before mixing with gold size japan» as the latter 
will not work well with moist or damp pigments of any 
kind. As first class blanc fixe absorbs nearly as much 
japan as would a light shade of chemically pure chrome 
green, the extra expense of its use is but little more than 
the difference in cost between it and the chemically pure 
green from the color grinder's standpoint. However, to 
the consumer who uses the green not for tinting, but 
for covering surfaces solidly, the price and the working 
properties of a green extended with blanc fixe in com- 
parison with the chemically pure green has its meaning. 
Take as an example, a green composed in its pigment 
portion of 40 per cent, by weight of color and 60 per 
cent, by weight of blanc fixe, and figuring on an extra 
deep shade, the difference in the cost of the dry pigment 
alone is in favor of the extended green to the extent of 
from nine to ten cents per pound at present market 
rates. A green in japan of this composition will require 
twenty-six pounds chemically pure green, extra deep 
dry, thirty-nine pounds blanc fixe dry and thirty-eight 
pounds gold size japan for 100 pounds finisheid paste, 
and the bulk of the color will be very nearly as great as 
that of chemically pure green in japan. The lighter 
the shade the less japan will be required for mixing and 
grinding and the bulk of the color correspondingly less. 

While chrome green extended with blanc fixe is not 
so apt to settle out when thinned for dipping as is often 
the case for small metal ware that is baked, it is always 
best to grind chemically pure green in varnish specially 
adopted for baking, so that when the base so ground is 


thinned with more varnish to the consistency for dip- 
ping, there will be no sediment, which would be apt to 
give trouble. For work of this kind chemically pure 
greens are none too strong, as the less color that is used, 
the better the working properties. 

While chrome greens are to be found in the lists of 
tube colors, they are not used by artists of renown for 
picture painting, but are made use of by amateurs 
and professional sign writers, the latter using the large 
size tubes for the sake of convenience. It would be 
wasteful to mix and grind such greens in expensive 
poppyseed oil, as bleached or refined linseed oil will 
serve the purpose very well. The only difference that 
may be required is to grind the greens of whatever com- 
position may be selected for the list to the utmost degree 
of fineness. Another point is, that chrome greens to be 
put up in tubes, should be held stouter than the com- 
mercial chrome greens that are put up in tin cans, so 
that when the color is squeezed out of collapsible tubes, 
the pigment is not so likely to separate from the oil. It 
does not as a rule require as much refined oil for the 
grinding of chrome green as it does of raw linseed oil, 
because refined linseed oil is more limpid. This is due 
to the removal in the refining process of mucilaginous 
matter and impurities, commonly known as linseed oil 
foots, which is always more or less present in raw linseed 
oil. Chrome green in water is very seldom, if ever, 
called for and may as well be omitted from distemper 
color lists, because when mixed with kalsomine for wall 
painting, it is not only apt to fade badly on account of 
the usual alkalinity of the white, but tints so made 
appear yellow under the effect of gas light or electric 


C!ompo8ite Green Clolors 

Under this heading should be classed bronze, bottle, 
olive and Quaker green that appear in oil color lists, 
issued by some color grinders. Foremost among these 
is bronze green, which at the present day, however, is 
misnamed, as the colors labeled bronze green as a rule 
resemble either bottle green or olive green. True 
bronze green was all the rage for store fronts and trim- 
mings during the seventies of the last century and at the 
Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876, the 
wooden portions of every exhibit and show case were 
painted with such a green, striped with gold. The 
effect of this green was nearly black, with a faint 
tinge of green, when viewed in the shade or absence of 
strong light, but giving a distinct bronze glimmer in the 
sunlight. This effect could not be produced, except by 
mixing a good drop black and chrome yellow of the 
proper shade. 

Very good and lasting results were obtained by mixing 
and grinding together forty-three pounds powdered drop 
black (pure bone black), three pounds powdered 
litharge, five pounds medium chrome yellow, three 
pounds orange chrome and forty-six pounds fire boiled 
manganese oil. The latter was used to insure drying as 
a combination of bone black and chrome yellow retard 
the drying of oil to quite an extent. We may as well 
state right here that a bronze green of that character 
will not find much favor among the trade to-day, at least 
not as an oil color in paste form. 

The trend of the time is to have a dark bronze green of 
a color similar to what used to be known as bottle 
green, with a blueish cast, while for a light bronze green 


the olive green effect is favored, with this exception 
that in either case white must be absent. When the 
very small difference in the price, as given in the lists 
is considered, it stands to reason that the bronze greens 
listed are not chemically pure in their pigment portions, 
although they can be so made if consumers will pay the 
price for the goods. A very pretty shade of dark 
bronze green from pure pigment colors can be made in 
paste form in oil as follows: — 

Fifteen pounds lemon chrome yellow, ten pounds dark 
chemically pure chrome green, thirty-five pounds ivory 
(bone) black, thirty-six pounds raw linseed oil, four 
poxmds oil drier. For a light shade, mix and grind 
thirty-five pounds lemon yellow, fifteen pounds medium 
chemically pure chrome green, twenty pounds ivory 
(bone) black, thirty-two pounds raw linseed oil and 
three pounds oil drier. These formulas produce pastes 
that can be extended with any reasonable quantity of 
fine barytes, which adfdition, while taking away a 
portion of bulk and spreading quality, will not mate- 
rially affect richness of tone. If the greens are ground 
fine in the above composition, the dry barytes may be 
added in the change can mixer with sufficient extra oil 
to make the paste smooth, and for ordinary purposes it 
is unnecessary to return it to the mill. This method 
will save the grinding of a lot of extending pigments. 
Of course these may also be mixed and ground with the 
coloring matter from start to finish and in that case a 
mill of large diameter will produce a large output when 
well handled. When clearness of tone is not so much of 
an object as low cost and good covering, working, etc., 
ivory (bone) black may be omitted and gas carbon 
black used in its place. On account of the great tinting 


power of the latter, the percentage must be rather small 
in comparison with bone black. A typical formula for 
a bronze green of fair quality for ordinary painting, 
ground in paste form for the trade, would be about as 
follows: — Nine pounds light chrome yellow, seven 
pounds chemically pure chrome green, dark; three 
pounds carbon black, twenty-eight pounds barytes, 
twenty-eight pounds Paris white, and twenty-five 
pounds raw linseed oil — ^total, 100 poimds. If well 
ground this green will not settle in the container and 
will keep in sealed packages for a long time. If ordinary 
lampblack is substituted in the above formula for car- 
bon black, a lighter shade of a duller tone will be pro- 
duced that will pass for Quaker green. 

For a good bottle green, which must be of a more 
blueish green tone to deserve that name, the coloring 
matter should consist of bone black, dark chrome 
green of the blueish type, with a small percentage of 
white, preferably zinc oxide. Twenty-five pounds bone 
black, powdered; ten pounds chemically pure chrome 
green, deep; two pounds Prussian blue, three pounds 
zinc oxide, thirty pounds fine barytes, mixed with thirty 
pounds raw linseed oil will make 100 pounds of a bottle 
green in paste form, that will cover well on one coat of 
lead colored primer and will hold its color. For a bottle 
green in a chemically pure form, figure on thirty-seven 
and one-half pounds dry bone black, powdered; fifteen 
pounds chemically pure chrome green, dark; three 
pounds Prussian blue, four and one-half pounds zinc 
oxide mixed with forty pounds raw linseed oil or 
thirty-five pounds raw linseed oil and five pounds good 
oil drier. This will be an excellent paste for covering 
and wear and its cost will not be prohibitive. 


Olive green is not found in the oil color lists of color 
grinders, but they are often called upon to produce such 
green in paste form, where the consumers or painters 
desire to do their own thinning. When wanted for 
exterior woodwork, it may be made from French yellow 
ocher, chrome green, red and black, with some white. 
This type is least costly, even when extenders are not 
used in its make-up. Fifty-five pounds French yellow 
ocher, three pounds grinders* lampblack, five pounds 
white lead, two pounds Venetian red, five pounds 
chemically pure chrome green, medium or dark, all dry, 
mixed with thirty pounds raw linseed oil, will produce a 
green of the olive type in good paste form for the purpose 

When olive green paste in oil is desired for the purpose 
of using it as a base for a dipping paint for metal, where 
the paint is to dry flat, yellow ocher must not be used 
as a constituent, as it is apt to work too puflfy. The 
following will be found a good paste base that will not 
settle to any extent when thinned with pure turpentine 
in the proper proportion for dipping: — Six pounds 
grinders' lampblack, twenty pounds zinc oxide, five 
poimds red oxide, four pounds medium chrome yellow, 
thirty pounds chemically pure chrome green, medium, 
mixed with twenty-eight pounds raw or boiled linseed 
oil and nine pounds japan drier of approved quality. 
This will produce 100 pounds of finished paste of a good 
medium olive green shade. The paste, of course, must 
be ground very fine in order to avoid an appearance of 
grit or roughness on the dipped metal, especially when it 
is to be finished with varnish after having dried. We do 
not propose to furnish a number of mixing formulas for 


composite greens in paste form, as these are too numer- 
ous and must be made up specially to suit the require- 
ments of the consumer. 

C!ompo8ite Greens in Japan. 

Foremost among these on the price lists are Brewster 
greens, bronze greens, Brunswick green, Merrimac 
green, olive green, fern green, etc. There being any 
number of greens of these types, it would be idle to 
weary the reader with many formulas, therefore, we 
shall confine ourselves to give only one for each type and 
that of a fair medium shade, from which the color 
grinder may obtain an idea of the pigments required to 
produce the effect desired, and by varying the quantity 
of light and dark colors, obtain lighter or darker shades. 
Take for instance, Brewster green, which has all along 
been a great favorite in coach and carriage painting. 
In this green it is necessary to use a good portion of 
yellow lake, but this being too expensive, excepting 
where cost is no objection, Dutch pink is substituted for 
the lake; however, this material should be of a higher 
type than the ordinary. The grade known as English 
Dutch pink, that is usually furnished in large drops, 
which is really made from the waste liquor of yellow 
lake, will produce best results. To produce 100 pounds 
of such a green in japan, with a rich tone, mix thirty 
pounds Dutch pink, powdered; eighteen pounds ivory 
drop black, eight pounds Prussian or milori blue, with 
little if any bronze cast, five pounds orange chrome 
yellow, with forty-two pounds color grinders' japan or 
gold size japan, grinding the batch on a twenty-inch 
water cooled stone mill to the standard fineness. This 
will produce a green of good body, that when applied to 


a coach or automobile body, striped with deep orange or 
imitation of gold color and glazed over with yellow lake 
in varnish, will give a most beautiful effect. By 
reducing or increasing the percentage of black and blue, 
lighter or deeper shades will be obtained in similar tone 
of color. If it is for any reason inconvenient to mix 
the dry pigments in the japan and go to the trouble of 
grinding a small batch, the result may be obtained by 
mixing thirty-five parts by weight of ivory drop black 
in japan, forty-two parts by weight of Dutch pink in 
japan, sixteen parts Prussian or milori blue in japan and 
six parts orange chrome yellow in japan, adding a few 
parts gold size japan to make the mixture smooth and 
giving it a run through the mill to break up any grainy 
appearance that may develop in the mixing. 

To produce a medium shade of bronze green in japan, 
a mixing may be made of forty pounds ivory drop black, 
ten pounds medium chrome yellow and six pounds 
orange chrome yellow, with forty-six poimds of color 
grinders' japan, yielding 100 pounds finished color, 
when ground fine in a twenty-inch water cooled stone 
mill ; or in small batches it may be made by mixing eighty 
parts by weight of ivory drop black in japan, twelve 
parts of medium chrome yellow in japan and eight 
parts of orange chrome yellow in japan, smoothing the 
color by giving one run through the mill, as in the case 
of Brewster green. By omitting part of the yellows 
and increasing percentage of black, a darker color is 
obtained, while by decreasing the black and corre- 
spondingly increasing the yellows, a lighter color is had. 
When a colder tone of bronze green is desired, it will be 
produced by the addition of a small portion of Prussian 
blue and when the orange chrome yellow in above 


formula is omitted and lemon chrome yellow substituted 
in its place, a type of green, known as Quaker green is 
obtained. Lampblack, however, must not be used in 
grinding any composite green in japan. Brunswick 
green in japan is not to be confounded with what is 
known imder that name in Europe. It is a very dark 
green, almost black, and strong light is necessary to dis- 
tinguish it from the latter, unless the two are side by 
side. It has been quite a favorite with some railways 
for the painting of their locomotives and is also used 
extensively for the painting of stationary engines, 
pumps, etc., but there is no standard for this color. 
Some color grinders have made it by simply adding 
chrome yellow or chrome yellow and Prussian blue, 
while others added chrome green to ivory or drop black, 
others again using carbon black and chrome green. We 
should suggest a mixing of forty-six parts ivory drop 
black, four parts chemically pure chrome green of deep 
shade blueish type and fifty-three parts color grinders' 
japan for a 100-pound batch, to be groimd in a water 
cooled mill or mixing, say ninety-four pounds ivory drop 
black in japan with six pounds chemically pure chrome 
green deep in japan. This green is also of the same 
type as Russian green in japan. 

Merrimac green is somewhat similar in composition 
to Brewster green, but more blueish and deeper and 
very seldom listed in more than one shiade. It is of a 
sort of bottle green eflFect in its general tone and has 
been quite a favorite for painting moderate priced 
vehicles. A good average formula for a medium shade 
is as follows: — ^Thirty-five pounds Dutch pink, twenty 
poimds chemically pure chrome green, deep shade; 
twelve pounds ivory drop black and thirty-five pounds 


color grinders' japan will produce 100 pounds finished 
color when ground in a twenty-inch water cooled mill. 

Olive Green. 

In olive greens there is a wide divergence as to the 
eflFect. There was a time when the color turned out 
under that name in japan was more like the Brunswick 
green in the dark shade and similar to Merrimac green 
in the light shade, but no one would dare to offer these 
at the present time as olive green. A rich shade of this 
green and comparatively low for cost, is made by mixing 
eighteen pounds ivory drop black, thirty-two pounds 
finest French yellow ocher, five poimds burnt Italian 
sienna and three pounds medium chrome yellow, with 
forty-five pounds color grinders' japan, yielding 100 
pounds finished color that will find favor for painting 
automobile bodies or other vehicles. Another shade 
with more of a greenish effect may be made by mixing 
twenty-two pounds ivory drop black, thirty poimds 
French yellow ocher and ten pounds orange chrome 
yellow with forty pounds color grinders' japan, yielding 
100 pounds finished color. These olive greens, on 
account of consisting in part of French ocher, are best 
ground on a water cooled buhr stone mill, because esopus 
stones are too soft and iron mills not well adapted for 
grinding ocher in japan. 

There is still another composite green coach color 
that has found favor, which we will call fern green. It 
is to be seen on some automobile bodies and delivery 
wagons and may be mixed from fifty-five pounds 
chrome yellow, light, fifteen pounds Dutch pink, four 
pounds ivory black, two pounds chemically pure chrome 


green, medium, and twenty-six pounds pale gold size 
japan, producing 100 pounds finished color. 

This color can be ground on any water cooled stone 
mill, depending upon the size of the batch. 

Rare Greens for Coach Work. 

Emerald green, a trade name for Paris green, is often 
called for by coach painters for striping and ornamental 
work on automobiles and sleighs, but as the ordinary 
Paris green is not opaque enough to cover, the grade 
known as pale French Paris green is selected and even 
this will not be of sufficient hiding power, unless a small 
percentage of white is mixed with it. Zinc oxide would 
be least harmful to this pigment of copper arsenite 
origin, but in order to give it body, white lead is used 
instead, and the protection of the varnish depended 
upon to keep the ornaments or stripes from blackening. 
When intended for striping purposes and to sell as pale 
emerald green, a grinding of sixty-four parts pale French 
Paris green, twenty parts dry white lead, twelve parts 
pale, quick rubbing varnish, three parts raw linseed oil 
and three parts pure turpentine, will produce 100 parts 
finished color. Must be ground very fine on a water 
cooled mill of a size to suit the batch. When desired for 
glazing over light shades of chrome green in order to 
enrich these, the pale Paris green must be ground very 
fine in rubbing or coach varnish without the addition of 
white and the more translucent the color for this pur- 
pose, the more suitable it will be. The proportion of 
pigment and vehicle in this color should be eight parts 
by weight of the former to two parts by weight of the 
latter. Another green for glazing sleigh bodies, etc.. 


consists of verdigris, that is used where a rich blueish 
green tone is desired instead of the yellow toned eflFect 
given by emerald green. For this the purest grade of 
French distilled verdigris should be selected for the 
pigment and great care taken to avoid its containing free 
moisture or vinegar when mixing it with oil or varnish. 
When mixed and ground fine in a high class rubbing or 
coach varnish, applied over the proper ground as a 
glaze and protected by good varnish coatings, it is 
fairly permanent. Requires sixty parts by weight of 
pigment and forty parts by weight of vehicle, which 
should be of the character referred to. 

Ultramarine green in japan is rarely, if ever, called 
for nowadays, as the pigment does not work well and 
the color is not very attractive. When wanted in 
quick drying character for coach work, it should be of 
the deep shade and ground fine in gold size japan of good 
body, because it tends to harden rather quickly in the 
containers, due to its composition. If the japan is of 
the quick type, the vehicle should be tempered by add- 
ing some raw linseed oil; sixty-five parts of pigment, 
thirty-five parts of japan and three parts of oil will 
produce 100 parts finished color and the grinding should 
be done in a water cooled stone mill of slow running 

Zinc green, cobalt green, green earth, oxide of chrom- 
ium green and Guignet's green have no standing in the 
coach color line for various reasons, partly on account 
of lack of hiding power and partly on account of ten- 
dency to scaling and dullness of effect. Greeh lakes of 
coal-tar derivative origin are not suitable pigments for 
coach work, for the reason that so far none have been 
produced that are not apt to liver when ground in 
japan or varnish. 


MiaceUaneoiu Green Clolors in Oil. 

Paris Greerif or emerald green, as it is sometimes 
designated in oil color lists for the general trade, is an 
aceto-arsenite of copper, consisting of about 32 per cent, 
of copper oxide, 58 per cent, of arsenious oxide, 7 per 
cent, of acetic anhydride, 2 per cent, of sulphur trioxide 
and 1 per cent, of water. It is a very fine type of blue- 
ish green that cannot be imitated with what we know as 
chrome green, although the latter has made the former 
almost obsolete in the general line of painting, because 
of its decidedly poisonous properties. Paris green in oil 
is still employed to a small extent as a finishing coat over 
light shades of chrome green, because of its richer effect. 
The color grinder can test the color or shade and the 
tinting jK)wer of Paris green in the usual way, and a 
quick test for purity can be had by dissolving a small 
portion of th^ pigment in a test tube with strong am- 
monia. It should dissolve with a deep blue color and 
show no precipitate. Pure Paris green, being of a 
rather heavy specific gravity, will not require over 
eighteen pounds of linseed oil to eighty-two iK)Unds dry 
pigment to produce 100 pounds of marketable paste. 
On account of the very poisonous character of the dust 
arising in mixing the dry powder with the oil, the opera- 
tor should be cautioned to be very careful in doing the 
work. The grinding is best done in steel mills, because 
stone mills are apt to become overheated and will in 
this case destroy the richness of the green, making it dull 
and milky. If steel mills are not part of the equipment 
then the pigment may be ground on mills, the grinding 
stones of which are freshly dressed. 

Verdigris in oil is also to be found in commercial oil 
color lists, and it is best for the color grinder to select 


the material known as French distilled verdigris, 
which is made by dissolving oxide of copper in acetic 
acid, the pigment consisting of about 43 per cent, of 
copper oxide, 29 per cent, of acetic anhydride and 28 per 
cent, of water, when chemically pure. It is a rather 
transparent deep, greenish blue pigment, rather fugitive 
in water, but more permanent in oil, if dried well before 
mixing and grinding. 

There is not much demand for it by painters, but 
it is used in large quantities by the United States 
Light House Service for the prevention of marine 
growth, as the action of the salt water on paint made 
from this pigment gradually dissolves the cuprous salt, 
so that animal life or marine vegetation cannot retain a 
hold upon the surface thus painted. Pure verdigris of 
the type referred to will require twenty-eight to thirty 
poimds of raw or refined linseed oil to from seventy to 
seventyrtwo pounds of the dry pigment to make 100 
pounds of paste color in oil. It requires very careful 
grinding, as it must be impalpably fine to give satisfac- 
tion to the user, especially if the latter be a decorator, 
who requires it for a glaze. The testing of the dry pig- 
ment is very important, as the government service does 
not allow over 3 per cent, of insoluble matter, which 
must be considered rather liberal. To test for insoluble 
matter, weigh out a certain quantity of the pigment, 
treat it with dilute hydrochloric acid until a solution is 
eflFected and if there is any insoluble matter, collect it 
on a filter, dry and weigh it. Should there be any 
efifervescence noted when treated with acid, it indicates 
the presence of carbonates of copper or calcium or both. 
If the color grinder has any cause for suspecting verdi- 
gris of being sophisticated, it is necessary to submit a 


specimen to an expert paint chemist. The writer has 
had an experience where a lot of verdigris during the 
grinding in oil became black and after standing awhile, 
turned into a solid black mass, similar to cinder. The 
oil was pure, but the pigment contained free acetic acid 
and sulphur. The same precautions on mixing ver- 
digris are necessary, as those referred to on Paris green. 
Neither of these two colors should be mixed with 
pigments that contain sulphur, owing to the formation 
of the black sulphide of copper. Such pigments are 
ultramarine blue or green, cadmium yellow, lithopone, 
etc.» and any apparatus for mixing or milling must be 
thoroughly cleaned when any of the sulphur compounds 
are followed by the greens in question. 

Green C!olors for Artists and Decorators. 

Taking these up in alphabetical order, we have first 
of all bronze green, but as this is a color that artists 
will prefer to mix themselves, we may pass it by, be- 
cause when wanted by sign writers or decorators, the 
manufacturer can fill it into collapsible tubes from such 
stock as he may quote in his oil color list. The same 
applies to what we know as chrome green. 

Cinnabar Green is a misnamed pigment, as when cin- 
nabar is referred to the first thought leads to vermilion 
or red, but it is a color recognized by artists and usually 
furnished in collapsible tubes in three shades, light, 
medium and dark. The most permanent cinnabar 
green is made by mixing Guignet^s (chromium oxide 
hydrate) green with cadmium yellow and the next in 
permanency, a mixture of Guignet^s green and zinc 
yellow. Most fugitive are so-called cinnabar greens 
that are made of mixtures of Prussian blue and yellow 


lake or gamboge. To ascertain whether cinnabar 
green is made from Guignet's green and cadmium yellow 
the pigment is extracted in the usual way and treated 
with a solution of lye. If the pigment is a mixture of 
Prussian blue and chrome yellow, yellow lake or gam- 
boge, the yellows are extracted by the solution and the 
blue changed to hydrated iron oxide, while if Guignet's 
green is present, it will have suflFered no change. To 
produce a medium shade of best quality of cinnabar 
green, mix five parts by weight of Guignet's green, two 
parts normal cadmium yellow (cadmium sulphide) and 
three parts of poppyseed oil, and grind this mixing in a 
clean stone mill of a size apportionate to the batch until 
inpalpably fine. Avoid contact with copper or iron as 
much as possible. For a darker shade, use more green, 
for a lighter shade more cadmium yellow. 

Emerald Green in the list of artists' colors is what ap- 
pears in commercial color lists as Paris green with this 
difference, that here the pigment selected is that im- 
ported from France and that it is ground in jK)ppyseed 
or nut oil in place of linseed oil. All the remarks 
previously made about this pigment apply here. 

Color manufacturers in Europe are using any number 
of fantastical names for this green, because of the 
reluctance of consumers to purchasing or using it under 
its original name of Schweinfurt or Paris green. It is 
sold as opaque, mitis, patent, meadow, Vienna, Leipsic 
and parrot green. Vert Paul Veronese green is also 
identical with Paris green. Eighty-five Parts by weight 
of French pale Paris green and fifteen parts of clarified 
IK)ppyseed oil is the proper proportion for mixing, 
alfliough it may be necessary to use a little more oil. 


Emeraude Green, also known as vert emeraude in 
France and as viridian in England, while the German 
term is smaragd green» is a very pretty, rich green pig- 
ment of fine transparency and great permanency, 
because it is unaffected by dilute acids and alkalies, as 
well as by sulphuretted hydrogen. Commonly known 
as Guignet's green, it is the hydrated oxide of chromium 
green and sixty-five parts by weight of the dry pigment 
and thirty-five parts by weight of poppyseed or nut oil, 
make when groimd fine in a suitable stone mill, an 
excellent product for the artist. It is not customary to 
label this color Guignet's green. The color grinder can 
test this pigment in the regular way in comparison with 
other samples, but to be certain of his ground, he should 
make the dilute acid and alkali test, as there are so- 
called permanent greens in the market that are inti- 
mated to be chromium oxide greens, when in fact, they 
are merely made from organic dyes. 

Oxide of Chromium Greerty when so-called, must differ 
from emeraude green, as this is an opaque pigment, 
while the latter is transparent. The chrome oxide 
green is rather olive in color as against the deep rich 
green of the hydrated chrome oxide, but is even more 
permanent than the latter, as the strongest degrees 
of heat will not alter it, while the latter under such heat 
will lose its water of hydration and return to the olive 
toned chrome oxide green. This pigment, however, 
can be purchased at one-third the market price of 
Guignet's green. Seventy-five parts of the dry pigment 
and twenty-five parts by weight of jK)ppyseed or nut 
oil make a good paste for collapsible tubes. The dry 
green is highly valued for coloring soap and high-grade 
paper and because of resistance to very high degrees of 


heat it is invaluable for use in the ceramic art and in 
enameling, etc. 

Sap Green does not work very well as an oil color, yet 
it is in moderate demand in the line of artists' tubes. 
Artists use it as a glaze to obtain certain effects, such as 
for instance, the leaves of trees in an autumn scene 
picture. This green is usually made of Prussian blue 
and yellow lake or Dutch pink of the better grade; 
when one part of the blue to three parts French yellow 
lake, ground in four parts poppyseed oil produces a far 
better, but more expensive green than one part blue 
and nine parts Dutch pink in five parts poppyseed oil. 
A far better sap green would be produced, however, for 
the artists' purpose by a grinding of six parts Guignet's 
green, two parts super French yellow lake in five parts 
poppyseed oil, which will prove most expensive of the 
formulas here given, but also most permanent and best 
working as an oil color. 

Terre Verte or Verona Green. This is natural green 
earth found in the rocks near the town of Verona in the 
north of Italy. The pigment most acceptable to the use 
of artists is that found in that vicinity, the Bohemian 
green earth and that in the United States being too 
grayish. Terre verte derives its color from ferric oxide 
and ferrous oxide, that has a gangue of silica with very 
small portions of alumina and larger percentages of 
potash, magnesia and soda. For the guidance of the 
color grinder we wiU say that the best specimens of 
natural green earth that are available for the use of the 
artist, are of a deep grayish green color, that when 
treated with alkalies or acids, must not show any re- 
action or changes in color. When a sample of green 
earth in powdered form is treated with dilute sulphuric 


or hydrochloric acid, then washed and filtered, dried and 
mixed with oil, it must show no appreciable change in 
color when a portion of the original specimen is mixed 
with oil and placed alongside of it on a strip of clear 
glass for comparison. A specimen of green earth that 
shows up a rich, deep green should be viewed with 
suspicion and a sample placed in a test tube with 
absolute alcohol in order to ascertain whether it has not 
been enriched with a green of coal-tar origin. K such 
is not the case, the sample should be tested for the 
presence of Prussian blue by treating it with a solution 
of caustic soda, which wiU destroy the blue, if any be 
present. Terre verte of the highest grade is very rare 
and very little of it comes to this country, as it is eagerly 
taken up by the European color manufacturers and the 
very best selection ever handled by the writer, was 
quoted by Italian exporters at a figure of $220 per long 
ton, f . o. b. Leghorn. Specimens of green earth, quoted 
anywhere from $65 to $115 per ton, were found to be 
enriched by either Prussian blue or aniline green, while 
the ordinary green earths, that can be purchased at 
anywhere from $25 to $45 per ton, cannot be considered 
at all in reference to artists' color, and at best would pass 
only as fillers for bronze or olive greens. Bohemian 
green earth and the green earths f oimd in the United 
States belong to this class. 

To grind the best grade of green earth referred to for 
use on the palette of the artist, mix sixty-eight parts of 
the dry pigment, from which every trace of moisture 
has been removed by subjecting it to a temperature of 
150** F. over night, and thirty-two parts by weight of 
poppyseed oil will make this color of the proper con- 
sistency after grinding to impalpable fineness in a stone 
mill of small diameter. 


Ultramarine Greerty while found in artists' color lists, 
is scarcely ever called for in picture or landscape 
painting, but has been used to some extent by decor- 
ators, because of its resistance to alkalies. In this con- 
nection the deep shades have had the preference and 
sixty-five parts by weight of the dry pigment and thirty- 
five parts of poppyseed oil are the proper proportion for 
mixing and grinding. It is not profitable to keep much 
of this color put up in tubes, as there is a tendency for 
the oil to separate from the pigment and become hard. 

Zinc Green, also known as cobalt green or Rinmann's 
green, named after the Swedish chemist who originally 
discovered the comiK)und, is valued highly by artists 
and decorators because absolutely permanent in all 
painting methods. It is a combination of cobalt and 
zinc and can be made by intimately mixing six parts 
by weight of carbonate of cobalt (or ten parts phosphate 
of cobalt), with thirty parts by weight of 2anc oxide, 
grinding fine as possible and then subjecting the mixture 
to almost white heat. For a lighter shade, double 
this quantity of zinc oxide is used. To determine 
whether zinc green is of the quality and not simply a 
mixture of zinc chromate and Prussian blue (which 
latter is unfit for artists' and decorators' use), mix the 
suspected specimen with dilute hydrochloric acid in a 
test tube, when the genuine article will readily color the 
solution a deep pink. If held in the flame of a Bunsen 
burner with borax on a platinum wire, it should give a 
deep blue color. About seventy-eight parts by weight 
ofithe]dry|pigment with twenty-two parts of poppyseed 
oil is the proper proportion for mixing and the grinding 
should be done on a good stone mill of small diameter, 
not over twelve inches. 


Green Lakes are an uncertain quantity in this line of 
colors, as unless they are made with alumina hydrate, 
they do not give the rich efifect desired by decorators 
and when these pigments contain alumina hydrate, 
they liver so badly after being groimd in oil, that in a 
few days the color will not squeeze out of the tube, 
besides a color that livers in oil is unfit for use, because 
it will scale in short order from where it has been fixed. 
However, decorators and scene painters in theatres 
have use for green lakes, both of the yellow and blueish 
type and prefer them put up in tubes of large and con- 
venient size, and if the color grinder specifies that the 
pigment is to be free of alumina hydrate, the color 
maker can supply it by precipitating brilliant green on 
blanc fixe for the blueish toned lake and the same green 
with auramine or naphtol yellow, also on blanc fixe, for 
the lake of yellowish tone with the proper mordants. 
These lakes can be made sufficiently rich for the purpose 
and being used for interior decoration only, will have 
fair durability and will not show up yellow under gas or 
electric light. About seventy parts by weight of dry 
lake to thirty parts by weight of poppy seed oil will make 
the right consistency for these lakes. Green lakes of 
vegetable origin are practically obsolete. 

Green Distemper C!olors. 

In this list we should omit such as bronze green, and, 
in fact, all composite greens, as well as the ordinary 
chrome green. When these are called for si>ecially, 
the color grinder will have no trouble in furnishing them 
but to keep them in stock is wasteful and unwise. 
Oidy very moderate sized stocks should be kept of such 
distemper colors as are apt to settle or dry up rapidly or 


that are rather expensive. In the quick settling line 
are emerald or Paris green and ultramarine green and 
in the high priced we have verte emeraude. The list is 
suflficiently large with cobalt green, emerald green, terre 
verte, ultramarine green, verte emeraude (or Guignet's 
green). If cobalt or zinc green cannot be had in pulp 
form, seventy-five parts of the dry powder should be 
mixed with thirty-five parts water, given several runs 
through a stone mill provided with a casing to keep 
from splashing and when color is smooth and fine, the 
yield should be 100 parts by weight of finished pulp. 

Emerald green in water. Mix any good, bright Paris 
green, say eighty-four parts dry with twenty-six parts 
of water, run through mill until fine. Yield 100 parts 
by weight. 

Terre verte or green earth in water. Mix a good 
grade of green earth in dry powder, say sixty-five parts 
in forty-five parts water, grind until fine and the yield 
should be 100 parts by weight. 

Ultramarine green in water. Mix sixty-five parts dry 
pigment with forty-five parts water, grind fine on stone 
mill and yield should be 100 parts by weight. 

Verte emsraude in water. Mix sixty parts dry pig- 
ment with fifty parts water, grind carefully without 
overheating until fine and the yield should be 100 parts. 
(The pigment in this case is the hydrated oxide of 
chomium, known as Guign^t's green). When an olive 
green oxide is desired of good body ground in water that 
wiU resist alkalies to a great extent, then mix say seven- 
ty-four parts oxide of chromium green (ordinary) 
in thirty-six parts water and grind to a fine pulp. 
Yield 100 parts by weight. 



This is also an importhnt group of colors, and by far 
the greatest interest attaches to the red oxides of iron, 
natural or artificially made. It may be said that of the 
total output of most paint factories, one-half, or nearly 
one-half, consists of red pigments in paste form in oil 
or in red paint ready for use. That is so far as colored 
pigments are taken into consideration. Therefore we 
shall begin with the iron oxide reds. Of these the oil 
color lists as a rule include Venetian red of several 
shades, Indian red, light and dark, red oxide, maroon 
oxide and Tuscan red, which has also oxide of iron for 
its base. Some manufacturers list extended iron oxides 
under fancy names, as for instance, Pompeiian red. 
Mars red, Windsor red, Victoria red, etc., etc. 

There never has been a standard for purity as to 
Venetian red, and up to twenty years ago any extended 
pigment owing its color to red oxide of iron could be 
placed on the market under that designation. Before 
the crusade for pure colors in oil began in this country 
in 1892, it was no uncommon occurrence that Venetian 
red paint was applied to iron structures that was found 
on analysis to consist of less than 10 per cent, sesquioxide 
of iron (FcaOs), the balance of pigment being barytes 
and whiting. 

Venetian Red. 

Venetian Red was originally made by grinding native 
red oxide or red hematite, but as the use of paint de- 
veloped the name was transferred by English dry color 


manuf dpCturers to the artificial product made by calcin- 
ing green copperas with more or less limestone that gave 
a red pigment consisting of about 28 per cent, ferric 
oxide and 72 per cent, of sulphate of lime (terra alba or 
gypsum). Large quantities of this sort of English 
Venetian red were exported to this country, but since 
the American manufacturers made great progress in the 
production of oxide of iron paints, imports have been 
reduced to quite an extent. The color grinders of 
twenty years ago had in their oil color lists a red gener- 
ally labeled English Venetian red over their own name, 
and in that case it was a dark red, consisting in its pig- 
ment portion of 35 to 40 per cent, sesquioxide of iron, 
balance usually being gypsum (sulphate of lime). 
Venetian red in oil, consisting of less than that percent- 
age of iron oxide, was hardly ever labeled with the 
manufacturer's name. One certain firm listed three 
shades of Venetian red in oil, light, medium and dark. 
The pigment used for the light or bright shade was made 
by mixing the highest grade of a scarlet red oxide known 
at one time as Forest of Dean or Crawshay red, that 
showed by chemical analysis 96 to 97 per cent. FcaOs in 
such proportion with hydrated sulphate of lime (gyp- 
sum), that it would invariably show on analysis 20 per 
cent. FcaOa and 80 per cent. CaSo.4 On account of its 
bright color this red had a remarkable sale. The med- 
ium shade of Venetian red was a copperas red, averaging 
40 per cent. FcaOs with very little deviation, balance 
being sulphate of lime, dead burnt in the furnace along 
with green vitriol (copperas) and a trifle of silica. The 
dark shade of Venetian red consisted in the pigment of a 
mixture of Persian Gulf red and hydrated sulphate of 
lime (gypsum) averaging 35 per cent. Fe208, 15 per 
cent, silica and alumina (Si02 and AI2O8) and 50 per cent. 


CaSo4. The mixing and grinding of the light and dark 
shades of the red referred to was accomplished in the dry 
state by first mixing the material and expelling the 
moisture on steam heated iron drying pans, and then 
grinding the material ^o mixed to impalpable fineness on 
stone mills of 36-inch diameter before mixing the pig- 
ments in oil. Either of these three red pigments could 
be mixed and ground to a smooth oil paste on 20 or 
24-inch stone mills (esopus stones) by mixing 77 pounds 
of pigment to 23 pounds raw linseed oil, while by the use 
of fire boiled linseed oil it was possible to mix 79 pounds 
pigment and 21 pounds of oil. This bit of history is not 
related as a suggestion to follow, as present day color 
grinders would hardly care to do so in the face of the 
competition. Any color grinder who may have before 
him the specifications of the United States Navy De- 
partment can draw his own conclusions as to the adop- 
tion by that service branch of the government of the 
chemical constituents of the reds above described. 
These specifications are still in force at the present time 
with this one exception, that they originally called for a 
mixture of so much sesquioxide of iron, not over 15 per 
cent, of silica, balance to be sulphate of lime fully 
hydrated, while some nine or ten years ago this passage 
was changed to the wording: — "Balance to consist of 
sulphate of lime that has been dead burned in the fur- 
nace, so as to render it incapable of absorbing moisture 

The reason for this change is obvious. When gyp- 
sum is only partly hydrated it is apt to take up moisture 
from the air, even when mixed with linseed oil to be 
applied as a paint and even after application. It is 
also claimed by chemists that one part of gypsum can be 
dissolved in 500 parts water, but when it has been 


dead burned it cannot be dissolved no matter how much 
water is used. Most of the color grinders to-day place 
only one shade of Venetian red on their Ust, and that of 
the medium type, carrying anywhere from 30 to 40 per 
cent, of sesquioxide of iron. 

When it comes to a second or even third grade line 
of colors, as many makers are listing, the usual practice 
is to extend the red still further with barytes, the one 
inert mineral base that absorbs the smallest percentage 
of oil, thus meeting the demand for very low priced 
Venetian reds that are often mislabeled iron oxide red. 
As an example, we will assume that a typical Venetian 
red in oil costs the maker $2.75 per 100 pounds for ma- 
terial, not figuring labor and fixed charges or packages; 
a second grade like the one mentioned, if made from the 
same pigment with its own weight of a first grade of 
barytes and pure linseed oil as the vehicle would cost $2 
per 100 pounds for material, figuring on a mixing of 
equal parts of dry red and barytes, ground with 15 per 
cent, by weight of oil. A red of this quality in paste 
form would still show by analysis about 14 per cent, of 
sesquioxide of iron in the pigment, and on thinning for 
use covers up nearly as well as the normal Venetian red, 
but on comparison, pound for pound, would not absorb 
as much thinner and therefore be deficient in spreading 
capacity. Third grade of Venetian red or oxide of iron 
reds, so-called, usually do not contain in their pigment 
portion over 7 or 8 per cent, of sesquioxide of iron, and a 
cheap grade of barytes is used as extender, unless 
the vehicle is a paint or putty oil of mineral origin, 
when a lighter extender, such as cheap whiting or marble 
dust, is introduced in place of barytes in order to keep 
the paste from hardening in the package. Nor is a 


good oxide of iron introduced as the coloring principle, 
though it would prove far better, but often an ordinary 
red ocher or clay. Being of the opinion that manufac- 
turers who prize their reputation more highly than 
temporary gain, will not cater to the demand for this 
class of goods, we shall not dwell further on the subject 
and proceed to deal with 

Freight Car Reds 

in paste or semi-paste form. Nearly every color grinder 
of repute is familiar with the specifications at present in 
force for freight car red called for by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, the first one of the railway compa- 
nies in the United States to issue specifications for paint 
material to be used on their rolling stock and other 
equipment. But it may be of more than passing inter- 
est for the younger element in the business to learn how 
this feature developed to its present stage. The latest 
requirements that have been in force for some years 
call for a red in paste form consisting of 74 per cent, by 
weight of dry pigment, 1 per cent, of moisture and 25 
per cent, of oil. The pigment to consist of 25 per cent, 
of sesquioxide of iron, not less than 2 nor more than 5 
per cent, carbonate of Ume, balance to be inert material 
not less opaque than sulphate of lime fully hydrated or 
such silicious inert material as occurs with oxide of iron 
in nature, or a mixture of these. The oil to be strictly 
pure, well settled raw linseed oil. When the late Dr. 
Charles B. Dudley, who was then chief chemist for the 
P. R. R. Co., having charge of the laboratories at Al- 
toona. Pa., in 1888 first conceived the idea of issuing 
specifications for freight car color, he not only consulted 
the superintendent and master car painter at the Al- 


toona shops, but also several prominent paint manufac- 
turers, and his first step was to order several barrels of 
red oxide of iron paste in oil, paste form, that was to 
have in the dry pigment not less than 60 per cent, by 
weight of pure sesquioxide of iron, while he left it to the 
various manufacturers what extender should be used if 
any were necessary. Upon investigation he found that 
50 per cent, of sesquioxide in the pigment was sufficient 
to give all the hiding power that was desired, also that 
there were excessive percentages of moisture present in 
the paint furnished, and asked for a paint that would be 
practically free of moisture, but upon being furnished 
with a trial lot that did not show over one-quarter of 1 
per cent, of moisture, because the dry pigment had been 
subjected to a heat of S50 to 375 degrees F. and mixed 
with the raw linseed oil, while still showing a tempera- 
ture of over 200 degrees F. before nmning the material 
through the mill, he found that the paint did not at all 
give proper satisfaction in his tests. This was no doubt 
due to the partial dehydration of the gypsum consti- 
tuting the inert base, brought about by the excessive 
degree of heat used in trying to expel all the moisture 
possible from the pigment. After that Dr. Dudley 
insisted on the extracted dry pigment from his freight 
car red paste, showing one full per cent, by weight of 
moisture, and not long afterward made his specifica- 
tions for this red require only 35 per cent, by weight of 
sesquioxide of iron, which was finally further reduced to 
25 per cent. The idea of requiring from 2 to 5 per cent, 
of carbonate of lime in the dry pigment was to neutra- 
lize any traces of free sulphuric acid that might be 
present if the red oxide in the pigment was of the arti- 
ficial sort made from copperas. The reduction of the 
percentage of iron oxide in the pigment was made for 


economical reasons, because it enabled color grinders to 
furnish the material at lower prices. Another point of 
consideration appears to be that it was minecessary 
expenditure of money to place higher priced material 
on this equipment, as it would need repainting as fre- 
quently even with the more costly material. 

Oxide of Iron Red. 

Oxide of Iron Red in Oil as found in some color grind- 
ers* lists is usually a mixture of native red oxide, or it 
may be a copperas red, containing any where from 70 to 
90 per cent, sesquioxide of iron in the native red, with a 
gangue of silica and alumina, as occurs in nature with 
the oxide, while the red oxide made in the furnace from 
green copperas may run about 60 to 70 per cent, in 
oxide, the inert material consisting of dead burned 
sulphate of lime. These reds are usually of medium or 
dark shades, and will require the same proportion of 
pigment and oil for mixing and grinding as the best 
grades of Venetian red noted above, that is, about 77 
pounds of dry pigment and 23 pounds raw linseed oil. 
In native reds the Spanish and Persian Gulf reds are 
excellent types and are lower in price than the copperas 
reds of similar percentages, though the latter are usually 
much richer in color. 

Maroon Oxide in Oily when so branded, may be a deep 
Indian red, or it may be Persian Gulf red. 

Indian Red. 

Indian Red in Oil is listed by some grinders in one 
shade only, and here a mediimi shade is selected, while 
others quote light and dark shades. Indian red is made 


artificially from green copperas, and Leech, Neal & Co., 
of Derby, England, practically monopolized the sale of 
Indian reds in this country for a long time, but of late 
years several dry color makers succeeded in making 
inroads on the sale of these reds and also on some of the 
strong, bright red oxides. 

Indian reds, like all the oxide of iron pigments, 
should be selected by the color grinder by comparing 
them in making rubouts, testing for fineness, tone, 
shade and tinting strength, but in testing Indian 
reds extra precaution is necessary in order to avoid 
trouble after the oil color is in stock or in store, packed 
for the market, to see before mixing that any free sul- 
phuric acid is neutralized, and also that it is as free from 
alkali as possible. When Indian red is being levigated 
before it is being dried and packed in casks or other 
containers for the market, an alkali, usually milk of 
lime, is added to neutralize all traces of acid, but if lime 
is added in excess it is liable to saponify a portion of the 
oil on mixing, and so tending to turn the paste into a 
liver-like mass or at least to make it necessary to add 
extra quantities of oil to keep the paste in good condi- 
tion. Any color grinder who may intend to bid on 
proposals for supplying Indian red, dry or in oil, to the 
Naval Supply Fund should carefully read over the 
United States Navy Department specifications, which 
are very exacting on the acid and alkali feature, in order 
to save himself from eventual loss through rejection. 
Chemically pure Indian reds contain from 96 to 98 per 
cent, sesquioxide of iron, balance being silica and cal- 
cium sulphate, and can be mixed and ground at the rate 
of 83 to 84 pounds dry pigment and 16 to 17 pounds raw 
linseed oil. Boiled oil is not well adapted for grinding 


Indian red that is put up in containers for sale in paste 
form, as it is usually too limpid to hold the heavy 
pigment in suspension. Raw linseed oil free from foots 
and somewhat aged is best. All of these reds based on 
oxide of iron are best ground in oil on mills of large 
diameter if the size of batches warrants it. Any diame- 
ter, from 20 inches to 36 inches, will be proper, providing 
the mill is run at a speed conforming to this. 

Mars Redy properly speaking, is an artificial color 
made by calcining Mars yellow at red heat. Mars 
yellow should be a precipitate of copperas and alum, but 
French ocher is sold under that name, and French burnt 
ocher as Mars red. This buiint ocher will require a 
mixing of 74 pounds of dry pigment and 26 pounds raw 
linseed oil for 100 pounds marketable paste. 

Tuscan Red. 

TtLScan Red in CHI. — ^These reds are a somewhat un- 
certain material so far as a standard for them is con- 
cerned. The color sold under the brand English 
Tuscan red is not up to some of the proprietary brands 
made by color makers in the United States, and some of 
the reds oflfered by British manufacturers as Tuscan are 
simply maroon lakes of uncertain origin very much 
reduced. Up to about the year 1887 the dry color sold 
as Tuscan red was made by American color makers by 
precipitating upon a base of about equal parts pure 
Indian red and English cliffstone Paris white a certain 
quantity of the mother Uquor of rose pink made from 
Brazil wood, which made a rich color, but a pigment not 
very strong in hiding power nor very permanent. 
About that time the general business manager of a 
prominent paint firm, now long deceased, copyrighted a 


brand of color under the title "new Tuscan red" that was 
made in their own color making establishment, and the 
formula was quite secret for many years. This Tuscan 
red, though not of great hiding power, is quite rich in 
tone and very permanent, standing high degrees of heat 
and exposure to light to a remarkable degree. It 
was made in three shades, but only the medium 
shade had a remarkable sale for a long time, though 
the other two shades also sold well. The base of 
this red is also chemically pure Indian red mixed in 
water, to which is added about its own weight of 
calcined sulphate of lime, also hydrated or wet up with . 
water, both of these run into a striking tub and 
precipitated upon this base is a certain portion of 
alizarine red paste or mother liquor. When the mixture 
is eflfected the color is washed repeatedly, the precipitate 
filtered, dried and powdered. 

Tuscan red so made, mixed with raw linseed oil, re- 
quires 72 to 73 pounds dry pigment to 27 or 28 pounds 
oil for 100 pounds of paste in oil, holding well in suspen- 
sion in the containers. A Tuscan red of similar per- 
manency and richness can be made by mixing and 
grinding 45 pounds dark Indian red, 10 pounds of 
alizarine red lake and 45 pounds gypsum in 30 pounds 
raw or refined linseed oil, yielding 128 pounds of paste, 
allowing for waste. Or still better to save expense in 
grinding, grind the alizarine red lake separately in its 
own weight of linseed oil impalpably fine, mix 15 pounds 
of the resulting semi-paste with 36 pounds each dry 
Indian red dark and gypsum and 15 pounds raw linseed 
oil, and the result will be 100 pounds net of Tuscan red 
paste. Lighter or deeper shades can be produced on 
same formula by simply using light or extra dark Indian 
red in place of the dark shade. 


A cheap grade of Tuscan red can be made by mixing 
Indian red and gypsum in convenient proportions, add- 
ing sufficient of a carmine substitute pigment otherwise 
known as scarlet lake or azo-scarlet. While this color is 
neither permanent on exposure nor heat resisting, it is as 
good as many consumers desire to have it. By mixing 
30 pounds Indian red, light or medium, 40 pounds 
gypsum, 10 pounds of azo-scarlet lake G, with 22 to 23 
pounds of boiled linseed oil and grinding same fine, 100 
pounds of a fairly rich red of the Tuscan red type will be 
the result. 

As we remarked at the beginning of the paragraph on 
Tuscan red, there is no accepted standard for this color, 
and all that is known about it is that it should be rich 
permanent red, such as cannot be obtained from even 
the richest red oxide of iron. Of late some grinders 
have made their grindings of Tuscan red by mixing 
in some instances Indian red, in others deep red oxide of 
iron or Venetian red with some of the so-called body 
toners of the para nitraniline or beta naphthaline group, 
selecting such as are least apt to bleed out. Because 
of this practice no two grinders are producing shades of 
Tuscan red that are precisely similar, unless they are 
given samples to match. Pompeiian red in oil, if called 
for, can be filled out of a grinding made from Persian 
Gulf red, while Windsor and Victoria reds are simply 
Venetian reds low in cost. 

Before closing the chapter on oxide of iron reds it will 
be interesting to mention the Tuscan red body color 
used by the Pennsylvania Railroad for many years on 
their passenger car equipment. Here is where the late 
Dr. Dudley and his assistant, Mr. £• N. Pease, broke 
with the established custom of having the pigment 


ground in coach japan, falling back on a practice in vogue 
before the grinding of colors in japan was thought of. 
The idea was to grind the dry pigment, that was to be 
composed of oxide of iron and a fairly permanent lake 
in a vehicle that would not be apt to cause Uvering in the 
paste form, as well as to enable the chemists to more 
accurately determine the constituents of the material, 
especially the vehicle, than would be possible if the pig- 
ment was ground in japan. It was to do away with the 
overheating in milling and enable the management of 
the shops to introduce a uniform rule of thinning the 
paste color for application. The specifications that 
were issued over twenty years ago and have, with very 
trifling modifications, been in force ever since, are in 
substance as follows: — ^P. R. R. standard car body color 
Tuscan red is to consist of 75 per cent, of pigment and 25 
per cent, of vehicle by weight. The pigment desired 
consists of 80 per cent, by weight of sesquioxide of iron, 
not less than 2 per cent, nor more than 5 per cent, 
carbonate of lime, balance to be inorganic coloring mat- 
ter of a character approved by the testing laboratories 
of the company at Altoona, Pa.; the vehicle to consist 
of 36 per cent, of well-settled pure raw linseed oil and 64 
per cent, of pure spirits of turpentine by weight. This 
was followed by the usual caution about fineness of 
grinding, matching of the shade to the dry standard 
furnished and the deviation allowed without rejecting 
the shipments, which practically bars out such as are 
deficient in the percentage of oxide of iron, contain less 
than 8 per cent, or more than 10 per cent, of raw linseed 
oil in the paste, any oil other than raw linseed oil or any 
that contains, in the pigment, coloring matter of organic 
origin or such that has not been approved. For several 
years past permission has been given manufacturers 


to cut down the percentage of inorganic coloring matter 
or to omit it entirely, providing they can furnish the 
standard shade without such addition, which, however, 
will be found an impossible task, as the oxide of iron of 
the maroon shade required, with the brilliancy or rich- 
ness of tone needed, has yet to be discovered. While at 
first and for some years alizarine red lake was approved 
as coloring matter in preference to all others, it would 
appear that of late coloring matter of the paranitran- 
iline, the orthoanisidine or toluidine groups of coal-tar 
derivatives are accepted, and as these so-called toners 
are far stronger than the alizarine reds it enables color 
grinders to conform to the specifications as to percent- 
ages of pigment and vehicle with far less trouble than 
had been the case when using alizarine red, which really 
required excessive portions of vehicle. The shops are 
given instructions as to how the paste color is to be 
thinned for use with certain portions of coach japan and 
spirits of turpentine and the addition of a small portion 
of varnish for finishing coats. The principal object of 
this method is to obtain more durability and wear be- 
cause of the better elasticity and uniformity of the paste 
so ground as against the same color ground in japan, the 
theory being that the heating of the material in the mill- 
ing is not conducive to good results. But while this 
method of grinding a color of the composition of the 
P. R. R. Tuscan red appears to work well, it has been 
found impractical in the case of another railway com- 
pany that has attempted to introduce it into their 
Pullman shade of car body color because of the great 
portion of vehicle required. It was found on thinning 
the color so ground that an excessive quantity of japan 
was required to make the color dry within reasonable 
time, and that this large portion of japan impaired the 


hiding power of the color. Furthermore, the master 
car painters fowid that they were unable to get out the 
cars from the shops on schedule time, thus causing the 
motive power department to abandon the practice and 
returning to the use of color ground in japan. 

Bases for Oxide of Iron Dipping Paints. 

When grinding red pastes for use as base for dipping 
wood or metal it is not practical to assume that any 
ordinary oxide of iron red will be good enough for the 
purpose. The chief points in the property or character- 
istic of such base are that it must hold well in suspension 
when thinned for use with the volatile liquids usually 
employed for the purpose; that the pigment when set- 
tling or standing about for a time must not cake hard or 
be gummy in the bottom of container; must be so as to 
readily reincorporate with the thinners and must cover 
well the objects on dipping when the paint is made thin 
enough to drip freely. To attain this end it is by far 
the best policy not to select red oxide or Venetian red 
low in cost, but to disregard cheapness in first cost and 
select grades that are high in percentage of sesquioxide 
of iron and add a base of light specific gravity to furnish 
the buoyancy for keeping the paint well in suspension. 
To enable the grinder to determine the proper kind of 
inert base he should know for what particular purpose 
the dipping paint is to be used. For instance, when 
used for sheet metal or tin, the less inert base is mixed 
with the iron oxide the better the paint will drip and 
cover the metal, while for dipping cast-iron parts a base 
with a good filler is desirable, and the same applies to 
the dipping of articles of open-grained wood, such as is 
used for agricultural implements and on cheap wagon 
work. For example, if a red dipping paint of the type of 


Venetian red is desired, select a red oxide containing as 
nearly as possible to 90 per cent, of sesquioxide, grinding 
it very fine in boiled linseed oil to a soft paste, which 
will require close to seventy pounds pigment and thirty 
pounds of oil. If ground in this way and thinned with 
the proper drier and either spirits of turpentine or one 
of the heavy benzines, known as turpentine substitutes, 
or ordinary naphtha, as the case may be, the paint 
should cover well, adhere firmly, leaving only a thin 
film on the surface that will not sag or run. If a maroon 
shade be required Indian red or the deep shade of Per- 
sian Gulf red can be substituted for the brighter Venetian 
red type or shade of red oxide. On the other hand, 
where filling up qualities are desirable an artificial 
oxide of iron red, containing anywhere from 30 to 40 
per cent, sesquioxide of iron, with a base of dead burnt 
calcium sulphate, will supply the filling without any 
further addition, or a native red of the 90 per cent, type 
mixed with its own weight of fine silica and bolted 
whiting ground at the rate of 72 per cent, by weight of 
the mixture of pigment and 28 per cent, of boiled linseed 
oil will make a good base for a dipping paint for cast- 
iron parts or wooden parts of machinery or wagon work. 
When quick drying is required part of the oil is omitted 
and a good japan drier used in its place, while the linseed 
oil should be changed from boiled to raw linseed oil. 
These bases will answer equally well for gloss and for 
flat drying dipping paints, the difference being in the 
thinning of the bases. 

Mixing and Grinding Red Lead and Vermilion in Oil. 

When pure red lead in oil is demanded by the trade 
the manufacturer usually grinds it to order only, though 


he may keep a small quantity in stock in small cans. 
But it is an established fact that pure red lead, no matter 
how well made and how carefully mixed with pure lin- 
seed oil and ground without friction, will not keep from 
becoming solid in the containers in paste form for any 
length of time, nor will it, when mixed ready for applica- 
tion, hold in suspension or keep from going to the bot- 
tom of the package, finally caking hard. Many trials 
have been made and every one failed of its purpose. 
There are now on the market red lead products in ready- 
for-use form in oil, so called, but when examined they 
are found to consist of basic lead chromate colored with 
red coal-tar derivatives, and while resembling red lead 
are devoid of the cementing properties of the latter. 
When a certain percentage of non-drying oil is added to 
linseed oil in the mixing of red lead one would naturally 
expect to see the hardening or saponifying tendencies 
retarded; but such is not the case, at least not in the 
measure looked for. However, when red lead in pure 
linseed oil is wanted for work that is to be done at once 
or where the paint is to be used inside of a month, well- 
selected red lead may be mixed at the rate of ninety-one 
pounds to nine pounds of well-settled raw linseed oil and 
run, if necessary, through an iron or steel mill of large 
diameter into the package in which it is to be shipped, 
but care must be exercised to keep the mill from heating. 
The use of stone mills must be avoided, as the friction of 
the stone breaks up the crystalline particles of the red 
lead, dulling its brightness and causing a more rapid 
oxidation of the oil. The red lead and cosine Vermillion 
reds or vermillion substitute, when ground without the 
addition of inert bases, exhibited similar tendencies. 
This was the reason why the implement manufacturing 
trade, before the advent of the paranitraniline reds, 


preferred to purchase their wants of vermillion reds in 
the dry powder form with more or less inert mineral 
base. To this saponifying or solidifying tendency of 
red lead in oil was also due that the government services 
specify all red lead to be supphed in the dry form, as 
they also used to specify their Enghsh (quicksilver) as 
well as the artificial vermillions. Eosine vermillion 
reds, based on French orange mineral, would keep well 
in sealed cans when ground in well-settled raw or 
bleached linseed oil, excepting the very deep shades, 
that contained quite a large portion of eosine coloring 
matter; those not containing over 23^ to 3 per cent, 
would keep soft in paste form for a year in well-sealed 
packages. The usual percentage of pigment was 
eighty-four to eighty-five pounds in a one hundred- 
pound batch, the oil fifteen to sixteen pounds. English 
vermillion has kept best in containers when groimd in 
these proportions, although it also tends to settle badly 
when put up in the pure state. This was one of the 
principal reasons why, up to twenty-five years ago, 
neither EngUsh nor artificial vermillion was ever put up 
for the trade in oil without the addition of a suspending 
base, hke whiting or china clay. The ready-for-use red 
lead paints found on the market to-day are usually pure 
red lead reduced with such mineral bases to keep in 
suspension and meet competitive prices. A red lead 
paste paint in linseed oil that showed fairly good cover- 
ing after being properly thinned with raw linseed oil, oil 
drier and a small portion of turpentine showed on 
analysis to be composed of fifty parts by weight of red 
lead, seventeen parts by weight of china clay, seventeen 
parts by weight of whiting and sixteen parts linseed oil. 
This paste kept soft in a sealed metal package for over 
six months. The utmost precaution, however, is 


necessary to keep out any resinous matter. Bright red 
barrel paints that always have the so-called gloss oil 
(rosin and benzine liquid) for their vehicle could not be 
made with red lead and cosine vermillions as the coloring 
principle, as they would invariably solidify imder such 

American Vermilion (Clirome Red) in Oil. 

American vermillion, or, as it is commonly known by 
most painters, scarlet lead chromate, has also been 
placed on the market under names or brands such as 
Chinese red, Persian red, Imperial Scarlet and others. 
It is a basic lead chromate, a pigment of great hiding 
power and fair permanency of color, although turning 
brownish on long exposure. As it does not blacken like 
quicksilver vermilion or fade to a pinkish white, like 
eosine vermillions, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
used it for over twenty-five years on their cabin cars, or 
cabooses, changing only recently, of which we shall 
speak shortly. Other systems used mixtures of this 
chrome red and Venetian red for their cabooses, while 
twenty years or more ago some implement and wagon 
manufacturers in the West used great quantities of it 
until the desire of purchasers for more brilliant reds 
induced them to change. It is generally made in two, 
but sometimes in three shades — extra light, light and 
dark. The writer has found some brands on the market 
ground in oil that were extra rich, but on examination 
showed that the extra brilliancy was due to the addition 
of a small percentage of eosine. To grind the light 
shade of this red in oil requires eighty-five pounds of 
pigment and fifteen pounds of oil for one hundred 
pounds of paste^ and the oil should be of good body and 


fire boiled, otherwise it will settle quickly and is apt to 
cake on settling. It is best ground in iron mills of a size 
consistent with the amount of the batch or on roller 
mills, and care should be taken to prevent too much 
friction and heat on grinding because its color is easily 
damaged, producing a dull orange color. The Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company, who have used very large 
quantities, purchasing this color in the dry powder 
form, have lately issued preliminary specifications for 
cabin car red that call for toluidine red ground in oil 
paste form at the rate of 42 per cent, by weight of pig- 
ment and 58 per cent, by weight of well-settled pure 
linseed oil, the manufacturer who proposes to bid on the 
requisitions for this color to submit first a sample of the 
dry color for approval by their laboratory. The color 
is to be as non-bleeding as possible; in fact, should not 
bleed at all, which, however, will be found a very diflS- 
cult matter to be complied with. When speaking of a 
pigment as bleeding it may imply that it does give up a 
portion of its coloring principle, as the case may be, in 
water or in oil or varnish, but in the case just quoted it 
is expected that when this red is fixed upon a surface as a 
paint it shall not give up part of its color to lettering or 
stenciling in white, as is the case with all paranitraniline 
reds, which color the vehicle they are ground in, and 
unless an isolating coat of varnish is applied over the 
fixed color the red will invariably strike into the white 
to a greater or lesser extent. This feature is not so 
prominent in most of the toluidine reds; in fact, there 
are some specimens that the writer has tested out in 
which bleeding is scarcely perceptible, yet it seems to be 
utterly impossible to find any that do not show a slight 
trace of the bleeding. A quick and reasonably certain 
test is to weigh out on a medicinal prescription scale 


similar portions, say five or ten troy grains of each 
specimen sample to be tested, and rub up on a marble 
slab or a slab of clean glass each of these with a similar 
number of drops of oil, using a clean spatula for each 
rub-out, which should be as liquid as a ready-for-use 
paint, and put a few drops of each rub-out on a piece of 
clean white blotting paper, when the bleeding will 
show itself as a yellow or brown ring about the circle of 
red. To accelerate the test hold the blotting paper over 
a flame, but not close enough to scorch the paper. Of 
course each of the samples on the blotter must be given 
as nearly as possible similar degrees of heat. 

Toluidine Red surpasses any of the latest develop- 
ments in the line of reds produced from coal-tar deriva- 
tives in point of permanency to light and gases, and 
certainly even if more costly than American vermillion 
it makes up for such cost to a good extent in spreading 
power, poimd for pound of paste. It is now generally 
known among color makers as government fast red, and 
is an improvement over the lithol vermilion specified 
by the United States Navy Department in some of 
their proposals, inasmuch as it is not required to use 
orange mineral as the base with the toluidine red. 

The So-Called Permanent or Non-Fading Reds in Oil. 

About the year 1894 the representatives in this coun- 
try of some English and German manufacturers of coal- 
tar dyes and aniline colors visited some color makers 
whose line of dry colors was mostly used by paint makers 
with a view to disposing to them the dyestuflF necessary 
to prepare a new line of fast reds much more permanent 
than the azo-scarlets and really more brilliant. These 
were known as paranitraniline and betanaphthaline. 


and at that time furnished in dry powder, leaving it to 
the color makers to develop the reds by diazotizing the 
dye and precipitating it upon such bases as they thought 
best. Some color makers supplying the printing ink 
trade had already developed a red from these dyestuflfs 
upon a base of barytes and named the resulting material 
poster red ink, because it was being used for that pur- 
pose principally, being rather low priced in that quality, 
the coloring matter in the pigment not exceeding 5 per 
cent. To be short and to the point, it may be said that 
the experimenters at first, when making the pure red 
without a mineral base, despaired of ever being able to 
make use of the red as a paint material, because the 
toner, which it really was, as then made, would not dry 
with linseed oil or even coach japan within reasonable 
time. However, after a great deal of experimenting it 
was found that barium sulphate, in either the artificial 
or natural form, as blanc fixe or barytes constituted the 
best base uppn which to fix the diazotized paranitran^ 
iline. While some firms made three grades of the red 
in oil, the best carrying 16 per cent, coloring matter, the 
next 12 per cent., the lowest 8 per cent., with a base of 
equal parts natural barytes and whiting as the balance 
of the pigment, others made their best quality 25 per 
cent, color and 75 per cent, blanc fixe, using in the mix- 
ing in oil 88 per cent, of this mixture of dry pigment and 
12 per cent, best French orange mineral, having excel- 
lent success in marketing the goods ground in oil as well 
as in japan,in the latter case omitting the orange mineral. 

A prominent firm of Londcm, England, as early as 1897, 
although having no business connection with the Amer- 
ican firm whatever, offered samples of what they called 
non-fading red, which in almost every particular equaled 


the product on which the latter had such a great run» 
but for some reason or other the red offered by the 
British manufacturers did not obtain any foothold in 
this market. By the time the Spanish war in 1898 was 
over, we had any number of para reds, so called for 
short, on the market under fancy names, the most com- 
mon of which was devil's red, while the victor at Manila 
Bay was honored by one brand being named after him, 
"Dewey** red. Others used such names as permanent, 
perma, parma red, while others again used the word 
vermilion, prefacing it with a number identical with the 
year of their establishment in business. Prominent 
bulletin sign writers found it to their advantage to use 
the red on a blanc fixe base, its superior spreading qual- 
ity equaling the difference in price, and the absence of 
carbonate of lime giving better wear. One great rail- 
road system adopted for their red signals paranitraniline 
red of a light shade, the coloring matter to be composed 
of at least 23 per cent, of the diazotized paranitraniline 
on blanc fixe, 88 per cent, by weight of this and 12 per 
cent, by weight of orange mineral to constitute the pig- 
ment, same to be ground in pure raw linseed oil at the 
rate of 65 per cent, by weight of the dry material and S5 
per cent, by weight of the vehicle. 

The idea of the addition of orange mineral is to add 
opacity to the color and to aid in its drying without the 
necessity of using an excess of hquid drier when thinning 
the paste color for application. While these reds, which 
we will also call para red for short, have proven them- 
selves far superior in point of permanency to the artifi- 
cial vermilions or vermilionettes, whose coloring prin- 
ciple was cosine, they did not give uniformly good re- 
sults, and many batches of the color failed on exposure 


in practical use. While this could not always be traced 
to the coloring matter or its composition, in many cases, 
the failure was due to imperfect washing, the portions of 
caustic soda used in the process remaining in the dry 
color, acting disastrously on the vehicle, the paint losing 
its luster and streaking or turning white in a short time 
especially when used as an oil paint. 

With the great number of para reds from orange to 
the deepest maroon, so-called toners, that can be ob- 
tained either pure or fixed on various percentages of 
inert bases, it is not difficult for the color grinder to 
select such as he may be in need of and mix them in such 
proportions with barytes» blanc fixe, china clay or 
whiting as may be required to ijuit his tr^de. With the 
litmus paper test he can readily determine if the color is 
free from alkali, but he must be very careful in grinding 
the paste that the mill does not become overheated, as 
this will ruin the color. When grinding para reds in 
paste form, that are selling at low figures for implement 
and wagon painting, the usual practice is to have a base 
of barytes when the red is for brush work, while when it 
is to be used for dipping, the barytes base is too heavy in 
gravity and whiting, clay and asbestine are substituted. 
In the former case 5 per cent, of toner in the pigment por- 
tion is usually the limit, while in the latter case the per- 
centage of toner must be greater because of the greater 
absorbing power of the base, and from 6 to 8 per cent, of 
toner is usually required. The color grinder who works 
on limited capital and has a trade in proportion will find 
it to his advantage to grind pure toner in oil, setting it 
aside in well covered containers so that it will not be 
necessary to grind a batch every time an order is passed 
to him, and thereby have a lot of waste. By keeping 


the toner on hand in pa&te form in oiI» he can grind his 
base in oil and then in a suitable mixer add the coloring 
matter, in such proportions as may be required to meet 
selling price. It is scarcely worth while to say more 
about these reds, as there are new types placed on the 
market so very frequently, and we will pass on to the 
red lake colors in oil that are still to be foimd in oil color 
lists, most prominent among which is Rose Pink^ a deep 
maroon, that up to twenty years ago was made from 
the wood dye known as sapan wood and Lima wood, 
precipitated with alum as the mordant upon a base of 
whiting or whiting and gypsum, but is now prepared 
with aniline dye as the coloring principle., such as mag- 
enta or orseilline, the latter being by far the better of the 
two, being more fast to light and less inclined to bleed. 
Rose pink, being a slow drying pigment in itself, is best 
ground in boiled oil, as it is mostly used in the ;making of 
stains and by grainers. The usual proportions of pig- 
ment and oil required to produce a marketable paste 
is 72 per cent, by weight of the dry material and 28 per 
cent, of oil, varying according to the nature of the base. 
Like all lake colors, rose pink is very apt to liver unless 
well dried before mixing with the oil, and it must be free 
of alumina hydrate. 

Rose Ldkcy as a rule, is simply a color of the same 
type as rose pink, but of at least double, sometimes 
treble, the strength shown by the latter, and also more 
brilliant in the undertone. Does not contain gypsum as 
a base, but usually alumina sulphate. The best grades 
will require anywhere from 60 to 65 per cent, pigment 
and 35 to 40 per cent, of oil to form a paste in oil. 

Scarlet Lakes or Carmine Substitutes y imder whatever 
fancy name they may be listed, are of the acid and dye- 


stuffs substantive color type precipitated with barium 
chloride, and may have Bordeaux, wood ponceau or 
scarlet for coloring principle. This color is a decided 
bleeder unless well fixed upon its base of barium, and 
the barium chloride having changed during the precipi- 
tation process to artificial barytes, it will require a 
mixing of two-thirds by weight of dry pigment and one- 
third by weight of oil to form a paste. On exposure to 
strong light and noxious gases it is as permanent as 
carmine, which is not saying much, because in about six 
months either color will be almost gray imder these 
conditions. This red is also sold as Turkey red in oil, 
since the red oxide sold under that name years ago has 
gone out of the market. 

Permanent Red Lake is a name for alizarine red lake, 
copyrighted by a New York color maker some twenty- 
five years since. When this color is properly prepared, 
free from all traces of iron, it is a rather brilliant red, 
and while not as rich as carmine on first exposure, it will 
distance the latter in richness of tone within three 
months. In tests made by the writer he found that 
alizarine red lake after seven years' exposure showed up 
more brilliant by far than an unexposed sample of the 
same color kept under cover that length of time. This, 
of course, was in a measure due to the bleaching of the 
dried oil film in the exposed sample, while the oil film 
in the unexposed counter sample darkened with age. 
Carmine No. 40, exposed at the same time and place, 
had completely gone to ashy gray in fourteen months. 
Alizarine red lake requires its own weight of oil for a 
paste of medium stiffness, and the finer it is ground 
on a good esopus stone mill the more brilliant will be 
its tone. 


Red Colors for Artists* Tubes. 

The usual vehicle for these consists almost exclusively 
of poppyseed oil, although with permanent red lake, 
refined linseed oil is probably best, as this color is 
favored by sign writers and decorators for lettering on 
glass. The colors for the artists' list in red may be 
named as follows: — Carmine, carmine lake, chatemuc 
lake or crimson lake, madder lake, permanent red lake, 
rose doree, rose madder, scarlet lake, Venetian red and 
vermilion. Each color must be ground exceedingly 
fine, yet be of good consistency in order to avoid separa- 
tion of oil when squeezing the color from the collapsible 
tube. To avoid waste in filling tubes, a tube filling 
machine, similar to a sausage stuffer, is best adapted for 
the work, and the tubes should be long enough to per- 
mit of their being closed up at the end by bending over 
the metal three times. 

For Carmine J either No. 40 or amaranth will be of the 
proper tone, and usually equal weights of color and oil 
will make the color of the right consistency. For 
carmine lake a non-bleeding color is required, and the 
best pigment for this is a cochineal lake that can be 
ground at the rate of 60 per cent, by weight of the lake 
and 40 per cent, by weight of oil. This is simply car- 
mine reduced with a white base. 

Chatemuc or Crimson Lake. — ^These must be non-bleed- 
ing and are best made of a mixture of cochineal lake and 
a wood lake of the type described as being made from 
sapan or Lima wood decoctions; should require about 
same proportions of oil and pigment as carmine lake. 

Madder Lake and Permanent Red Lake may be of 
similar composition that is ground from a fine grade of 


dry alizarine red lake in its own weight of poppyseed or 
bleached linseed oil, while Rose Doree is natural madder, 
at least it is made from an extract of the madder root, 
known as garancine. The dry color is known as lake 
garance No. 6, and in the dry powder appears rather 
pink. When ground in oil it is transparent and pro- 
duces the most delicate pink effects on artists' pictures. 

Rose madder may be ground from a selection of very 
rich alizarine red lake that is utterly devoid of any 
traces of the brownish tinge usually due to the presence 
of iron, or it may be ground from true madder of the 
root. The latter may be tested for genuineness with a 
solution of caustic soda or potash in which it is very 
nearly soluble. It will not dissolve in dilute ammonia, 
but cochineal carmine is soluble in this reagent. 

Scarlet Lake is usually a composition of cochineal lake 
and quicksilver vermilion of palest shade in equal parts 
reduced with their combined weight of alumina sulphate. 
Here the proportions of pigment and vehicle are 72 per 
cent, and 28 per cent., respectively. 

Venetian Red for this line should be of the brightest 
type obtainable and be practically piire oxide of iron, 
ground fine, using 75 parts by weight of pigments to 
25 parts by weight of poppyseed or refined Unseed oil. 

Vermilion for artists* use should be quicksilver ver- 
milion and the grade known as Chinese is the best that 
can be selected; 86 parts by weight of the dry color to 
14 parts by weight of poppyseed oil is about the right 
proportion for mixing. On account of its heavy specific 
gravity the pigment separates from the oil in the tubes, 
and some color grinders have resorted to all sorts of 
means to overcome this, many using wax with the oil to 


keep pigment and oil together, and while they have 
succeeded, the users have had trouble with the color on 
account of the presence of the wax. A better and safer 
plan is to grind the pigment in part poppyseed oil and 
part bodied linseed oil, such as is used in the grinding of 
lithographers' ink, when the artists can thin the mate- 
rial with some turpentine for easy flowing without im- 
pairing the gloss or life of the color. 

Red Colors in Water for Distemper Worlc 

This list comprises carmine and crimson lake, Indian 
red, maroon lake, red lake, rose lake, rose pink, Turkey 
red lake and Venetian red. Since the advent of the 
numerous cold water paints the demand for red colors in 
water for use in distemper or fresco work has become 
very limited, and is confined to red lake, rose lake and 
rose pink that are used by grainers, and to Turkey and 
Venetian reds used by decorators. 

Carmine or Crimson Lake, dry pigments similar to 
those used in oil color lines simply pulped in water by 
running through mixer and mill and put up in glass 
jars is the usual custom. 

Indian Red. — One shade, the deep, is suflicient, and 
80 pounds pigment mixed with 25 pounds water and run 
through mill will yield 100 pounds paste. 

Maroon Lake. — Color makers supply a pigment of 
this color, that is, non-bleeding, and may be mixed at 
the rate of 70 parts by weight of pigment and 85 parts 
by weight of water, and when run through a mill will 
yield 100 parts by weight of paste. 

Red Lake should be of the permanent type, and it is 
best to mix 60 parts by weight of alizarine red lake with 


60 parts of water, run through mill, until fine. Yield 
100 parts paste. 

Roae Lake and Rose Pink may be of same type as 
those described in the oil color list. For the first 
named about 60 parts pigment and 45 parts water, and 
for the second 68 parts pigment and 37 parts water will 
be required for 100 parts of paste. 

Turkey Red Lake is usually offered in two shades, 
light and dark) either of them being of the scarlet azo 
color type described under oil colors as carmine sub- 
stitute, and either shade will require about 70 parts of 
dry color and 35^arts of water to make 100 parts of 

Venetian Red in this line should not be of too deep a 
shade so as not to show up purplish when mixed with 
distemper color base. Should be more on the terra 
cotta effect, but, of course, much richer. Does not 
require to contain over 40 per cent, in sesquioxide of 
iron; 75 parts by weight of pigment and SO parts of 
water wiU yield 100 parts of paste in water. 

Red Colors in Japan or Varnish. 

In this list there are colors, the names of which are 
standard, as they have become familiar to the trade by 
long usage, while each and every color grinder has his 
own proprietary name for some of his specialties. As 
these are not in regular lines we shall not discuss them at 
length, but simply pick one out here and there as 
examples, confining ourselves to the description of the 
well-known materials. These consist of or comprise 
such as carriage part lake, coach red, carmine, English 
vermilion, red lake, rose lake, rose pink, road cart red, 
Indian red, Tuscan red, Venetian red, wine color. 


Carriage Part Lake. — ^The name indicates the use to 
which this color is assigned. Is not so much in demand 
as formerly, the maroon toners having taken its place. 
Still when called for, the pigment selected is a good rose 
lake of good strength and twice as much crimson lake 
of the cochineal type above referred to ground in coach 
japan at the rate of 60 parts dry color to 40 parts japan. 
The pigments must be bone dry, otherwise the ground 
color will liver in short order. 

Coach Red or Coach Painters' Red. — ^This brilliant red, 
made on a base of orange mineral and cosine vermilion 
with alizarine red lake, is now supplanted by reds of the 
paranitraniline type, such as the autol fast red, asophor 
red, helio fast red, as the dyestuflFs of recent develop- 
ment are named. The change is really for the better, 
and whatever fast red is selected is groimd in a vehicle 
of gold size japan and rubbing varnish, and not in the 
ordinary color grinders' japan, as that would take away 
too much of the brilliant eflFect. 

Carmine No. 40 or French Carmine. — ^This brilliant 
red color, once so much in demand as a glaze, has also 
been relegated to the rear, but is, however, still found on 
the coach color lists. 

Being used merely as a glaze over ornamenting in 
orange or vermiUon or fast reds on work where cost is 
not considered seriously, it must be groimd exceedingly 
fine in a pale rubbing varnish, and, as a rule, the propor- 
tions are 40 parts by weight of the dry pulverized car- 
mine to 60 parts of varnish, the grinding being accom- 
plished on a water-colored esopus stone mill of a size in 
proportion to the batch. Carmine being the most 
expensive material in the line of reds, waste cannot be 
well afforded. 


English Vermilion. — ^The usual proportion for a 
grinding is 82 part^ by weight of the dry pigment and 18 
part^ gold size japan. Must be ground on watercooled 
esopus stone mills of slow speed and great care taken not 
to have the stones set very tight, as the color is easily 
ruined by that operation. 

Red Lakey Permanent, — Here the alizarine red lake is 
preferred and a good selection should be made. The 
dry color should be finely powdered and made bone diy 
in a suitable heating apparatus, 40 parts by weight of 
the dry material, 5i parts of hard gum rubbing varnish, 
pale, and 8 parts turps ground fine on a water-cooled 
esopus stone-mill will produce a red almost rivalling 
carmine in fire and distancing it by far in permanency. 

Rose Lake or Geranium Lake is hardly ever called for 
in this line any longer, the coloring matter, constituting 
these pigments being too fugitive. Fast reds are being 
used instead. 

Rose Pink is often called for ground in Japan when 
mahogany effect is desired in car work, etc., or in furni- 
ture factories, and 70 parts of dry pigment and 30 parts 
color grinders* japan is the proper proportion for mixing. 

Road Cart Red. — ^This red was made to supply a de- 
mand for a red color to be used on low-priced vehicles 
whence it derived its name. The coloring matter used 
was of the same type as the azo scarlet or carmine sub- 
stitute above referred to, mixed with artificial vermilion 
to give good body or hiding power. At present the low- 
priced p£(.ra reds in japan have replaced this red. The 
better class of these reds is composed of 7 to 8 per cent, 
pure para red toner with a base of barytes and whiting, 
84 pounds of which and 16 pounds color grinders' japan 
constitute this color. 


Indian Red. — ^The English importation of this is 
usually preferred here, although there are several man- 
ufacturers in the United States who have succeeded in 
making this artificial oxide of iron; 77 parts by weight 
of the diy color and 23 parts by weight of color grinding 
japan is the proportion required for the paste. 

TtLscan Red. — ^While a Tuscan red, made from suit- 
able oxide of iron with a para toner or toluidine red may 
exhibit quite a degree of permanance, it cannot surpass 
the material made from Indian red and alizarine red 
lake for durability and resistance to heat. A mixing 
of 40 parts by weight of Indian red, containing 96 per 
cent, sesquioxide of iron, 20 parts by weight of blanc 
fixe, 12 parts by weight of alizarine red lake, and 28 
parts by weight of color grinders* japan, will produce 
100 parts by weight of a brilliant Tuscan red of great 
permanency of color on exposure, decided resistance to 
heat and not excessive in cost, compared with its value 
as a body color. For a color of lower price, increase the 
percentage of blanc fixe and decrease the percentage of 

Venetian Red. — ^In this case a bright red should be 
selected, one that does not contain less than 35 per cent, 
of sesquioxide of iron and the pigment well dried before 
mixing with the color grinding japan, of which about 27 
parts by weight are required to produce 100 parts paste 
in oil with 73 parts of the dry pigment. Must be groimd 
on water-cooled mill to keep from gumming up. 

Wine Color. — Some coach painters prefer a lake color 
of great richness, others desire a color that covers a 
suitable ground in one coat. The latter is best made 
with a base of Indian or Tuscan red, adding the neces- 
sary claret lake (magenta), grinding in color grinding 


japan. A wine color of rich eflFect cannot be produced 
as a body color, it must necessarily be transparent or at 
least semi-transparent. Color makers are now in 
position to offer fast claret lakes of great strength for 
this purpose, and it would be idle to suggest using the 
old line formulas of mixing various lakes. 



Yellow Ocher* 

Yellow Ocher is first and foremost among the yellow 
pigments because of the great quantities consumed, both 
in the dry state and ground in oil. Years ago it was 
thought to be indispensable as a priming or first coater 
for raw wood on exposed surfaces, such as the frame 
dwellings and buildings going up all over this country 
by hundreds of thousands. The experience of many 
years has brought about a revulsion in the ocher priming 
practice, and this has been caused by the gradual 
enlightenment of consumers that it is a fallacy to as- 
sume that anything in the paint line is good enough for 
the priming coat. While that idea was prevalent 
among the trade, disreputable painters and ignorant 
consumers were in quest of cheap priming ochers, and 
many grinders made it a practice to cater to such trade 
in order to reap a harvest while the sun was shining, 
and outbid competitors. In order to produce a so- 
called yellow ocher in paste form at low cost, some 
ground up French yellow ocher with two or three times 
its own weight of barytes, thus saving in the cost of 
linseed oil, and these were not the worst specimens on 
the market, while others went further in the sophistica- 
tion principle by mixing the cheapest kinds of domestic 
ochers with still cheaper whiting, oflf-colored barytes, 
marble dust or clay, and grinding^ such mixtures in 
part linseed oil and part mineral oil, giving the mate- 
rial a bright effect by the addition of a trifle of chrome 


yellow, and such dopes are still made and sold to-day» 
although the grinder will not at all times place his 
name upon the package. It stands to reason that 
material of that description cannot make a foundation 
for the paint to be applied over it as a finish, and 
that is one of the chief reasons why priming with 
ocher has shown itself to be a disastrous failure, on 
account of its inevitable scaling clean to the wood, if 
not after the original painting, then surely after the 
repainting* On such timber as Southern pine, cypress, 
sycamore, birch or maple, even the best French yellow 
ocher, ground in and thinned for the purpose with pure 
raw linseed oil, is unsuitable, unless it is mixed with at 
least three times its weight of lead carbonate (corroded 
white lead), while for such lumber as whitewood, white 
pine, spruce and hemlock, etc., a priming made from 
finely ground French ocher in sufficient raw linseed oil, 
used rather thin and well rubbed in, will not be apt to 
split and throw off the top coatings of paint. Of all 
yellow ochers, that imported from France is preferred, 
and the United States Navy Department specifications 
call for a yellow ocher to equal the best French ocher in 
color, shade, tone and strength, containing not less than 
20 per cent, sesquioxide of iron, not over 5 per cent, of 
lime in any form, balance to be of the natural gangue 
that occurs with it in nature, which means silica and 
aluminum silicates. It will not )be uninteresting to note 
that in France the mining, levigation, drying, etc., of 
ocher is much more primitive than elsewhere in the 
world, and yet the cost is comparatively low because of 
the great area available for the purpose. In England, 
Germany, Italy and the United States the mined ocher 
earth must be put through a more or less costly process 
of milling in the wet, floating, drying in kilns or cham- 


bers, sifting, powdering and sorting, while in France 
the mined earth is spread over an area varying from 
3,000 to 6,000 square yards, through which ditches are 
dug that lead to basins which are arranged over one 
another. During the summer months all work is 
stopped. In the fall of the year, during the rainy 
season, the water nms through the ditches and carries 
the earth slowly to the next basin. Here the coarser 
particles sink to the bottom, while the finer portion is 
floated to the next basin, and so on until all the earth 
has been well levigated. Throughout the winter, while 
there is no freezing, this natural floating apparatus does 
its work, until the whole area is free of the ocher earth 
and the basins full of it. A few weeks later the basins 
are drained as much as p>ossible of clear water, and the 
sun of early spring finishes the evaporation of the re- 
mainder. When the yellow earth has dried up so far as 
to show large furrows it is taken up and spread on trays 
in thin layers and dried by the heat of the sun, and, this 
accomplished, it is filled in casks and made ready for 
the market. The fineness of the floated material makes 
pulverizing in a mill or sifting apparatus unnecessary. 
In the marking of the packages the French ocher pro- 
ducers are really practical. Each cask bears a general 
designation, denoting the quality, as, for instance: 
Qualite extra superieur (extra fine quality), qualite 
superieur (fine quality). Ire qualite (good or prime 
quality). In addition to these general designations 
will be foimd on each package such letters as J. L. C. E. 
S., J. F. L. E. S., J. T. C. E. S., J. O. L. S., and so on. 
J. stands for jaune or yellow, L. for lave or levigated, C. 
for citron or light yellow, T. means tres or very, E. for 
extra, F. for fonce or dark, O. for or (or gold), R. for 
rouge (or red), M. for mijico, a very desirable shade, so 


that these letters give an idea of the sort of ocher con- 
tained in the casks, which usually run between S40 and 
360 kilos gross weight. Some importers have the 
French producers mark the casks with such marks as 
citron, satin, or with the initials of their firm names. 
These ochers of the pale shade show anywhere from 17 
to 22 per cent, sesquioxide of iron, but there is at least 
one brand of J. F. L. £. S. (dark shade) that analyzes 
from 26 to 28 per cent, in sesquioxide, and this is usually 
selected for grinding a brand known as Oxford ocher in 
oil. Having thus described the trade marks of Frraich 
yellow ocher, we would say that the color grinder will 
have no difficulty in selecting his needs by testing the 
samples offered for shade, tone, fineness and strength in 
the usual way, making rub-outs or trial grindings. 
When once a certain brand has been adopted, there is no 
trouble in obtaining the same quality right along, for as 
a rule the exporters as well as the importers see to it that 
the standard is well kept up to the mark. There is not 
enough margin of profit for either to take any great risks. 
The precaution necessary in the mixing and grinding of 
French and other yellow ochers is to see that the mate- 
rial is as dry as possible; in other words, bone dry. 
Oftentimes it so happens that a cargo in crossing the 
Atlantic Ocean will become more or less saturated, and 
the moisture will not evaporate while enclosed in the 
cask, therefore the ocher should be spread on drying 
pans or other apparatus suitable to the purpose, be- 
cause moist or damp earth paints will not mix with the 
minimum quantity of oil and pass through the mills in 
lumpy condition, even when an excess of oil is used. 
At least a good, smooth paste cannot be produced with 
damp material. For grinding ocher in paste form, 
any good stone mill of a diameter between 24 and SO 


inches, with not too high a speed, will render good 
service, and for French ocher of good fineness the soft or 
esopus stones are preferable, while for the more gritty 
English, Italian and domestic ochers buhr millstones are 
better suited. French yellow ocher for the general 
trade, ground pure in paste form, is best mixed 72 
pounds pigment and 28 pounds raw linseed oil, and 
boiled linseed oil should not be used, as it makes the 
paste too soft, and on standing about in containers the 
oil is apt to separate. When grinding large batches of 
ocher in oil into one package, the material in the middle 
of such package is often found to form hard lumps. 
This is due to overheating in the mill, or it may be due 
to moisture in the pigment or in the oil, but can be 
avoided by using smaller containers, in which the paste 
may cool more rapidly and then be dumped into the 
larger package, or by having the paste run from the 
mill into a mixing can with stirring device. 

The color in oil sold by reputable manufacturers as 
French ocher or French yellow is that which is ground 
from the J. L. C. E. S. or citron brand, while the satin 
brand is also favored to some extent. Special brands of 
Yeilom Ocher in Oil, when pure, i. e., without any 
extending material, are either made from the best 
grades of Pennsylvania mines, which are not so high in 
iron oxide, but of fairly good color, some of them ap- 
proaching second or third grade French ochers in point 
of color and requiring about 75 per cent, of pigment to 
25 per cent, of oil by weight to form a good paste. 
When, however, prices of the dry ochers are compared 
and percentage of oil required is considered, it will be 
found that the small difference in cost does not warrant 
the color grinder to place, such a brand on his list as 


yellow ocher without the prefix "French," because he 
cannot obtain a high enough price. The Southern 
ochers, mined in Virginia, Georgia and Alabama, are 
usually very high in oxide of iron, some running as high 
as 64 and even 72 per cent., but their color is exceedingly 
dull, and the demand for them is limited to the use in 
backing up floor oilcloth and as an oxide of iron filler in 
certain specification paints for railroads, and also to 
furnish the necessary oxide of iron feature in doped 
brands of ocher. 

Golden Ochers and Chrome Ochers in Oil. 

There is no standard in the trade for true or genuine, 
that is, imadulterated golden ocher or chrome ocher, and 
every color grinder has his own standard or else matches 
his competitor's brand. As an example of a formula for 
a pale or light shade of golden ocher, we would suggest 
65 parts of J. L. C. E. S. French ocher, i. e., the pale 
citron shade; 7 parts by weight of a clear shade of 
medium chrome yellow, and 28 parts by weight of 
clarified or refined linseed oil, for 100 parts of paste. 
Lemon yellow should not be used, as it would make the 
color too flat-looking, too sad, as some would term it. 
For a dark or deep shade of golden ocher, would suggest 
65 parts by weight of J. F. L. E. S. French ocher (dark 
shade) and 7 poimds of a light shade of orange chrome 
yellow with 28 pounds raw linseed oil, grinding the mix- 
ings in either case on same kind of mills as French ocher. 
For convenience and prevention of waste, when small 
batches only are to be produced, we suggest the follow- 
ing formulas: — For light golden ocher in oil, mix in a 


suitable mixing can and beat up until smooth and free of 
streaks, 90 parts by weight of French yellow ocher in oil 
and 10 parts by weight of medium chrome yellow in oil. 
For the dark golden ocher follow same proportions, but 
use J. F. L. S. ocher in oil and orange chrome yellow in 
oil, that must be perfectly free from paint skins in either 
case. Chrome ocher ^ when expected strictly pure in oil, 
is only another name for golden ocher, and our formula 
for light shade will answer here, because it should 
be made only by the addition of neutral lead chromate, 
not the basic chromate of lead to ocher. When 
bought in quantity chrome ochers are not expected 
to be pure ocher and chrome yellow, but a sort of 
golden ocher with a marigold tint. The usual selling 
price for this material is not above, but rather below, 
that of the pure French yellow ocher in oil, and the 
goods sold under the brand chrome ocher are really 
imitations of golden ocher. At least, the various anal- 
yses had of specimen samples would show this. The 
best of the samples analyzed could be matched very 
close in color, tone, strength, etc., by mixing 17 parts 
J. L. C. E. S. ocher, 8 parts medium chrome yellow, 1 
part Venetian red, 12 parts whiting, 50 parts floated 
barytes, and 17 parts raw linseed oil, for each 100 parts 
of medium soft paste. This analysis came fairly close 
to the result from the analysis of an imitation of golden 
ocher sold in dry powder at a fairly low figure. On the 
strength of the foregoing it will not be diflScult for any 
grinder of experience to formulate mixings and grindings 
of yellow ocher for the consumer's requirements, and so 
long as he does not practice deception by using deceiving 
terms no one can take exception to the class of goods he 
makes for his patrons. 


Yellow Oxide. 

Yellow Oxide in Oil will also be found in the oil color lists 
of some manufacturers, but the demand is rather limited. 
There are some very pretty yellow oxides offered to the 
trade from English and Italian sources, and there is a 
limited quantity foimd in this country. Color grinders 
use yellow oxides to strengthen ochers that are listed 
imder fancy names; also to mix with raw sienna. The 
percentage of oil required for grinding yellow oxides 
varies to some extent, the English variety needing 30 
pounds oil to 70 poimds dry pigment, while Sardinian 
yellow earth (oxide) requires 38 to 40 pounds of oil for 
60 to 62 of pigment. Very bright yellow oxides are 
very useful in making pigment stains, as well as for 
tinting. In that case and when wanted for that purpose 
they should be ground very fine in strong boiled oil. 

Chrome Yellows. 

Next and of not less importance in the line of yellow 
pigments are the Chromate of Lead Yellows. Here we 
have the pale or light shades, usually designated as 
lemon, citron or canary yellow, then the medium or, as 
the English call it, middle chrome yellow, which is or 
should be the neutral or normal lead chromate, and 
which is sometimes deeper, sometimes lighter, according 
to the luck the color maker has in perfecting the batches ; 
then comes the deep or orange chrome yellow, to which 
some color makers add another darker shade which they 
term D. D. chrome or D. orange chrome yellow. When 
it comes to the very deep orange shade, the output of 
these varies with almost every color maker's product. 
The pale shades, that are designated as canary, citron. 


lemon or primrose yellow, according to their tone, vary 
to quite an extent, even when pure, in strength as well as 
in their absorption of oil on grinding, and we have noted 
formula labels on cans of pure lemon chrome yellow 
where the percentage given was 86 per cent, pigment to 
14 per cent. oil. If correct, this statement would indi- 
cate that this yellow, although free of adulterants in the 
strict sense of the term, contained an excessive portion 
of lead sulphate, probably basic lead sulphate in the 
form of added sublimed lead. A normal basic chromate 
of lead of the lemon or primrose shade should not con- 
tain over 40 per cent, of lead sulphate, which is neces- 
sary, in connection with the bichromate of potash or 
soda, to produce the pale shade, while a cauBxy shade 
may contain more. The percentages of pigment and 
oil in these should not vary more than 2 or 3 points; in 
other words, 77 to 80 per cent, pigment and 20 to 23 
per cent, of oil should constitute a good, workable 
paste. The oil used in mixing and grinding should be 
bleached or clarified, and the color grinders in selecting 
the dry yellow should guard especially against the use of 
any that contain any portion, no matter how small, of 
alumina hydrate; which is used in the chrome yellow for 
printing ink and wall paper printing succesirfully, but 
causes trouble by livering for the painter. Other 
points to be considered are that the yellow selected is of 
good tone, as rich as may be had, soft in texture and of 
standard strength, most of it being used for tinting or 
mixing with other pigments, as, for instance, in greens, 
where the medium chrome yellow would produce too 
much of an olive eflfect. This is obvious when it is 
known that the chrome greens are mixtures of lemon 
dirome and Prussian blue, as these could not be ob- 
tained by mixing the medium chromes with the blue. 


Medium Chrome Yellow in oil is most used in point of 
quantity by the general painting trade, on account of its 
great tinting power and brilliant yellow color. The 
various brands of chemically pure medium chrome 
yellow vary to quite an extent in these points, although 
there has been a general improvement all along because 
of competitive tests made by master painters' associa- 
tions and by the salesmen representing the manufac- 
turers. The color grinder, who at the present time 
places second or third grade of this yellow on the market 
to supply a demand for low price, is not afraid to let this 
fact be known, and the consumer is not kept in the dark 
although there may be some exceptions. The extending 
material for medium chrome yellow in such cases would 
be principally barytes, although whiting, gypsum, clay 
or floated silex may be used, so as to give bulk. The 
oil, when quoted as at present, being not much more 
than one-half of the cost of the pure medium yellow, 
does not cut so much of a figure as it did a few years 
since. The proportions for mixing and grinding a 
normal medium chrome yellow in oU should be 74 per 
cent, by weight of dry pigment and 26 per cent, by 
weight of bleached or clarified oil, but when raw linseed 
oil is specified as the vehicle it may require 28 per cent, 
of oU, and under certain conditions, as, for instance, in 
the case of a very fluflfy yellow, SO per cent, of oil and 70 
per cent, pigment will still produce a paste that can- 
not be condemned as too liquid. When the color 
grinder intends to supply a demand for "extended" or 
"stretched'' medium chrome yellow, a 40 per cent, 
article would still produce a paste that, when thinned for 
a body or trimming color, will cover up solid in one coat 
over the right ground. A good formula for this is as 
follows: — ^Thirty pounds chemically pure medium 


chrome yellow, 45 pounds finest blanc fixe, 25 pounds 
clarified oil. Another, showing more strength in tinting, 
fair body, but not as good spreading capacity as the 
former, is: — ^Thirty p>ounds chemically pure medium 
chrome yellow, 52 pounds floated natural barytes, 18 
pounds clarified oil. Still another, more bulky than the 
last, lower for cost, but of less strength and hiding 
power, is as follows: — ^Twenty pounds medium chrome 
yellow, 30 pounds bolted china clay (best English), 30 
pounds floated barytes, 20 pounds bleached linseed oil. 
This may look like a very cheap dope, but it is really 
good for solid painting, alongside of some of the medium 
chrome yellow that has been found from time to time 
on dealers' shelves. The formulas here given no grinder 
need be ashamed of, when low-priced goods are demand- 
ed; it is only the deception that has been practiced 
years ago that creates suspicion of improper business 
practices. In selecting his dry medium yellow the color 
grinder looks for richness of tone, fineness, softness of 
texture, and, above all, tinting power, and it is really a 
matter of indifference to him whether the pigment is a 
nitrate or an acetate of lead yellow, or whether it is made 
with bichromate of potash or sodium bichromate. 
Exposure tests of yellows made either way in compari- 
son with one another have shown very contradictory 
results, and it looks very much as if the permanency of 
the yellow to strong light or atmospheric conditions 
depends to a great extent on the mechanical side of the 
process, i. e., the proper way of treating a batch from 
end to end, temperature of the water, and the final 
washing of the color. The color grinder, too, must 
guard against overheating of the yellow in mixing and 
milling, and select mills of slow speed for this pigment. 


Orange Chrome Yellow in Oil is in fair demand, but 
mostly that of the light shade, that is, next in depth to 
the medium yellow. The yellows of this type take the 
least percentage of oil for grinding of all chrome yellows, 
and the darker the shade the less is the percentage of oil 
required in the grinding. Thus, while a rather pale 
shade of orange chrome requires 20 pounds oil to 80 
pounds pigment, a neutral shade requires only 18 pounds 
oil to 82 of dry color, and in the dark shades of orange it 
runs from 15 to 17 pounds of oil for 83 to 85 pounds dry 
color, when chemically pure color is considered. As for 
the extended brands, the same method for reducing cost 
is suggested as that for medium chrome yellow. There 
is a demand for body colors of these types, and on ac- 
count of the necessity for frequent repainting, because 
of the darkening of the yellow by the sulphur gases in 
the air, etc., those favoring the color do not care to pay 
for chemically pure material when this will do no better 
than the extended material and probably not as well. 
Magnesium silicate (asbestine) also suggests itself as 
an extender, but as it is always slightly alkaline it had 
best be omitted in paste containing yellow of the lead 
chromate type, which is very sensitive to the action 
of even weak alkalies. When grinding bases with 
chrome yellow, be it light, medium, dark or dark orange, 
for dipping paint for implement or wagon work, it is 
best to use as much zinc oxide as the shade is able to 
stand without losing its yellow or orange effect, and as 
much pure whiting (that is previously tested with 
litmus paper for alkaline reactions) as possible, and a 
moderate portion of china clay of fine quality. Here is 
a formula for a paste that has given excellent results 
when thinned with ordinary painters' naphtha (62 per 
cent, benzine) and benzine drying japan: — ^Fifteen 


pounds dark chrome yellow (orange), 5 pounds Amer- 
ican zinc oxide, 40 pounds Cliffstone bolted whiting, 20 
pounds English china clay, and 20 pounds raw linseed 
oil, ground fine on esopus stone mills of 30-inch diameter. 

Paste Yellows in Oil for the implement and wagon 
manufacturing concerns, for both dipping and brush 
work, are not based, as they used to be in the past, on 
French yellow ocher tints, but are now so standardized 
that only chrome yellow of light, medium or dark shade 
can be employed in coloring the white base, that may be 
lead carbonate and zinc oxide or basic lead sulphate 
(sublimed lead) and zinc oxide extended or zinc lead, 
leaded zinc or lithopone, although the last named must 
not be used in connection with lead chromate. These 
bases are, as a rule, made to match a standard sample or 
to specifications, and therefore it is scarcely worth while 
to give more than one specimen formula here. Such a 
one is as follows: — ^Twenty-five pounds dry white lead 
or sublimed white lead, 25 pounds zinc oxide white 
(American), 25 pounds English Cliffstone Paris white, 
not over 5 pounds chrome yellow, ground to a medium 
paste in 16 pounds raw linseed oil of best quality and 4 
pounds turpentine drier. 

Zinc Yellow. 

Permanent Yellow is a favorite label for zinc yellow or 
zinc chromate in oil, although baryta yellow or strontia 
yellow is also considered permanent. Zinc yellow when 
it first appeared upon the American market was held 
very high in price, and was therefore rather rarely 
found in the list of oil colors, but more on the artists' 
color and coach color lists. It is still anywhere from 25 
to 85 per cent, higher in cost in the dry state than lemon 


chrome yellow. The color grinder will test zinc yellow 
for clearness of tone, softness of texture and tinting 
power although it is seldom, if ever, used for the latter 
purpose. A fine quality of zinc yellow must not be 
harsh when rubbed up in oil with the spatula, as that 
would show that it is liable, after grinding in oil and put 
up for the market in containers, to become grainy. 
Pure zinc yellow will require anywhere from twenty-two 
to twenty-four parts by weight of bleached or clarified 
linseed oil to from seventy-six to seventy-eight parts by 
weight of the pigment, which must be bone dry, as 
moisture will prevent the production of smooth paste. 
Modem scientific research has discovered that pure zinc 
chromate ground fine in linseed oil and reduced to 
brushing consistency with linseed oil and pure turpen- 
tine drier prevents, when applied to rust-free iron or 
steel, the formation of rust or corrosion through galvanic 
action or atmospheric influence. 

Naples Yellow. 

Naples Yellow is a lead compound that has been su- 
perseded by the lead chromates, but is still now and then 
called for, but mostly in tube colors and coach colors. 
True Naples yellow is still sold by a few New York 
importers in two shades — flight and dark. We shall 
refer to this pigment in considering artists' colors. It 
has also been known as antimony yellow. When 
imitation of Naples yellow is desired for use in quantity 
the light shade is made by tinting pure white lead with 
lemon chrome yellow, a very delicate cream color, and 
the dark shade by using a yellow-toned raw sienna and 
a trifle of chrome yellow to produce a clear buff tint. 


Indian Yellow and Cadmium Yellows have no place in 
the list of ordinary oil colors, and will be dealt with in 
the description of artists' tube colors and coach colors. 
Aureolin belongs in the same class. Orange mineral 
may be classed among the yellow pigments, though it is 
really more of a bright red. French orange mineral 
branded Tours is in lead oxide what French process 
zinc is in comparison with American process zinc- 
Instead of hardening in short order like ordinary red 
lead, orange mineral in oil keeps in buttery condition 
when ground in linseed oil to paste form, and that made 
by the French process excels in that respect German 
process orange mineral or English orange lead. While 
ordinary red lead requires nine or ten pounds of oil to 
ninety or ninety-one parts pigment to form a paste, 
orange mineral requires from thirteen to fifteen pounds 
of lijnseed oil to from eighty-five to eighty-seven pounds 
of pigment for one hundred pounds paste in oil. Orange 
mineral is favored by many bulletin sign writers for use 
in place of the darker orange chromes because of its 
greater body or hiding power. 

Mixli^ and Grindli^ Yellow Colors for Artist's and 
Decorators* Use. 

In these lists will be found yellow ocher, Roman ocher, 
Oxford ocher, golden ocher and probably Mars yellow, 
so far as earth colors are concerned. The ocher de- 
signated as yellow ocher is invariably of the French 
variety and the citron shade usually favored. It is best 
for the grinder to select only material of very finest 
levigation for use in this line; that is, the ocher should 
be entirely free of grit. In that state of fineness at least 
thirty-two parts by weight of poppyseed or nut oil is 
required to grind sixty-eight parts by weight of pigment. 


Roman Ocher should have a sort of marigold tint or 
tone and the strong and dark French ocher, branded 
J. F. L. E. S., say sixty-six parts by weight and two part 
by weight of bright Italian burnt sienna mixed with 
thirty-two parts of poppyseed or nut oil ground fine in a 
stone mill will answer for this. 

Oxford Ocher — ^It is optional here whether the strong 
dark French ocher, J. F. L. E. S., or an English or Ger- 
man ocher of even greater strength is used so long 
as the pigment is free of grit and of rich, deep yellow 
color. The quantity of oil in one hundred pounds 
paste should not exceed one-third of the total weight 
of the mixture. 

Oolden Ocher. — ^The artist when painting a picture 
will rarely, if ever, place on his palette a golden ocher that 
is made by mixing yellow ocher and chrome yellow, but 
the decorator is not so exacting, and will use that which 
is ready prepared to save him the trouble of doing his 
own mixing. There being no rule or standard as to the 
percentage of yellow ocher and chrome yellow, the 
grinder can refer back to the formulas given in the 
regular oil color list, with this precaution, however, that 
only the finest levigated materials be mixed and ground, 
and that in place of raw linseed oil poppyseed or nut 
oil be used, increasing the percentage of oil somewhat 
over that given in those formulas. 

Mars Yellow is really an artificial ocher, but seldom 
met with nowadays. We are not going far astray when 
we say that the rich yellow oxides mentioned in the 
description of the yellow pigments for yellow colors in 
oil for the general trade are selected for this pigment, 
and reaUy, when well levigated, so as to be entirely free 
from grit, are far better in regard to permanency of coIcht 


and durability than the artificial product. Like the 
ochers, it must be ground in poppyseed or nut oil, fairly 
stout, to avoid separation of oil and pigment when fiUed 
in collapsible tubes. Thirty parts of oil to seventy 
parts pigment is the proper proportion for mixing and 

Naples Yellow is used by artists in oil painting and 
favored for its great opacity. There are two shades 
only — ^pale and deep; any other, and especially that of a 
reddish tone, is a mixed pigment. Naples yellow, or 
antimony yellow, is produced by the calcination of the 
oxides of lead and antimony with access of air in muffled 
furnaces. This pigment requires for a fair paste four- 
teen to fifteen parts by weight of oil to eighty-five or 
eighty-six parts by weight of pigment, and should not 
come into contact with metallic iron or zinc, as it is apt 
to assume a grayish tinge. 

Chrome Yellows in any shade, from canary to orange, 
are ground in poppyseed oil for artists* and decorators' 
purposes, and only the best and cleanest goods that are 
obtainable should be selected. The proportions of pig- 
ment and oil given in our description and suggestions for 
the regular oil color list apply here, with the exception 
that in place of using bleached or clarified linseed oil 
poppyseed or nut oil is to be employed, and the grinding 
so perfectly done that the oil will not readily separate 
from the pigment when the color is squeezed from the 
collapsible tube. Where the output warrants it roller 
mills are most practical for grinding chrome yellows for 
tube color. 

Permanent^ or Zinc YeUow^ as noted above, is a 
chromate of zinc produced by digesting one hundred 
parts zinc oxide in a great quantity of water with sixty 


parts sulphuric acid, to which mixture is added a solu- 
tion of one hundred parts bichromate of potash. How- 
ever, Barium Chromate and Strontian Yellow are also 
sold as permanent yellow, and in some instances, as 
ultramarine yellow. Zinc yellow requires twenty-eight 
parts by weight of poppyseed oil to seventy-two parts 
of the dry powder for one hundred parts paste in oil. 
Baryta yellow (barium chromate) and strontia yellow 
(strontium chromate) require very close to the same 
proportions of oil and dry powder. 

Cadmium Yellow^ known, in short, as cadmium, is a 
compound of the metal cadmium and sulphur, and is on 
the market in three or four shades — ^pale, medium, deep 
and orange. The darker shades are very permanent to 
light and unaffected by gases, but the very pale shade is 
not pure cadmium, containing zinc sulphide or zinc 
oxide in addition. Pure cadmium yellow dissolves in a 
strong, warm solution of hydrochloric acid to a clear 
liquid while giving off sulphuretted hydrogen. If 
cadmium yellow is mixed with chrome yellow it will 
show the formation of the black sulphide of lead when 
treated with sulphate of soda solution. Cadmium 
yellows should be ground in stone mills with scrapers of 
bronze, as contact with iron or lead is harmful to its 
brilliancy, tending to produce dark streaks in the color. 
The proportions of oil and pigment for grinding the color 
for tubes are similar to that of the chrome yellows of 
same shade. 

Oamboge is a resin and requires a special treatment 
before it can be mixed with oil for artistic painting, con- 
sisting in powdering the brittle material and extracting 
the pure resin from the material with alcohol, decanting 
the clear yellow alcoholic solution, evaporating the 


spirit and melting the residue in oil sufficient to make it 
viscid enough to fill in tubes. Used by artists for glaz- 
ing, but not permanent to light to any degree. 

Indian YeUoWy or Purree, a magnesium salt of 
euxanthic acid, comes into the European market from 
East India in lumps of the size of a fist, that are of 
brown color on the outside, but of a bright yellow inside, 
and have the odor of ammonia rather strongly. When 
the outer crust is taken off and the yellow well washed 
in boiling water and ground in borate of manganese oil 
it is a very permanent yellow color for use of artists, 
while for other purposes it is too expensive. On account 
of its high market price it is susceptible to adulteration 
with inexpensive yellow lake or Dutch pink, sometimes 
chrome yellow. The presence of yellow lake or Dutch 
pink can be determined by disintegrating the pigment 
with hydrochloric acid and then adding ammonia in 
excess. If pure a bright yellow, clear solution is had; 
but if yellow lake or Dutch pink is present there will be 
a precipitate of alumina or hydroxide of tin. There is 
an imitation of Indian yellow on the color market that 
has even a better and richer tone than Purree, but, 
being a coal-tar derivative, it is not as permanent. 
However, its price is only one-fourth as much as that 
charged for the true article. True Indian yellow re- 
quires for one hundred parts of finished tube color in 
oil, fifty-six parts pigment to forty-four parts of poppy- 
seed or linseed oil that has been boiled with 2 per cent, 
of manganese borate. Imitations of Indian yellow 
differ somewhat in the percentage of oil required, but a 
sample tested by the author required four parts by 
weight of poppyseed oil to six parts by weight of pig- 


Yellow Lakes are uncertain pigments, and the only one 
suited for the use of the artist is that branded as French 
Superior Yellow lake in drops. This is made from the 
extract of the quercitron bark on a base of alumina 
hydrate, which has a tendency to make the color liver 
in time, and it should be guarded against, even at the 
expense of brilliancy, by selecting yellow lake with a 
base of alumina sulphate. This is a matter that can be 
arranged mutually between the color maker and the 
color grinder. In grinding yellow lakes the utmost 
fineness must be attained, as the color is used for glazing, 
and the finer it is ground the better the transparency. 
Usually fifty-eight pounds pigment and forty-two 
pounds poppyseed oil are required for one hundred 
pounds of the color in oil, but these percentages will 
differ materially, according to the nature of the base. 

Dvtch Pinky Italian Pinky yellow madder and brown 
pink are simply very much extended yellow lakes, and 
are used for scene painting, the base material taking 
away the transparency to a great degree, also making 
the pigment less oil absorptive. 

Aureoliny or Cobalt YelloWy is a complicated salt of the 
metal cobalt and has no advantages over other yellow 
pigments, and, as it is rather high in cost, is seldom 
used. Requires six parts of oil to four parts of the dry 
color on mixing and grinding. Usually the name 
Aureolin appears only on the label and in the color lists, 
but the color in the tube is usually another rich yellow 

King^s Yellow, or Orpiment, an arsenic sulphide 
pigment, is now practically obsolete, and when found in 
tubes as an artists' and decorators' oil color it wiU be 
discovered to be medium chrome yellow. 


Mixing and Grinding Yellow Pigments in Water. 

French or Yellow Ocher is in fair demand for tinting 
kalsomines and for fresco or distemper work in general. 
For this purpose the citron shade, J. C. L. E. S. of 
French ocher is preferable, and sixty-five parts of the 
dry pigment, well mixed with forty parts water and then 
run through a good stone mill, will produce 100 parts of 
paste, to be put up in the usual way in glass, or, if 
required in quantity, in earthen jars or wooden kegs 
well sized inside. Tin pails are not well adapted for this 
class of goods because of the formation of rust. 

Golden Ochety both pale and deep, are also foimd in 
lists of distemper colors, being useful in producing the 
richer yellow tints. For the pale shade, the citron 
ocher, say fifty-seven parts, eight parts of pale medium 
chrome yellow and forty parts water, will produce 100 
parts of paste, while for the dark shade, fifty-five parts 
of strongest J. F. L. E. S. ocher, ten parts of a light shade 
of orange chrome yellow and forty parts water will 
result after grinding in the production of 100 parts 

Dutch Pinky English Pink or Italian Pinky under 
whatever name it may be called for, is also very useful 
as a water color, for the reason that it enables the decor- 
ator to obtain effects that he cannot produce by the use 
of ocher or raw sienna in composite colors, while 
yellow lake would prove too expensive. The per- 
centages of pigment and water required for mixing and 
grinding Dutch pink depend very much upon the base 
on which the dyestuff is precipitated, but figuring on 
sixty parts pigment and forty-eight parts water for 100 
parts paste will prove a safe average. 


Chrome Yellows^ light or lemon, medium, dark or 
orange, are also in fair demand, and when a color making 
establishment is connected with a color grinding factory 
it is, of course, a decided factor in economy to place the 
pulp from which all but say 36 per cent, of the water has 
been removed by settling or pressing on a mill to give it 
one, or at most two, runs in order to break up any little 
particles that usually form when the yellows are precip- 
itated. Thirty-five per cent, by weight of water would 
be the average in the pulp, and this will mean about 40 
per cent, for the medium, but not over 30 per cent, for 
the light, or lemon, and dark, or orange, shade. How- 
ever, the color grinder who does not have a color making 
department connected with his plant will mix the dry 
yellow in water and run it through a soft stone mill until 
the paste is fine and of proper consistency. These 
pigments, being rather heavy, are apt to settle when 
ground with excess of water, hence it is necessary to 
scoop off the surplus after permitting the finished goods 
to set over night. For the light and dark shades 
seventy parts dry pigment and thirty-five parts water, 
and for medium chrome yellow sixty-five parts dry 
color and forty parts water, should, when ground, render 
100 parts paste in each case. 

Permanent Yellow or Zinc Yellow is fairly important 
in the line of distemper colors and should be found on 
the list. The proper proportions for 100 pounds of 
paste in water is to mix seventy-six pounds dry color 
with thirty pounds clear water and run through a clean 
stone mill. 

Aureolin or Cobalt Yellow, being partly soluble in 
water, should be omitted from the list of water colors. 


Cadmium Yellow is too expensive for use in this con- 
nection, therefore not called for by the trade. 

True Naples Yellow is not used in distemper painting. 

Mixing and Grinding Yellow Colors in Japan. 

The yellow colors for coach and car work that are 
listed under the caption of Superfine Coach Colors, as a 
rule, are not necessarily ground in what is understood 
as japan, but may be ground in the brown siccative 
known as color grinders* or coach painters* japan, in 
gold size, rubbing varnish, finishing varnish or in part oil, 
turpentine, etc. The meaning of the term "in japan,*' 
which is collective for a group or type of colors in paste 
form is that when reduced to brushing consistency and so 
applied to the proj)er surface, they will dry quickly to a 
more or less "matt" or flat surface that is to be coated 
with one or more applications of varnish. 

There are any number of yellow colors of this type, so 
far as the vehicle is concerned, and they run with fanci- 
ful names from the palest cream yellow tint to the deep- 
est orange. As most of them must be produced to 
match certain standards adopted by consumers we will 
confine ourselves to the description of those found in 
almost every color grinders* list, adding a few formulas 
for attractive car colors. 

French Ochers in Japan. — ^It is, of course, optional 
with the color grinder whether he prefers the light citron 
shade or the dark shade of the J. F. L. E. S. superior 
quality of French ocher. The vehicle in this brand is 
usually color grinders* brown japan, that should be 
tempered with at least 5 per cent, of raw linseed oil, and, 
if the japan is of the very quick type, 10 per cent, oil 


would not be excessive, because ocher is a brittle mate- 
rial at best. We suggest a mixing of sixty-eight pounds 
of bone dry ocher, thirty-two pounds color grinders' 
brown japan and three pounds raw linseed oil, to be 
ground fine on a water-cooled mill, well sharpened, 
which should result in producing 100 pounds finished 

Golden Ocher in Japan. — ^The pale shade of this is a 
favorite with railroad equipment painters for lettering 
and ornamenting on cars and engines when gilding, for 
some reason or another, is not desired. It is made, as a 
rule, by mixing sixty-two pounds of J. C. L. E. S. ocher, 
eight pounds medium chrome yellow of pale shade, 
thirty pounds color grinders* japan and three pounds 
raw linseed oil, resulting in 100 pounds finished material. 

The dark shade, which is more seldom called for, is 
made by mixing sixty pounds of J. F. L. E. S. ocher, ten 
pounds orange chrome yellow, light shade, thirty pounds 
color grinders' japan and three pounds raw linseed oil, 
producing 100 pounds color, when ground fine. 

Imitation of Gold in Japan is usually bought in one- 
fourth-pound collapsible tubes, but most coach painters 
mix their own color from flake white, chrome yellow and 
vermilion red, with perhaps a little ocher thrown in. 
Mix eighty pounds finest quality dry white lead, eight 
pounds medium chrome yellow, two ounces toluidine red 
(fast scarlet toner) with two and one-half pounds gold 
size japan, seven and one-half pounds pale rubbing 
varnish, two pounds refined linseed oil and four pounds 
turpentine and grind fine on water-cooled mill. Pro- 
duces 100 poimds paste that will answer very well for 
lettering and striping. If not warm enough in tone, add 
more red. 


Dutch Pink in Japan is not called for very frequently, 
probably on account of the coach painters' custom of 
purchasing composite greens and other colors of this type 
that contain this pigment ready ground. StiU it should 
be on the coach color list, under either this name or as 
English or Italian pink. But as it should serve as a 
glaze over greens or olive tones it should be ground in a 
pale vehicle to impalpable fineness and the pigment 
selected should not have a base of whiting, but of 
alumina sulphate. Mix seventy-two pounds dry color 
with either pale gold size japan to make 103 pounds or a 
mixture of twenty-six pounds pale rubbing varnish, 
three pounds raw linseed oil and six pounds turpentine, 
resulting in 100 pounds finished color in either case 
when ground on a good water-cooled stone mill. 

Chrome Yellow in Japan. — Canary, lemon and prim- 
rose yellows are pretty much the same type of chromes, 
differing slightly only in shade, but more in tone. 
Canary yellow is cleaner and paler than lemon yellow, 
while primrose is also cleaner and paler, but more 
greenish in tone than lemon. The most successful 
vehicle for use in grinding any chrome yellow has been 
found by the author to consist of eighty-two parts by 
weight of pale hard-drying rubbing varnish, six parts 
well clarified raw linseed oil and twelve parts pure gum 
spirit of turpentine. In place of the rubbing varnish a 
pale hard picture varnish of twelve hours drying will 
also answer. We shall refer to this as yellow thinners. 
To mix either the color for primrose, lemon or canary 
yellow use eighty pounds of the dry color and twenty- 
four pounds yellow thinners to obtain 100 pounds 
finished color. 


Medium Chrome Yellow in Japan requires more vehi- 
cle than either light or dark shades, and, while the bulk 
of this yellow varies somewhat, it is safe to say that 
seventy pounds dry color mixed with thirty-three 
pounds yellow thinners will, when carefully ground on 
suitable soft stone water-cooled mill, render 100 pounds 
finished product. 

Orange Chrome Yellow in Japan^ normal or dark, is not 
quite as dense as the lemon shade and therefore requires 
more thinners to manipulate in mixer and mill. Seven- 
ty-six pounds dry color and twenty-eight pounds yellow 
thinners will produce 100 pounds finished color. 

Cadmium Yellow in Varnish. — ^This sulphur com- 
pound is stable only in its darker shades — ^that is, the 
normal or medium and the dark or orange and deep 
orange, if such is offered. The pale and light shades 
contain other metals such as tin and zinc and are prone 
to fade in strong light. Inasmuch as cadmium is high 
in cost, it will not pay the grinder to experiment a great 
deal, and he had best confine himself to the two shades 
M. and D. Cadmium yellow in varnish being used as a 
finish or glaze color over other yellows, it cannot be 
ground in japan, but must be mixed with a hard gum 
pale finishing varnish with enough turpentine to grind 
well. The vehicle should be an article made from selected 
XXXX kauri gum with twenty gallons oil to the 100 
pounds of gum, thinned with pure gum spirits of turps 
only. Figure on seventy-six parts of dry cadmium 
yellow M. or D., twenty-four parts of varnish and five 
parts turpentine for 100 pounds finished color. This 
color must not be put up in collapsible tubes or in tin or 
iron containers, but is usually put up in glass jars, most- 
ly one-pound size, otherwise the color tends to blacken. 


Permanent or Zinc YelloWy also sometimes branded 
Perfect YeUoWy is used but little in coach work, due 
probably to prejudice on account of its zinc constituents. 
Is used for ornamenting on sleighs and automobiles, 
however, and is best ground in the yellow thinners above 
referred to, requiring twenty-six pounds thinners to 
seventy-eight pounds dry color for 100 poimds finished 
color. In grinding all these yellows, overheating of 
mixer and mills must be guarded against and cadmium 
yellow especially must not be groimd in an iron mill, and 
even a stone mill must not have an iron scraper and steel 
spatulas must not be used. 

Naples Yellow in Japan. — ^True Naples yellow is 
rarely looked for and is usually imitated with ninety-five 
pounds flake white and five poimds golden ocher in 
japan. However, the true article is still obtainable and 
the price of the dry material is not extraordinarily high. 
While it requires more thinners than white lead, it is, if 
anything, denser. Eighty-six parts of dry pigment and 
sixteen poimds yellow thinners will make 100 pounds of 
paste of either shade, A or C, which are the marks for 
light and dark, as sold in the market. 

Sulphur Yellow or Brimstone Yellow in Japan. — ^These 
are simply white lead tinted with either lemon chrome 
yellow or zinc yellow, according to the depth of 
shade desired. For the light shade two pounds zinc 
yellow and eighty-seven pounds fine white lead and 
about twelve or thirteen pounds yellow thinners; for 
the dark shadow two pounds lemon chrome yellow to 
eighty-seven pounds white lead and twelve or thirteen 
pounds yellow thinners will be sufficient for 100 pounds 
finished color. 


Citron or Citrine Yellow in Japan is made from a 
mixture of eighty-six parts white lead and three parts 
lemon chrome with a trifle of ultramarine blue or green 
added to give the greenish cast, grinding in twelve parts 
yellow thinners to produce 100 parts paste. 

Car-Body Yellows in Japan. — ^These are ground to 
match the standard specified by the owners, but 
very seldom consist of straight chrome yellow in 
japan. The base is almost invariably basic carbonate 
of lead (white lead) and the coloring matter may be 
lemon, medium or orange chrome yellow and sometimes 
French ocher or any admixtures of these. A light car- 
body yellow much used by certain street railways is 
made as follows: — ^Forty-two pounds dry white lead, 
forty-two pounds dry lemon chrome yellow, mixed with 
eighteen pounds yellow thinners as noted above. 
Produces 100 pounds paste color in japan. A medium 
car-body yellow known to the author is based on this: — 
Forty pounds white lead, dry, twenty-five pounds J. C. 
L. E. S. ocher, fifteen pounds medium chrome yellow, 
mixed with and ground in twenty-two pounds yellow 
thinners, producing 100 pounds of color of great cover- 
ing power. 

Omnibus Yellow in Japan^ made with thirty-five parts 
white lead, dry, thirty-five parts orange chrome yellow, 
D., ten parts dark Venetian red, dry, twenty-two parts 
color grinders' japan, producing 100 poimds of an orange 
maroon color of very good body. 




So far linseed oil has not found an equal in paint 
making, although the subject has been one of deep 
study, and while other fixed oils have been discovered, 
that for certain purposes have been expected to take its 
place, it has yet to be demonstrated, that such is really 
the case in long practice, China wood or tung oil, 
while superior to linseed oil in certain directions, es- 
pecially in its resisting power to water, has not shown 
itself adapted to replace linseed oil in making oil 
paints, as we know and desire them. As we go along in 
the consideration of other paint oil3, we will show the 
reasons for this. To go into the technical study of 
linseed oil and its chemistry would be a waste of time 
and space here, because it would simply be a useless 
repetition of what has been written on the subject by 
eminent students in its chemistry. To those, who 
wish to go further into the characteristics and chemical 
composition of linseed oil, the writer would refer to the 
following works as being standard on the subject: 
"Linseed and Other Seed Oils," by William D. Ennis, 
M.E. a very complete American treatise; "Drying 
Oils, Boiled Oil and Solid and Liquid Driers," an 
English translation from the German of Louis Edgar 

The practical paint maker and color grinder, however, 
need not consider linseed oil for any other purpose but 
that of getting the best and purest as well as that, 
which is of a quality giving the results he is striving for. 


If he deals with a reputable crusher of linseed oil and 
carefully checks up and examines deliveries, he need 
have no anxiety about the effect of the oil upon his 
products, but it is also up to him to exercise the utmost 
care and watchfulness to have his storage tanks cleaned 
out at regular intervals, because even the purest and 
most well settled oils will, in time, deposit a slimy sub- 
stance known as oil foots and when this is permitted to 
accumulate, it will cloud the oil, when the contents of 
the tank become agitated from any cause. Many a 
batch of color or paint has gone wrong and the cause 
could not be traced to the proper source, because of the 
stereotyped excuse, that the formula was followed to 
the letter and the oil was the same as had always been 
used. Yet the trouble of improper drying or inferior 
binding properties of the material might be directly 
traced to oil foots. In the case of boiled oil this is 
even worse, as it stands to reason, that the litharge and 
manganese, after having given up their oxygen to the 
body of the oil, are still in fine division and on settling 
drop to the bottom of the storage tanks as a useless 
slimy mass, carrying with it some of the glycerides, 
that are broken by the boiling process. This refers to 
the kettle or fire boiled oil. But in the present day 
process of boiling oil, where the oil is only heated to a 
high enough temperature to expel moisture and a cheap 
lead or manganese resinate drier is introduced in liquid 
form, it is still more necessary to be on the lookout for 
precipitated matter. 

As to the purity of linseed oil, the best precaution is to 
purchase supplies from reliable crushers or their agents 
only, who will not sell sophisticated linseed oil in any 
form. As to detection of adulteration in linseed oil. 


there are a few very simple tests. In the first place, a 
standard gallon of 231 cubic inches must not weigh less 
than 7% pounds, when oil shows a temperature of 60** 
F. Ordinary boiled linseed oil should weigh 7 lbs. 13 oz. 
to 7 lbs. 14 oz., while heavy bodied linseed oil (oxidized 
oil) may weigh anywhere from 7 lbs. 15 oz. to 8 lbs. 2 oz. 
per gallon. When linseed oil is placed on a strip of 
glass, that has been painted jet black, and shows a 
bloom or iridescence, it is doctored either with mineral 
oil or rosin oil, which can be determined by the charac- 
teristic odor. Admixtures of linseed oil and com oil or 
linseed oil and cottonseed oil can be detected, by placing 
some of the oil between the palms of the hands, rubbing 
briskly and noting the odor thus emitted. Fish oil in 
admixture with linseed oil is readily detected by its odor, 
which cannot be disguised. The presence of soya bean 
oil, however, cannot well be ascertained by simple tests 
and a chemical analysis is necessary and sometimes 
misleading at that. 



A General Description of Its Origin, Production, Physical 
and Chemical Properties and the Great Import- 
ance of Its Use in the Manufacture of 


It is generally known that this oil is pressed from the 
fruit of a tree which is named by the Chinese, on account 
of the bottle-shaped form of the nuts it bears, tung yu 
or ying tzu tung, also tung tze chou, hence the name 
tung oil, and because of its home being China, we 
have the commercial term China wood oil. A similar 
oil, which the Japanese term Dokuye-no-Abura, is 
produced in Japan from trees named Abura-no-ki, 
Abura yiri and Yama girl, and all of these trees, includ- 
ing the tung tree of China, belong to the groups that are 
known by the botanical names Aleurites cordota and 
Aleurites Fordii. It has been contended by some 
botanical authorities that the last named is the mother 
plant of all and that from its fruit the best oil is pro- 
duced, but this has yet to be proven. At any rate, the 
China wood oil, as it is imported into this country from 
Hankow, has always had the preference over that 
obtained from other sources. 

The timg tree and its products have found many 
varied uses for centuries past in its home. The Chinese 
hold it in the greatest esteem on account of the many 
benefits derived from it. The wood of the trunk of the 
tung tree, while it is still young, is white and soft, but as 


it grows becomes harder, until at last it is impenetrable 
by water and resists the attacks of insects. The fiber 
of its wood may be woven into very durable matting, 

The tree grows best and bears best fruit south of the 
Yangtse Kiang River in the provinces of Kingsi, 
Tschekian, Hunan, Hupeh and Szetschwan, where it is 
grown for oil production, and where it will grow even in 
a ground of sand and gravel, while to the north of this 
territory it is simply grown as a shade tree, because in 
that climate it will bear but little fruit and above the 
thirty-fourth degree northern latitude it will not grow 
at all. 

The fruit of the tung tree is a nut, that, as before 
stated, has the form of a bottle, the inner shell of which 
is similar to that of a walnut, containing from 3 to 5 
kernels, each of which is about the size of a large hazel- 
nut. The outer shells of the fruit from the trees of the 
Aleurites cordota are shriveled in appearance, those of 
the Aleurites Fordii quite smooth. The tung tree does 
not require nursing, the greatest height attained by it is 
from 22 to 25 feet, and from the fourth year on, it will 
bear from 20 to 50 pounds of nuts annually for about ten 
or twelve years, when it ceases to be productive. 

China wood oil, or tung oil, is often confounded with 
Bankul oil, which is produced from the nuts of the trees 
belonging to the botanical group Aleurites triloba, that 
grow on the South Sea Isles, the islands of the Malay 
archipelago and Reunion Islands, as well as in the East 
Indies. The kernels of the nuts from these trees, which 
grow to a height of from 36 to 45 feet, yield 60 per cent, 
and over of their weight of oil, which is used as a sub- 
stitute for linseed oil, especially in printers' colors. 


When tung oil was first more generally introduced the 
technical people became slightly mixed as to its proper 
name, and Chinese wood oil was the term often used, 
until it finally crystallized itself into China wood oil in 
the world of commerce and tung oil among the technical 
world. Simply to designate it as wood oil is rather 
confusing, as this term has also been used for Garjun 
balsam and for wood turpentine and pine oil. At the 
present time, however, it is safe to say that any one 
interested in the article will know the meaning of the 
term China wood oil or, if the shorter name is preferred, 
tung oil. 


Some twenty years ago and for some time afterward 
tung oil, as we shall in our further description term this 
very interesting article, came to us through English 
and German channels of trade, and it was scarcely ever 
uniform and a great amount of money was wasted be- 
fore its properties became more fully known to interested 

At that time its production was still in the hands of 
the Chinese peasants exclusively, who used very crude 
and primitive methods for pressing the oil and bringing 
it to market. The method was to roast the nuts in iron 
pans, so that the shells would burst open and thus free 
the kernels. The smaller producers would pulverize 
these in hand mills, while the more progressive China- 
man would have a stationary colander, rotating in a 
stone trough driven by oxen or other animals similar 
to our olden time cider mills. The meal was then 
warmed and the oil pressed on hand presses and in order 
to clarify it somewhat was boiled with water and filtered 
through linen. Western enterprise has changed this 


system to more modem methods^ and we now have hot 
pressed tung oil, as well as hot pressed linseed oil. 
Attempts have been made to import the nuts of the 
timg tree into Europe and the United States, but on 
account of the weight of the shells, that constitutes one- 
half of the total, it was nearly entirely given up again. 
To import the kernels only is risky, because of the rapid- 
ity with which they become rancid. Some English and 
American firms have finally introduced modem machin- 
ery for pressing or extracting the oil on Chinese soil, and 
one American firm has put up barrel factories and store- 
houses for handling the export on a large scale. But this 
fact is well known and does not require repetition here. 

The nuts consist of about equal weight of shells and 
kernels, which latter yield, when cold pressed, 40 to 42 
per cent., when hot pressed 50 to 53 per cent, and in the 
extraction process 58 to 60 per cent, by weight of oil. 
Hefter in his Technology, volume II, page 60, reports 
as the result of cold pressing in hydraulic process as 
follows: — Out of 100 parts by weight of nuts — ^First 
pressing, 22.36 per cent, oil of straw yellow color; 
second pressing, 5.56 per cent, oil, darker and more 
viscid; oil cake, 24.08 per cent., and shells, 48 per cent. 
An analysis of kernels made by the Jardin Colonial 
(France) resulted as follows: — Water, 5.14 per cent.; 
protein, 20.60 per cent. ; fat, 52.57 per cent. ; extracted 
matter, free of nitrogen, 14.98 per cent. ; fibrous matter, 
2.85 per cent. ; ash, 3.86 per cent. 

An analysis made by the same institution of tung nut 
shells showed the following composition: — Water, 14.40 
per cent. ; protein, 2.50 per cent. ; fatty substance, .04 
per cent.; extracted matter, free of nitrogen, 27.62 per 
cent. ; crude fiber, 50.64 per cent. , and ash, 4.80 per cent. 


Tung oil has been known to and made use of by the 
Chinese for centuries in a great many ways. It serves 
as lubricating oil, as a means to make paper transparent 
and waterproof. Its use as a wood preservative, es- 
pecially for boats, has been practiced in China from time 
immemorial, and the soot produced by slow incineration 
serves as the basis for Chinese or India ink, while the 
residuum from this process is made use of in caulking of 
boats and as a vehicle or binder for paint. A mixture 
of lime, clay and sand with tung oil will produce an 
imitation of granite. 

Physical Properties. 

Raw tung oil of commerce is usually light straw 
yellow in color and of a disagreeable odor, that is desig- 
nated by many as similar to smoked hog fat, which is 
difficult to disguise and cannot be removed, while the 
oil is in its crude state. When the oil is heated the odor 
is less penetrant, but the practical man will discover 
its presence even in varnish, after it has gone through 
the treatment required to make its use safe. Only 
when a varnish containing tung oil has become dry and 
perfectly hard the peculiar odor will have disappeared. 
Part of the odor will disappear when the oil is heated to 
120 deg. F. and a current of dry air passed through it for 
several hours. 

It required an enormous amount of research by 
chemists and varnish makers before they were safe in 
using tung oil in appreciable quantities without serious 
pecuniary losses. It was necessary to ascertain the 
causes of the disagreeable properties of the oil, foremost 
of which is the drying matt — or flatting — also the some- 
times drying of the surface coated with the raw oil with 


a frosted appearance. Next is the tendency to coagulate 
in boiling at high temperature- Then, again, if the oil 
freezes and is left in that condition over ten days it 
becomes insoluble, which is explained by the fact that in 
freezing it expands to the extent of 10 per cent., be- 
comes porous and permits the taking up of an excess of 
oxygen. It is in that condition difficult to melt, and on 
cooling forms a jelly that is insoluble. 

While tung oil may be heated to very high degrees of 
temperature, when it has undergone several refining 
treatments of which we shall speak later on, yet on 
account of the uncertain qualities in tung oil, the con- 
sumers have found it best to heat it with rosin and thus 
avoid the risk of great losses. And as the original func- 
tion of tung oil, when first imported into Europe and the 
United States, was to enable the varnish-making indus- 
try to produce low-priced varnishes that would not 
scratch or rub up, as they had been in the habit of doing, 
the practice came in vogue generally to melt rosin, add- 
ing a hardening medium, such as a salt of lime or lead 
manganate, etc., and fuse with tung oil, thinning the 
fused mass with the usual solvent, thus producing what 
is termed China wood oil varnish, with which to toughen 
the cheaper grades of commercial varnishes. This has 
been a boon to manufacturers and consumers alike, 
stimulating trade in that commodity. There is this 
peculiarity in the behavior of tung oil when combined 
by heat with rosin, that its acid number becomes less 
the longer it issubjected to heat, while linseed oil, when 
so treated, gives oflF free fatty acid and increases its acid 

For instance, pure tung oil with an acid number of 
11.8, when heated to 392 deg. F. with rosin, reduced its 


acid number to 10.7, and when heated to 472 deg. F, its 
acid number was only 7. Southern pine rosin heated 
to 572 deg- F. showed an acid number of 298. When 
one part by weight of this rosin and two parts by weight 
of the tung oil in question were heated to 572 deg. F., 
the mixture did not give the expected acid number of 
104.4, but it only showed a number of 66.36. This can 
only be explained by the theory that a chemical com- 
bination is taking place between the rosin and tung oil, 
whose nature is not yet determined. It may be that 
this is due to the polymerization, to which tung oil is 
subject on long continued heating and which shows itself 
in its disposition of turning into a jelly. At all events 
this decrease in acid numbers is important in so far that 
owing to this very fact, tung oil varnishes are miscible 
with metallic pigments that are sensitive to acid. 
That tung oil as it comes to us in commerce cannot as a 
rule be depended upon for uniformity goes without 
saying, when, as is well known, the Chinese and other 
Asiatics are not overscrupulous in the selection of the 
fruits of the various groups of oil trees. On this 
account it is always safer not to heat the tung oil to over 
392 deg. F., although some authorities claim that pure 
tung oil will not coagulate below 464 deg. F. 

Very characteristic is the property of pure tung oil to 
coagulate when heated to over 400 deg. F. and to remain 
in that condition on cooling. Tung oil extracted with 
carbon bisulphide coagulates at a temperature of 212 
deg. F. with a melting point of 95 deg. F.* 

Many trials have been made to avoid the coagulation 
of tung oil when subjected to high temperatures, and 
these have been more or less successful. One of these 
processes that may be mentioned here is patented and 


consists of the addition of zinc dust or similar strongly 
reducing metal in powdered form to tung oil, while it is 
being heated in an enameled kettle to a temperature of 
not over 190 deg. F. When the metal has been stirred 
in and is well taken up by the oil the heat is increased to 
about 250 deg. or 272 deg. F., and when the oil has been 
permitted to cool it is filtered. It is not necessary to 
add more than 0.2 per cent, of metal, and the tung oil so 
treated will dry very slowly, but with the subsequent 
addition of siccatives, it will dry very rapidly, even 
when only small percentages are given. The advantage 
of tung oil so treated, however, is that it may be heated 
to at least 420 deg. F. without risk of coagulation. 

When treated tung oil is added to linseed oil, raw or 
boiled, or to ordinary varnish, it increases their drying 
properties and the toughness of their films, but when 
raw tung oil or imperfectly treated tung oil is used in 
this admixture it may lead to coagulation. In extreme 
cold weather raw tung oil is liable to separate particles 
similar to stearine wax and assume a waxlike consist- 

One peculiarity of tung oil as compared with other 
drying oils is that in drying it does not form a skin, but 
dries in a solid film, and this is explained by the fact 
that drying oils uniformly dry from their absorption of 
oxygen from the air, while tung oil becomes fixed 
through polymerization. 

Meister (see Chem. Revue fiir die Harz u. Fett 
Industrie, 1910, pp. 150) has determined that linseed oil 
in drying takes up all the oxygen it is capable of, so that 
when the film has dried the maximum of absorption has 
been reached, while tung oil absorbs only one-third of 
the full amount of oxygen up to the time of drying and 


later on the other two-thirds, «^ that it may be said that 
in the case of tung oil there are two periods, one of 
drying and another of complete hardening after drying. 
Because of this behavior it may be said to dry dust free, 
like a varnish and harden subsequently to the touch. 
The oil cake or residue from the pressing of the meal is 
rich in protein, but is utterly useless as animal food stuff 
because to quite an extent poisonous. Many experi- 
ments have been made to free the material from its 
poison, but so far without success. But it is recom- 
mended as an excellent fertilizing material on account of 
its poisonous character, it being believed that its use 
would destroy certain insects. It is claimed that raw 
tung oil is also to some extent poisonous and that people 
with sensitive eyes are liable to have them inflamed in 
having accidentally some of the oil, even a drop, get 
into their eye. 

Bleaching of Tung Oil. 

The best and safest method for clarifying and bleach- 
ing of tung oil is to place a certain quantity of the raw oil 
into a tank or kettle, provided with a steam jacket or 
steam coil and a mechanical stirring device, heating the 
oil to 250 deg. F. and adding at least 5 per cent., but not 
over 10 per cent, of its weight of best fuller's earth (which 
is an aluminum magnesium hydro-silicate), keeping the 
temperature at 250 deg. F., while running the stirring 
device for at least one hour, then running the material 
through a filter press, which would serve its purpose 
best if heated. 

C!hemi8try of Tung Oil. 

The exact chemical constituents have not as yet been 
accurately determined, simply because tung oil has 


never been found uniform, as will be seen from tables 
of the results of analyses by various authorities 
in chemistry. One authority, Cloez, asserts that tung 
oil is a mixture of 25 per cent, of the glycerides of oleic 
acid and 75 per cent, of margarolic acid, and says that 
the latter separates in crystals on adding an alcoholic 
solution, while the former remains in solution. The 
combination with lead oxide is only feasible after long 
heating of the oil, the lead soap melts at Hi degrees 
Fahrenheit, but the oil is easily saponifiable with an 
alcoholic solution of caustic soda. Another authority, 
Wenghoefer, as early as 1882 in his chemistry of hydro 
carbons, says that margarolic acid melts at 105 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and is a member of the group Cn H2N3 — 
CO.OH with the empirical -formula C17H80O2. This 
acid forms by a change during the heating of over 392 
degrees Fahrenheit and has a melting point of 160 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Elaeolic acid may be had from elaeomargaric acid 
(margarolic acid) as well as from elaeostearic acid, when 
these are heated to about 350 degrees Fahrenheit under 
exclusion of air. It also forms, when the oil is extracted 
with carbon bisulphide and heated to 212 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The acid melts at 38 to 40 degrees 
Fahrenheit. As all the three acids may be present in 
mixture and also as glycerides, it stands to reason that 
the viscosity of the limpid oils, as well as the melting 
point of the gelatinized oils may be very diflferent 
depending upon which of the acids is in preponderance. 
This would explain why tung oil from various shipments 
will give varying results in practice and shows how 
necessary it is to test each shipment. 


Testing of Tung Oil. 

Adulterations of tung oil with cheaper materials have 
been determined, grease, fish oil and mineral oil being 
the adulterants principally used, and before rosin oil 
rose to its present height in price it also was quite a 
favorite for the purpose. To determine the purity of 
the oil it is necessary to find the specific weight, the 
saponification number, the iodine value and the Hebner 
number also. Here is a table of oils and fats: — 

Speoifio 8i4>on- *r- Iodine valne -% 
gravity at ification Fatty Hebner 

Kind of oil. 69** F. Number. Git add. number. Special charaoteristias. 

Tung oil 936 193 162 166 96.3 0>ntainfl elaeomar- 

^aric add; gelatin- 
laee on heating. 

linseed oil 934 186 182 180 96.6 Qelatiniiee at 32<» F. 

in, the Hezabro- 
mide test. 

SoyabeanoU.. .926 191 124 96.6 

Nsa-aanaoU... .933 192 148 ... 

BankuloO 923 

WhaleoU 923 202 124 131 93.61 Odor of train oU; 

I strong disoolora- 

I Uon in treating 

I with alcohol, l^e 

I or phosphoric acid 

Menhaden oil.. .926 190 132 ... 96.3 J or chlorine. 

Nsa Sana oil is closest to tung oil in its general be- 

In the following table will be found the results ob- 
tained in the determination of chemical and physical 
constants of tung oil \y/ the most noted authorities on 
the subject: — 

Bpedfio Sapon- 

gravity ification Iodine Hebner 


foil made in laboratory 
from tung tree nuts; 
commercial product. 

Average of tung oil. 
Japanese wood oU. 

Observed by 














De Negri and Surbate 






1 .9343 



96 !4 




To ascertain the presence of other vegetable oils in 
tung oil a good test is as follows: — A sample of appreci- 
able volume of the oil is saponified with Na O H and the 


resulting soap disintegrated with H3S4O, the precipi- 
tate, well washed and the fatty acid that has been 
separated is well dried. This must not melt below 97 
degrees Fahrenheit, for if it does it may be taken for 
granted that other oils have been present in the sample. 
While in many varnishes the presence of tung oil can be 
readily determined by its characteristic odor, this is not 
always an infallible guide, because in many well pre- 
pared varnishes that contained from 20 to 25 per cent, 
of tung oil the odor has been absent. Still in most 
varnishes of moderate selling price, even when, on 
account of a strong turpentine odor, the presence of 
tung oil is not at once noticeable, it will reveal itself by 
its odor on setting up when the turpentine has evapor- 

Empirical Examination. 

Tung oil, even when mixed with other vegetable oils, 
gelatinizes under great heat. The jelly from pure tung 
oil is insoluble, while adulterated tung oil requires a 
greater degree of heat and the jelly can be liquefied 
again with addition of turpentine or benzine and other 
solvents of this character. 

Reaction (by Zucker.) Five c c m tung oil are mixed 
with 2 c m m each of carbon bisulphide and sulphuric 
chloride. If the tung oil is pure it will go into a jelly, 
otherwise it will remain liquid. 

Chloroform Iodine Test. One gram of tung oil 
dissolved in 5 cmm chloroform and then mixed with 
6 cmm of a saturated solution of chloroform iodine 
will gelatinize immediately. When 2 grams of tung 
oil are used in this mixture, instead of one, the mass will 
be so firm that it may be pulverized. 


Eladin Ted (by Ulzer.) Ten grams of tung oil are 
mixed with 5 grams of nitric acid (42 degrees Be) 
and one gram mercury and agitated until the mercury 
is dissolved, then allowed to stand 20 minutes and again 
agitated or shaken for about a minute. Drying oils 
become solid under this test in from one to three 
hours, while non-drying oils remain liquid. 

Sidpkuric Acid Reaction (by Flatt). One drop of 
concentrated sulphuric acid on pure tung oil forms at 
once a dark brown skin, which envelops the acid. 
This skin becomes black in a very few seconds. This 
reaction does not take place with raw or bleached lin- 
seed oil or other vegetable oils, that might be employed 
for admixtures with tung oil, but may take place with 
boiled or bodied linseed oil, but in that case the added 
drying mediums would be readily detected. 

Test for Rosin. A sample of the suspected oil is 
warmed with 70 per cent, alcohol, when the rosin will go 
into solution, while tung oil is insoluble. 

Test for Rosin Oil. Dissolve a sample of suspected 
oil in its own volume of acetic acid anhydride and add 
sulphuric acid. When rosin or rosin oil is present there 
will be a wine red or violet red discoloration of the mix- 
ture. (E. W. Boughon at the Seventh International 
Congress of Applied Chemistry.) 

Test for Mineral Oil. When a few drops of the sus- 
pected oil are mixed with an alcoholic solution of KOH 
(hydrated potash), the solution will be clear if the oil is 
pure, otherwise if mineral be present it will be turbid. 


Physical Examination. 

The varnish manufacturer can escape a great deal of 
annoyance and pecuniary losses if he personally looks 
after this part of his purchases or has someone whom 
he can rely on look after this end of the business. It is 
not sufficient to simply take a sample from the bunghole 
of a barrel on arrival, but each barrel should be well 
shaken up before a sample of the oil is taken. This 
precaution is necessary, because only the clear light 
colored tung oil is really fit for use in varnish. Dark and 
ill smelling tung oil is of little use in the manufacture of 
varnish. The situation has no doubt bettered itself of 
late years and our Chinese friends may have reformed 
or the European and American buyers at Chinese ports 
have compelled them to be more honest in their methods 
of bringing the oil to market. Certain it is that a great 
mass of tung oil, that was unfit for use, found its way 
into our markets. As the oil was always sold by weight 
it often happened that sand and earth, even water was 
found in the original packages. To keep out of trouble 
the consumer, be he varnish or paint manufacturer, 
must see that tung oil is free of moisture, which he can 
readily ascertain, for when the oil has been well shaken 
in the barrel or other container and is then still free 
from turbidity, it may be taken for granted that it is 
free from moisture. Moisture is mostly due to the 
presence of vegetable albumen and when the oil is 
boiled it will break at very low temperature, much of it 
going into the so-called foots that are of little value in 
paint manufacture and of none at all in varnish making. 
It is a fact generally recognized at the present time in 
the paint and varnish trade that raw tung oil cannot be 
employed in either paint or in varnish making, because 


of its tendency to dry unevenly in a shriveled film, and 
its further tendency to dry out flat and opaque in spots. 
There has been no end of experimenting during the past 
fifteen or twenty years and to show what has been done 
along these lines, the progress made and the present 
status is to be considered and described in the remainder 
of this chapter. 

The Principal Uses of Tung Oil. 

The research work in the possible uses for tung oil has 
not, by any means, been completed, as yet, but we may 
say that so far the chief object has been to find a sub- 
stitute for linseed oil in the manufacture of paint and 
varnish. It may be said, however, that tung oil can- 
not take the place of linseed oil unreservedly, but shoidd 
be classed as an auxiliary to it, because tung oil has cer- 
tain characteristics that are missing in the former, 
especially toughness of film, and water resisting proper- 
ties. On the other hand, linseed oil is more tractable 
and does not require so much care in preparation for use 
in oil paints for general work. 

By the boiling process, moisture and albuminous 
matter are removed from tung oil and in order to avoid 
kettles from running over, the boiling should be done 
over a slow fire at first, until all moisture is driven oflF, 
when the temperature is gradually raised to 356 
degrees Fahrenheit and held at that point, until a sam- 
ple of oil taken from the kettle exhibits the proper 
viscosity. At that stage the kettle is removed from the 
fire and allowed to cool as rapidly as possible. Drying 
mediums, such as litharge and manganese salts may be 
added to increase the drying properties of tung oil, but 
it is not absolutely necessary, as the oil has great 


drying energy. So far it has not been found useful in 
the manufacture of printing inks and lithographers* 
varnishes, at least there is no record of any one having 
been successfid in that direction. There is a great 
diflFerence of opinion in the varnish manufacturing trade 
as to whether comparatively fresh pressed tung oil or oil 
that has been stored for a long time, produces the best 
results, when used by the varnish maker. So much 
appears to be certain, that when made by the addition 
of tung oil that has been bodied up much in boiling, 
varnishes become very tough in long storage. 

Tung oil can be heated to a point as high as 420 to 
435 degrees Fahrenheit without risk of gelatinizing, 
provided it has been heated at first to not over 272 
degrees Fahrenheit until all possible moisture has been 
driven oflf, but it must then be kept at the high tempera- 
ture for about 3 hours and during that time constantly 
and uniformly agitated, otherwise it will break and 
coagulate. Tung oil thus treated is claimed to be ex- 
cellent for use in the manufacture of varnishes from 
rosin, imparting to them great toughness and resistance 
to atmospheric influences, almost equal to varnishes, 
made from fossil gums and linseed oil. When tung oil 
breaks in boiling without gelatinizing we have tung oil 
foots, same as we have linseed oil foots, when linseed oil 
breaks during the boiling process. Attempts have been 
made to make use of tung oil foots in the manufacture of 
substitute for rubber and patents have been granted to 
protect such inventions or processes. In one of these 
the specifications are as follows: — "Process for making 
use of the rubber-like mass that is the residt of heating 
timg oil at a temperature of over 392 degrees Fahrenheit 
for any length of time, consisting in melting the mass 


with poppyseed or nut oil at a temperature of 572 
degrees Fahrenheit until it becomes soluble in such sol- 
vents as spirits of turpentine, benzine, benzol, acetone, 
amylacetate, etc., and miscible with drying oils, var- 
nishes or pyroxylin solutions/* The inventor melts the 
partly gelatinized portions of tung oil foots in about 
equal portions by weight with either of the oils described 
in the specifications, the best policy, however, for 
the consumer of tung oil to pursue is to avoid by all 
possible means the breaking as well as the gelatinizing 
risk and it is recommended wherever it is practicable for 
the varnish maker to use tung oil in its pure state with- 
out admixture with other oils. Furthermore, it should 
be avoided to add to varnishes that are made with tung 
oil as much driers as woidd be given to a varnish of sim- 
ilar nature when made with linseed oil, because it 
would set too quickly and be soft underneath, thus 
having a tendency to become tacky. It is also best to 
use manganese or cobalt resinates rather than lead 

Tung Oil in Enamel Varnishes. Of especial value has 
this oil proven in the manufacture of varnish for moder- 
ate priced enamel paints, where high luster, great hard- 
ness, drying properties and wear are features that before 
the advent and exploitation of tung oil could be had 
only by the use of selected, high priced, pale, hard 
gums, that are now so high in cost as to be prohibitive 
in the manufacture of enamel paint. Of course, it 
depends on careful manipulation and the selection of the 
pigments, whether the paint maker meets with success. 

Tung Oil in Floor Varnishes and Floor Paints. 

The Chemical Revue d. Harz and Fettind, 12 p. 244, 
contains a formula for colored floor varnish as follows: — 


Raw tung oil is heated for i hours at 840 degrees 
Fahrenheit, then permitted to cool and set aside, when 
after 2 days the clear oil is drawn oflF from the sediment 
and heated to 856 degrees Fahrenheit. After one hour 
it is allowed to cool down to about 265 degrees Fahren- 
heit, when 2 per cent, litharge is added in powdered 
form and a small portion of turpentine. When cold, 
the coloring matter is added.'* This is merely repeated 
here as an illustration of how differently experimenters 
are trying to work out problems. While this formula 
appears to be very good for clarifying the tung oil for 
further manipulation in varnish manufacture, the prac- 
tical varnish maker will not be able to see how this pro- 
cess has produced a floor varnish or even a safe drying 
oil for a floor paint. The practical varnish maker will 
still make his floor varnish by fusing his gum with oil 
and he knows how much tung oil is required to produce 
the required toughness and hardness, while the paint 
maker in making floor paints will select whatever varn- 
ish best suits his purpose, if he uses any varnish at all 
along with drying oils and driers. 

Rubbing Varnishes toith Tung Oil. By omitting part 
of the linseed oil in the usual formula and substituting 
therefor a similar quantity of treated tung oil, the varn- 
ish maker gained quite an advantage in the manufacture 
of rubbing varnishes. In the first place the drying was 
more rapid, the varnishes became clear in a shorter 
time, they were more easily rubbed to a dead surface 
and the rubbed surface remained matt, because the 
occasional sweating had been overcome. 

Polishing Varnishes with Tung Oil have from time to 
time given cause for complaint and the writer knows of 
more than one instance where table tops and piano tops 


had been rubbed and polished in the most approved 
manner^ having a stunning appearance when finished, 
but in a short time a large space in the middle of the 
table or piano top showed a dead flat surface that coidd 
not be explained away by blaming moist atmosphere or 
improper ventilation, etc. The trouble was with the 
varnish which contained a moderate portion of treated 
tung oil. The conclusion arrived at after a thorough 
investigation was that the finishers did not thoroughly 
understand the nature of the polishing varnish and were 
led astray by the rapid setting, taking "dust free*' 
drying for hard drying, which is very apt to occur in the 
use of tung oil varnishes. The drying of tung oil in 
comparison with linseed oil shows a remarkable diflfer- 
ence and this seems to explain to a large degree the 
difficulty spoken of in reference to the polishing varnish. 
When raw tung oil is applied to any surface, such as 
glass, for instance, it forms a skin inside of 24 to 86 
hours that has a greasy feel, is soft and non-elastic, and 
only becomes really hard after 6 or 7 days. Raw linseed 
oil, on the contrary does not form a skin until after the 
fifth or sixth day, but after that rapidly hardens and is 
solid or firm inside of 8 or 9 days. Authorities assert 
that when linseed oil has formed a hard film it does not 
gain further in weight through absorption of oxygen, 
while tung oil gains 10 per cent, in weight after it has 
formed a skin. This could be explained only by the 
diflferent chemical combination that has been deter- 
mined in tung oil in comparison with all other drying 
oils. While linseed oil consists chiefly of linoleic acid, 
and oxidizes on drying by absorbing oxygen into linoxyn, 
tung oil on the other hand consists of elaeomargarin, 
which polymerizes into elaeostearine. This latter body 
is firm, greasy and non-elastic, which would account for 


the forming of the peculiar skin when tung oil is applied 
in a thin film on glass. Only through the oxidation of 
the elaeostearine, when a disintegration through the 
separation of volatile* organic substances takes place, is 
the process of drying complete and at this time the tung 
oil film attains the elasticity of linoxyn. The idea that 
tung oil dries more rapidly than linseed oil is only con- 
ditionally correct, but when a line is drawn between 
"dust free" and "thoroughly dry" there is very little, if 
any difference. Taking it all in all there is yet a wide 
field in the uses to which tung oil may be put and the 
research is by no means completed. There are drying 
mediums on the market under the name "tungate" 
that come in liquid form and dry linseed oil within a 
very few hours, according to percentage added, but the 
limit is 10 per cent., to exceed which the drier has no 
further oxidizing action on drying oils, although unlike 
other siccatives or driers such excess will not seriously 
interfere with the wearing quality of oil paint. Further 
uses for tung oil have been found in the manufacture of 
shellac substitutes for wood polishes, also in producing 
artificial caoutchouc, and to a great extent it is being 
employed in the manufacture of varnish for floor oil 
cloth. The Chinese put two qualities of tung oil on the 
market, the white and the black oil, the white oil is 
exported while the black oil, which resembles pine tar in 
color, is consumed at home for stopping seams in 
boats. The export value of tung oil from Wuchow and 
Hankow in the year 1906 was $3,271,000. while in the 
years 1907, 1908 and 1909 it averaged only $2,100,000 
and in 1910 it reached $4,153,000, and while figures for 
1911 are not available, it is safe to say that there has 
been a large increase over 1910. 


In conclusion it may be said that tung oil or varnishes, 
in which it is one of the principal constituents, may be 
used without risk with all inert or chemically inactive 
pigments, but it is unsafe for use in connection with lead 
or pigments containing a lead base, because of its 
strong tendency to over-oxidation or as painters put it, 
the tendency to "pudding up/* Zinc oxide, when 
ground in linseed oil, raw or bleached, is also apt, when 
thinned with tung oil varnish to swell or thicken to a 
great extent, so much so that the resulting paint cannot 
be spread and when further reduced to proper consist- 
ence the covering capacity is missing. A tung oil 
varnish, well made with the proper resins and without 
lead driers, is an excellent material for use with litho- 
pone white, as has been proven by the success of interior 
flat wall finishes that have been only really successful 
since the advent of the grinding liquids or mediums that 
owe their characteristics to tung oil, while the finishes 
themselves owe their dead flat appearance and moderate 
cost to the heavy petroleum spirits, with which they are 
thinned for spreading. The progress made in these 
materials within a comparatively short time is wonder- 



There are quite a number of these, drying, semi- 
drying and non-drying, and not a few have their special 
uses in paint. The most important of the drying 
variety is China wood oil or tung oil, which has been 
fully described as to its origin, characteristics and uses 
in Chapter XIV and requires no further reference here. 

Drying Oils for Colors and Paints. 

Poppyseed Oil is, next to linseed oil, most prominent 
for grinding the finer grades of zinc white and artists' 
colors, and must be classed among the drying paint oils 
for the reason that when pressed from ripe seed it dries 
very nearly as rapidly as raw linseed oil. The reason 
for the use of poppyseed oil in colors or paints is due to 
the non-darkening of this oil and its free spreading. Its 
advantages over linseed oil, however, are overestimated 
by some paint makers. 

Bombay Nvt Oil was at one time largely oflFered at a 
price somewhat lower than poppyseed oil, was very 
clear, almost water white, and while the specific 
gravity of poppyseed oil hovered about .926 this walnut 
oil was slightly heavier, averaging .932, and its drying 
property fully equal to that of bleached linseed oil. 
However, this oil has not been heard from in the market 
for some time. 

Sunflower Seed Oil is also classed among the drying 
oils, but it has not found its way into general conmierce 


and therefore nothing more is known about it than has 
been ascertained in an experimental way, which is that 
it has the specific gravity of poppyseed oil and nearly 
all of its other characteristics. 

Hempseed OH also belongs to the class of vegetable 
drying oils, but this seed being raised principally in 
Russia and a few other localities in Europe, it is used 
mostly there as a paint oil ; and if any is brought to this 
country it comes as an admixture with linseed oil. Its 
specific gravity runs a little below that of linseed oil — 
between .926 and .980; its drying quality is slightly 
deficient as against that of raw linseed oil, but the chief 
objection to its use is its darkening tendency, which 
makes it serviceable only in outside paint in the darker 
colors. Russian authorities, however, claim that for 
wearing property it is far superior to linseed oil. This 
may be due to climatic conditions. 

Other Drying Vegetable OUSf as nigerseed oil, tobacco 
seed oil, Scotch firseed oil, etc., that are not readily 
obtainable in commerce, are not at all interesting to the 
paint maker and color grinder. 

Another vegetable drying oil that has been largely 
imported for some time into this country and Europe, 
under the name of Candle Nvt Oily by soapmakers and 
is known to science as Kukui Oily is now being tested by 
progressive varnish and paint manufacturers. It bids 
fair to be a strong competitor of linseed oil when its 
characteristics become better known to the trade and it 
is prepared in a more scientific manner than it is now. 
When expressed from the kernels it has a rather dark 
color of reddish character, but when extracted it is 
light yellow in color and the odor is not so strong as in 
the expressed article. In the issue of the Oil, Paint and 


Drug Reporter of July 14, 191S, Volume 84, No. 2, page 
84, will be found a very interesting article on the 
'^Chemistry of KukuiOilf** by Alice R. Thompson, where 
the values of this oil are given as follows: — Specific 
gravity, .92 at 15.5 Centigrade; saponification value, 
179.1; iodine number 155.5; Hebner value, 89.9; 
soluble acids, 1.71; Reichert Meicel number, 2.86. 
This would indicate that this oil is so far not quite as 
good a drying oil as linseed, but considerably better in 
drying than soya bean oil. It is just possible, however, 
that by more rational treatment its quality in that re- 
spect may be much improved. 

E. V. Wilcox, special agent in charge of the United 
States Agricultural Experiment Station at Honolulu, 
in a letter dated August 2, 1913, says: — 

"While Mr. W. M. Hoogs, of theAlgarobaFeedCo., 
and two or three other parties, are preparing to extract 
kukui oil, it is not yet on the market as a commercial 
product. I believe, however, that it will be placed on 
the market during the present year. I have received 
numerous requests for the oil in large quantities. 

"We find that about 80 per cent, of the oil is readily 
recoverable by pressiire, and that the nuts can be gath- 
ered and transported to town from the neighboring 
forests for about $10.00 per ton. Since the press cake is 
so valuable as a fertilizer I estimate that the nuts have a 
total value of $30.00 per ton ($20 for oil and $10 for 

Another drying oil of animal origin is the fish oil 
known as Menhaden Oil. This is barred out, however, 
from use in many paint materials, especially in interior 
paints, because of its ofiPensive odor, and is made use of 


only in special outside paints, as in roof paints, some 
stack paints and by some manufacturers in other special- 

Semi-Drying and Non-Drying Oils. 

Among those that interest paint manufacturers 
mostly should be classed soya bean oil, com oil, cotton- 
seed oil, castor oil, rosin oil, pine oil, tar oil, seal oil and 
mineral (or paraffine) paint oil. 

Soya Bean Oil averages in specific gravity .926 and 
whereas raw linseed oil dries to a firm film in six days 
bean oil requires fully ten days and then the film will not 
be as firm. When linseed oil was extraordinarily high 
priced several years since there was quite a great de- 
mand for bean oil, and it was quite a task for paint 
makers to discover methods to make their products dry 
in the ordinary way. The usual practice was to use 
equal portions of soya bean oU and boiled linseed oil, or 
when this would not work out well in some paints the 
bean oil portion was increased and also the driers. 
While paints made on such formulas could not pass 
chemical inspection when linseed oil was specified, and 
therefore could not contain admixtiire of bean oil, 
observations have proved that such paints did wear 
very well, while paints doped with so-called paint oils or 
other nostrums went to pieces. 

Com or Maize Oil has been in use in paints for many 
years, but is made use of only when linseed oil is much 
higher in price. This oil has very little, if any, drying 
properties, and will harden to a brittle, rather mealy 
film in from twenty to thirty days. When used alone 
for grinding pigments the paste comes from the mill like 
a commeal mush, and emits a similar odor, especially 


when the mill becomes heated, as it usually will, the oil 
not being a good lubricant. It is now chiefly used in 
putty making, mixed with paint and putty oil in varying 

Cottonseed OH has no drying properties, but is a good 
lubricant, and previous to its rise in price, when it 
came to be used as a cooking and table oil, it was used to 
adulterate linseed oil. Under certain conditions, such 
as to keep paint or putty from hardening on long stand- 
ing, it is still added in small percentages. There can be 
no mistake about the oil. It is of the same lardlike odor 
as cottolene. 

Castor Oil (a semi-drying oil) in color or paint is used 
only with pigments that are afterward thinned with 
guncotton lacquers to produce an elastic yet firm film 
for metal packages and other special purposes too nu- 
merous to mention. 

Rosin Oils are not only used in printing-ink making,, 
but were largely employed in making paint for rough 
surfaces, though since their price has advanced to* 
twice, even three times their former cost, they have been 
replaced by mineral paint oils to a great extent in paint. 
Rosin oils are practically non-drying, and while they 
harden in time will soften again under the influence of 
sun heat and make the paint film part, or alligator. 

Pine OH and Tar Oil are products from the distillation 
of wood spirit and of rosin, and are used in the manufac- 
ture of marine paints, especially paints for ships' bot- 
toms. These oils are semi-drying and water resisting to 
a degree. 

Seal Oilf the bleached or white variety, is also semi-^ 
drying, and on account of its lubricating character is. 


used by the makers of enamels in small percentage, two 
in one hxmdred by volume for free flowing under the 

Mineral Paint or Paint and Pvtty Oilf so called among 
the trade, is refined petroleum or neutral oil, so named 
because debloomed. These oils cannot be used without 
being mixed in certain percentages with boiled linseed 
oil, as they lack binder and are apt to wash oflF the sur- 
face in case of driving rains. Even when used in large 
portions in a liquid paint for rough surfaces such paints 
have been known to wash oflF when they were supposed 
to have dried hard a month or two before. Petroleum 
products of this class will sweat, causing softening of the 
film and consequent damage by water. 

Cheap paint for rough lumber or other rough surface 
can be made by grinduig the base in linseed oil (usually 
boiled) thinning with a mixture of thirty-five gallons 
gloss oil (rosin and benzine mixtiire), ten gallons raw 
linseed oil and five gallons liquid dryer. Or if it must 
be still cheaper make a thinner of thirty gallons gloss 
oil, fifteen gallons debloomed neutral parafline oil and 
five gallons lead and manganese drier. In any case, 
however, grind the pigment to be used as the base for 
the paint in linseed oil. 



Turpentiney the common name for oil or spirits of 
turpentine, is obtainable in two varieties, one that is 
distilled from the sap of the pine tree and now known as 
gum spirits, the other obtained from the destructive 
distillation of pine wood, stumps, branches, twigs and 
knots. The latter is known as wood turpentine and is 
readily recognized by its extremely penetrating and 
sometimes tarry odor. It is being used to a limited 
extent in paint and varnish making, but when so used 
it is liable to cause trouble with exacting consumers, 
who do much interior work. Some of these wood tur- 
pentines are well distilled and their odor not so very 
strong, but it really does not pay to handle the goods 
when gum spirits are moderate in price, the difiPerence 
being too small. Varnish makers on the other hand use 
the wood spirits to disguise the benzine odors and on 
account of the strength do not require as large a propor- 
tion as they would require of the gum spirits. However 
the color grinder should keep clear of the use of wood 
turpentine especially in connection with coach colors 
and paints for interior decoration. Before the advent 
of the many substitute turpentines now on the market, 
spirits of turpentine were often found to be sophisticated 
by an addition of anywhere from 20 to 40 per cent, 
kerosene or heavy benzine and yet it should have been a 
simple matter for some of the paint and varnish firms, 
that were thus roped in to detect the adulteration. 
The specific gravity test alone amounts to nothing, 


because with the heavy benzines this can be readily 
corrected. But the aniline oil test, next to a regular 
laboratory examination is the safest quick test to detect 
adulteration with petroleum. This is based on the 
fact, that aniline oil (oil of sodium) will not mix with 
any petroleum or its distillates, but will mix with pure 
gum or wood spirits of turpentine. The test is exceed- 
ingly simple: In an ordinary testing tube 6 x ^'' 
pour the suspected turpentine to the depth of about one 
inch, then pour on top of this aniline oil until two inches 
are reached. Close tube with a cork and shake it 
violently for ten seconds or until the mixture is uniform, 
then set aside in vertical position, removing the cork, 
and observe the result. If after 5 minutes the liquid 
is not still uniform in color, but shows two stratums, 
then the turpentine, be it gum or wood spirits is mixed 
with a petroleum distillate. Another quick test for 
purity is to place a drop of turpentine on a piece of 
white paper. It should evaporate and leave no greasy 
mark in from 5 to 7 minutes. Specific gravity of pure 
spirits of turpentine should be .864 to .868 at 60** F. 

Rosin Spirit is the first run in the distillation process 
of rosin oil from rosin and may be used as a solvent. It 
resembles turpentine in general, but may be recognized 
by a tarry odor and slow evaporation. 

Crude Turpentine or as it is sometimes called gum 
thus or gallipot is the sap or exudation from the long 
leaf pine and gum spirits and rosin are produced from it. 
It is sometimes used in marine specialties, but is not 
a really good material for the purpose, 

Venice Turpentine^ an oleo rosin from the -European 
larch tree is by far the best for the purpose named above 


although 5 to 6 times higher for cost. But it does not 
fluoresce or turn white, as does crude turpentine. 

Petroleum DistiUaies or Spirits are products from the 
distillation of the crude or mineral oils. The first or 
lightest gravity products coming over in the process are 
what we know as gasolines, and these were graded, 
according to their volatility, 72 ** — 76** and 84** gaso- 
oline. But there is good reasons for the belief, that in 
the present day demand for fuel for automobiles, motor 
trucks, motor cycles, etc., as well as for gasoline engines, 
the oil refiners furnish one grade only, as do many of 
the dealers on the roadsides, who do not hesitate to sell 
ordinary benzine for gasoline and kerosene for benzine. 
While gasoline would act as a solvent, the paint maker 
will not care to employ it, but will adhere to the use of 
benzine of the 62 *" type or the heavier benzines of the 49 ** 
and 56** variety, which latter serve as a substitute for 

Kerosene or illuminating oil is of use only in a very 
few specialties in the paint line, such probably as shingle 
stains and seam cements for ships or in such other 
materials, that must keep from drying hard for quite a 
time. The further products from the distillation of 
crude oil are simply the paraffine oils, that are further 
treated and clarified and which then become useful as 
paint and putty oils. 

Other Hydrocarbons or Solvents are derived from the 
coal tar group and are known as solvent or coal tar 
naphtha, also as coal tar benzol, but are all related to one 
another, being simply distillates of tar. Can be had 
in water white form, but also in rather crude appear- 


The crude light oil or coal tar naphtha is of brown color 
used for thinning liquid tar for better spreading, as 
benzine will not mix well with tar. It can also be had 
in the water white form at advanced cost and is then 
useful in replacing turpentine in stains. By further 
treatment it serves as the base for the 90% coal tar 
benzol, which is very much employed in the lightning 
paint and varnish removers, as well as for burning in 
certain lamps. Solvent naphtha or coal tar benzol 160 "^ 
is a trifle heavier in gravity than turpentine and has 
lately been recommended to be used to a limited extent 
in certain wood stains, especially for birch wood, cedar, 
cypress and sycamore. Wood alcohol and denatured 
spirit of wine are now so well known, that special men- 
tion would be out of place. 



It is not proposed to furnish in this chapter any 
formulas for the varnishes, driers and japans used by 
the paint maker or color grinder, but in order to make 
this work complete, a description of these materials, as 
they should be, is absolutely necessary. In the first 
place, a moderate priced Gloss Oil or Rosin and Benzine 
Liquid is one of the materials required in the manufac- 
ture of barrel paini^ and cheap liquid filler, as well as 
for the mixing of a paint oil for bam and roof paints. 
This so-called gloss oil can be made in a power mixer in 
the cold way by beating up 450 lbs. rosin of medium 
grade, say F. or G. with 50 gallons 62 *" benzine, which 
wiU yield about 100 gallons liquid. Or if a kettle is 
handy with a fire place, the rosin may be melted, and 
while the rosin is still liquid, it may be removed to a 
safe distance and gradually thinned down with benzine. 
The heat process produces the best material. Next is 
required for the manufacture of varnish stain a good 
mixing varnish of medium color, that will dry to the 
touch, when mixed with a minimum percentage of oil 
color, within 8 or at most 10 hours and can be rubbed 
with the tip of the finger after 48 hours without dusting. 
A varnish made from hardened rosin, oil and substitute 
turpentine with addition of China wood oil will fill the 
bill here and should be moderate in price. Another 
good mixing varnish for the manufacture of carriage or 
so-called buggy paints, porch chair enamels, etc., also 
good white damar varnish and white enamel mixing 


varnish for white enamels, rubbing varnish for use in 
coach color grinding, as well as a cheap rubbing varnish 
for use in machinery paints and fillers is enough of an 
assortment in the line of varnishes for a moderate sized 
paint factory. With the present d^ competition the 
line of raw materials required, multiplies rapidly enough 
imless the manager keeps his weather eye open and pays 
attention to the blending. 

Driers constitute quite an important part of the 
material in stock in a paint factory and while the assort- 
ment need not be manifold, attention must be given to 
the requirements. A pale liquid drier, that does not 
tend to discolor white or light tints to any extent or 
make them dry out a decided pink, as is the case with 
driers in which excessive manganese compounds have 
been used. But in order to make a small assortment of 
driers answer, this drier should be well concentrated, 
so that it can be used in diflFerent ways. Next would be 
a liquid drier, that should contain some hard gum, but 
may be rather dark in color, for use in machinery paints, 
etc. Sometimes a manufacturer is called upon to fur- 
nish paints to specifications, and it is well to have 
recourse to two kinds of driers, one a straight oil and 
solvent proposition without gum, the other an oil, hard 
gum and solvent proposition, the solvent portion being 
selected as per specifications. 

Grinding Japans^ sometimes called coach japan, are a 
feature of a color grinder's outfit, that requires extra 
close watching. There are two distinct methods of 
making these, both kinds having the same oil and drying 
mediums, litharge and manganese, but one is a hard 
gum, the other a shellac proposition. The shellac 
japan, is the one most profitable to the varnish maker. 


because it does not require long settling, as it is clear 
and ready for use in less than a week, while the hard gum 
japan, when made with kauri dust or nubs will require 
from 4 to 6 weeks to settle clear enough for use. Gold 
size japan for grinding delicate coach colors is another 
necessary material for a color grinding establishment. 

Liquid driers are best tested for efficiency by mixing 6 
parts of it with 95 parts of oil, all by weight, beating 
the mixture thoroughly, then spread it on a piece of 
dry glass in thin film and watch it set dust free and also 
when free of tack. Should set in 12 hours dust free 
and be hard in 24 hours at the longest. The film must 
not dry out in wrinkles or tend to creeping or crawling. 
Varnishes may be applied to glass and body and time 
of drying noted. Observe appearance of surface, when 
dry. Apply to bright tin one coat and expose to strong 
sunlight. A few weeks will give an indication of their 
wearing properties. Color grinder's japan must dry 
inside of 80 minutes, when placed in a film on glass and 
must not show crinkles. 



Under the caption of grinding bases for ready-mixed 
paints we have pointed out how this is usually accom- 
plished and that there are several ways of doing this, 
the most frequent method being to grind the various 
dry pigments together in oil by established formulas to 
the consistency of a soft paste, this to be run into or 
conveyed, as the case may be, to a suitable liquid paint 
mixer, where additional oil and the drier and volatile 
thinners or varnish, as called for by formula, are added 
until the paint has attained standard fluidity and weight 
per gallon. Here also the tinting colors as required to 
produce the standard color or shade are introduced, and 
these, also, should be made rather thin and strained 
through a wire sieve to keep out lumps or paint skins, 
because such are very annoying and apt to mislead in 
the manipulation. But, as stated at that time, it is not 
essential to the thorough mixing of the paint that the 
dry pigments be ground together for the base, so long 
as the various ingredients, that have been previously 
ground singly in oil, are placed in a liquid paint mixer 
and beaten up thoroughly before adding the various 
liquids. So, for instance, white lead in oil, zinc white in 
oil or these and any extender in oil can be placed in the 
mixer in certain proportions, so that, when paint is to be 
made to certain specifications, it is not necessary to 
make a special grinding to meet requirements, which 
might at times be rather unhandy and cumbersome. 



Before proceeding with this subject it might be well 
to have a better understanding of the present methods in 
formulating compositions for ready-f or-use liquid paints 
or ready-mixed paints, that are termed patent paints by 
some of the old-line house painters. Some of the origin- 
al manufacturers of liquid paints forty years ago were 
in the habit of placing two or three brands upon the 
market. Only one of these, as a rule, showed their 
name and address upon the label, while the lower- 
priced brands were given a fancy name, and often a 
fictitious address, or they bore the address of the jobber 
or dealer, handling the goods. The higher grade paints 
bearing the brand, trade-mark and full name of the 
makers, up to some six or seven years ago, with but few 
exceptions, consisted of varying portions of pure white 
lead (basic lead carbonate) and best American zinc 
oxide (sometimes even French process zinc oxide) in 
their pigment portions, containing no extending mate- 
rial, but in place of this, were emulsified with a view of 
keeping the pigment in suspension, at the same time 
making it possible to compete in selling price with such 
brands as had a moderate percentage of extender, such 
as china clay, magnesium silicate, carbonate of lime, or 
even barytes, in their make-up. Certain brands of the 
pure lead and zinc paints were originally based on iO 
per cent, by weight of dry white lead to 80 per cent, 
zinc oxide, but gradually, because of the demand for 
better hiding power, these proportions changed, until 


finally, within the last decade, the figures were either 
equal proportions or 60 per cent, lead to 40 per cent, 
zinc. Other paint makers, again, from the very begin- 
ning, even for their best brand, did not use pure lead and 
zinc alone, but used extenders to a greater or lesser 
extent and in addition a few per cent, of emulsion. 
With the introduction of such extenders as magnesium 
silicate, clay or gypsum watery emulsions work dis- 
astrously if not confined to the very minimum. In a 
paint that is composed of pure lead and zinc, however, 
and which is apt to be stored for a year or more, a moder- 
ate portion of emulsion is an absolute necessity and not 
at all harmful to the paint, as has been proven in the 
case of at least one prominent brand for over thirty 
years. The uncalled-for legislation on paint labeling 
enacted by a few Western States some time ago, the 
wisdom of which we leave to our readers to judge, has 
produced a research into paint making, which, to our 
mind, is still unsettled as to actual results in spite of the 
great number of test fences put up in different sections 
of the country and the amount of money expended by 
paint makers' associations and other interested parties, 
simply because, so far, the test fences have not given any 
definite idea as to what any special composition of paint 
will do in the way of repainting old surfaces. The 
theory that a paint containing three or four pigments of 
varying texture or structure is better all around than 
a paint containing only one pigment may be all right 
so far as hiding power is concerned, but it has yet 
to be proven that this also applies to wear and durability 
in repainting over old painted surfaces. The paint 
maker has no means of knowing the condition of sur- 
face where the consumer intends using his paint, 
therefore the only way left open to him is to produce a 


price-worthy article as best he knows how. And, with 
this in view, we are suggesting the following formulas as 
the most modem and up to the mark for good wear: — 

A. Base for a high-class outside white — 

522 pounds dry lead; 
261 pounds XX American zinc; 
87 pounds magnesium silicate; 
130 pounds refined linseed oil; 

1,000 pounds soft paste. 

This amount of paste base beaten up in mixer with 
193 pounds (equal to twenty-five gallons) refined linseed 
oil, thirty-seven and one-half pounds (equal to five 
gallons) pale japan drier and twenty-one pounds (equal 
to three gallons) turpentine will produce a white of good 
hiding power for exterior woodwork weighing fifteen 
and one-half pounds per United States gallon of 231 
cubic inches, or, in other words, allowing for waste in 
handling, eighty gallons of outside white ready for use. 

B. Base for a lower priced outside white — 

260 pounds dry white lead (or sublimed 
white lead); 
260 pounds American zinc, XX; 
260 pounds floated barytes; 
90 pounds magnesium silicate; 
130 pounds raw linseed oil; 

1,000 pounds medium soft paste. 

Placed in the liquid paint mixer and beaten up with 
170 pounds (equal to twenty-two gallons) raw linseed 
oil and fifty-five pounds (equal to seven and one-half 
gallons) pale liquid drier will produce a paint that may 
serve as a second-grade outside white, or as a base for 


making tints of the darker type, weighing sixteen 
pounds per gallon of fairly stout consistency, a batch of 
seventy-five gallons. By adding to this batch five 
gallons of the emulsion which will be described below 
and five gallons more of raw linseed oil the batch will 
make eighty-five gallons and the weight per gallon will 
be reduced to fifteen pounds, while the consistency of 
the paint will be still stout as before. 

For light tints base A is to be highly recommended 
because of its being a clearer white and of its superior 
covering capacity. For the emulsion referred to figure 
as follows on a quantity of fifty gallons: — ^Three pounds 
borax and three pounds sal soda dissolved in five gallons 
boiling water; allow to cool, then add two gallons cold 
water and six pounds siUckte of soda 33 degrees Beaume. 
Stir well and add sufficient water to make up the above 
quantity. By dissolving two and one-half pounds ani- 
mal glue in two and one-half gallons of water, the silicate 
of soda and cold water mixture can be dispensed with. 
Another emulsion, really better than this and probably 
the only effective one for liquid mineral paints, is made 
as follows: — Dissolve in boiling hot water in separate 
wooden containers the following: — Ten ounces pale 
glue, twelve ounces borax, twelve ounces sal soda and 
twenty ounces white sugar of lead. When solution is 
complete in each case run the solutions into a barrel that 
is open at one end, the glue solution first, then rinse the 
container of glue solution with the soda solution and stir 
this into the glue solution in the barrel. Next run in 
the borax and finally the sugar of lead solution. Stir 
well and add enough cold water to make twenty-five 
gallons. When used with paint containing lead and 


zinc no assistant to emulsify is required, but with paint 
made up of mineral red or brown it is best to add one 
gallon of rosin varnish (cheap furniture varnish will do) 
for every two or three gallons of the emulsifier. This 
will keep the paint well emulsified on long standing 
when otherwise the mineral pigment will separate from 
the vehicle and settle and often cake hard in bottom of 

If a third grade or very cheap quality of liquid paint 
is desired figure on base B, adding to every 100 pounds 
of this fifty pounds of whiting in oil (ground at the rate 
of 75 per Cent, whiting and 25 per cent, oil), thinning 
this mixture with four gallons raw linseed oil, one and 
one-half gallons liquid drier and one gallon emulsion. 
This will produce close to fifteen gallons of paint, 
weighing thirteen and one-half pounds per gallon, and 
will make a low-priced white base for dark tints. 

The three formulas just given for white can be de- 
pended upon for good wear on exterior wooden surfaces 
and if made for locations where sulphur gases are pre- 
valent the dry white lead in formulas A and B should be 
changed to sublimed white lead (basic lead sulphate). 

The use of emulsion should be avoided or it should at 
least be used very sparingly in paints that contain large 
portions of yellow ocher, raw umber and raw sienna, also 
when gypsum constitutes a large part of the base, all the 
pigments referred to containing large percentages of 
hycroscopic moisture, and combined water, hence 
cannot stand much added moisture. 

Inside white in gloss finish is not much in demand, the 
cheaper gloss whites or mill whites made on a base of 


lithopone ground in oil and reduced with low-priced 
pale vamish having taken its place, and the same may 
be said of interior flat white having been to a large 
extent replaced or put out of the market by the modem 
flat wall coatings of which we shall speak later on. As 
to the inside gloss white, most paint makers put up their 
outside white under that label, while some made a spec- 
ial white of 33 per cent, white lead and 67 per cent, zinc 
oxide (French process) ground in refined linseed oil and 
reduced with a low-priced white varnish of rosin and 
turps. This paint varied between fourteen and one- 
quarter and fourteen and one-half pounds per gallon. 
The inside flat whites were made up from white lead and 
zinc in the proportions of one third of the former and 
two-thirds of the latter, also ground in refined oil, 
thinned with a pale drier, a small portion of vamish and 
reduced with spirits of turpentine. To insure good 
flatting a solution of borax was added in small portions. 
These paints required a weight of fifteen and one-half 
to sixteen pounds per gallon in order to cover up well. 

Solid Clolors in Ready for Use Building Paints. 

Blind and Shutter Greens or Trimming Greens of the 
chrome green type are usually mixed from a base con- 
taining from 20 to 25 per cent, of chemically pure green, 
balance of pigment consisting of barytes. The shade 
may be light, medium or dark, the mixed paint made 
from the light green being heaviest in weight per gallon, 
that made from the dark shade being lightest, varying 
between 14 and 15 pounds. Taking a medium chrome 
green of the type referred to as the base, the formula will 
be as follows: — 


1,000 pounds chrome green medium in oil (20 
to 25 per cent, color) ; 
310 pounds raw linseed oil; 
73 pounds japan drier; 
35 pounds turpentine; 
32 pounds emulsion (25 poimds solution, 7 
pounds varnish); 


Result 100 gallons green that will not run or sag on the 
surface and hold well in suspension. Will show on 
chemical analysis approximately 59 per cent, pigment 
and 41 per cent, pigment, and not over 2 per cent, water 
in the total paint. 

Composite Greens for Exterior House Painting can be 
made from bronze green, bottle green, olive green and 
moss green in paste form, or may be based on a mixing 
of pure color, reduced with an extender in oil, as it is 
commercially out of the question to use strictly pure oil 
colors for the exterior painting of a house. Take a 
bronze green, for instance, of dark shade, a formula like 
this will make a good wearing paint for trimming, etc. : — 
Twelve pounds lemon chrome yellow paste in oil, 10 
pounds chemically pure chrome green paste, dark in oil, 
12 pounds carbon black paste in oil or lampblack in oil, 30 
pounds bary tes ground in oil and 34 pounds fine whiting 
or asbestine in oil (preferably the latter) thinned with 42 
pounds raw linseed oil, 8 pounds japan drier and 4 
pounds turpentine will produce 13J/^ gallons of liquid 
bronze green of good body and spreading power, 
weighing \\]/2 pounds per gallon. 

For a bottle green for ordinary outside painting, figure 
on 30 pounds drop black in oil, 10 pounds chemically 


pure chrome green deep in oil, 3 pounds Chinese or 
Prussian blue in oil, 4 pounds zinc white in oil, and 53 
pounds barytes ground in oil, thinned with 35 pounds 
raw linseed oil, 1]/^ pounds japan drier and S}/2 pounds 
turpentine, producing 12 gallons liquid paint, weighing 
12 pounds per gallon. 

Olive greens for exterior woodwork in liquid form can 
be produced at comparatively low cost on a formula like 
the following: — 

Seventy pounds French yellow ocher in oil, 12 pounds 
lampblack in oil, 8 pounds white lead in oil, 8 pounds 
medium chrome yellow in oil, and 2 pounds Venetian 
red in oil, thinned to brushing consistency with 60 
pounds raw linseed oil, 12 pounds japan drier and 4 
pounds turpentine, producing 16 gaHons paint weighing 
11 pounds per gallon. Moss green is made with 45 
pounds French yellow ocher in oil, 20 pounds white lead 
in oil, 10 pounds chrome green in oil, light shade of the 
20 per cent, variety, and 25 pounds raw umber in oili 
thinned with 35 pounds raw linseed oil, 1}/^ pounds 
japan drier and S]/^ pounds turpentine, producing 12}^ 
gallons paint, weighing 11^ pounds per gallon. 

Solid Yellows are rarely called for and then usually in 
the medium shade. Unless the specifications call for a 
chemically pure yellow, the following makes the best 
wearing paint: — 

Sixty pounds medium chrome yellow in oil and 40 
pounds floated barytes in oil, thinned with 38 pounds 
refined linseed oil, 7 J^ pounds pale drier and 3 J^ pounds 
turpentine. This will produce 11 gallons of paint, 
weighing 13^^ pounds per gallon. 


Solid Red type of liquid paints comprises mostly 
Tuscan red, Venetian red and bright reds, mostly used 
for sash and trimming work. For either the Venetian 
or Tuscan red in liquid form, thin 100 pounds of the 
paste in oil, with 38 pounds raw linseed oil, 10 pounds 
japan drier and 4 pounds turpentine, producing 12^ 
gallons of a stout liquid paint, weighing 12 pounds to the 

For a brilliant sash red that is often demanded, a paste 
base in oil, composed of about 15 parts by weight of pure 
toner of the bluish type and 85 parts of blanc fixe 
ground in linseed oil, at the rate of 65 per cent, pigment 
and 85 per cent, oil is of sufficient hiding power. To 
100 pounds of this paste figure on 42 pounds of raw lin- 
seed oil and 12 pounds japan drier of good strength, to 
produce 14 gaUons liquid paint, weighing 11 pounds per 
gaUon. An addition of Venetian red paste will give 
better hiding power, but subdue the brilliancy of the 



The best wearing floor paints in our experience have 
been the house paints made from pure lead and zinc 
bases with pure tinting colors for producing the shade. 
On interior floors as well as on porch floors these paints 
when applied rather thin, i. e., reduced with some pure 
spirits of turpentine and applied in several coats, 
brushed out to the utmost, have given most excellent 
service for years, aside from making a very good surface 
for repainting. 

However, there being a large market for lower-priced 
and fairly quick drying floor paint, most paint makers 
make special paints for the purpose, the colors usually 
shown on sample cards being designated as light and 
dark lead or stone, buff, spruce, drab or dust color, red, 
brown or walnut and in rare instances, maroon color. 
Some makers use lead and zinc oxide, some all zinc 
oxide, some leaded zinc, some sublimed lead and others 
lithopone as the white base for these paints, grinding 
bases in paste form and thinning with special thinners 
with or without emulsion, but most always using more 
or less varnish of some sort or another. The most 
recent formulas for floor paints are based on lithopone 
for the tints where a white base is required and here are 
a few formulas on that plan, although the paint maker 
may find it more convenient to use zinc white or lead. 

Drab or Dust Color. — Grind 56 pounds lithopone, 
green seal or its equivalent, 10 pounds whiting, 12 


pounds floated silex, S pounds yellow ocher, 1 pound 
Venetian red, 1 pound lampblack in 2^ gallons boiled 
linseed oil, resulting in 100 pounds paste, which is best 
thinned to insure hard drying in, say twelve hours, with 
4 gallons mixing varnish, 1}/^ gallons liquid drier and ^ 
gallon turpentine. This will produce 12 gallons of 
paint, weighing 12 pounds per gallon. The mixing 
varnish must be of what is termed a short oil product, 
drying of itself in eight hours or less. 

Lead Colored floor paint may be made on a similar 
formula by omitting from the base the yellow ocher and 
the Venetian red, using lampblack only for tinting. 

Spruce Color floor paint may be based on a paste of 25 
pounds lithopone, 20 pounds yellow ocher, 6 pounds 
medium chrome yellow, 3 pounds Venetian red, 24 
pounds floated silex in 3 gallons boiled linseed oil, 
thinned as for the drab or dust color. 

Red floor paint will require a grinding of 45 pounds 
Venetian red, 5 pounds zinc oxide, 5 pounds whiting, 20 
pounds floated silex in 25 pounds boiled linseed oil. 
When thinned with 5 gallons mixing varnish and 2 
gallons liquid drier the result will be 14 gaUons paint 
weighing dose to 11 pounds per gaUon. 

If Indian red light shade is substituted for Venetian 
red the paint will pass for maroon color, but only one- 
half as much Indian red should be figured and the bal- 
ance of pigment made up with asbestine powder. 

Brown or Walnut floor paint is best based on a paste 
made by mixing and grinding 27 pounds burnt Turkey 
umber, 3 poimds Venetian red, 5 pounds French yellow 


ocher, 5 pounds whiting, 25 pounds floated silex and 35 
poimds boiled linseed oil. This paste thinned with 5 
gallons mixing varnish, 1}/^ gallons liquid drier and }^ 
gallon turpentine will produce 14 gallons paint weighing 
close to 11 poimds per gallon. 



This is a wide field and to treat the subject fully 
would require a volume itself and then not be exhausted 
as our scientific researchers are discovering new data 
regarding corrosion of metals as they go along and are 
advancing new theories as to the paint problem daily. 
As we cannot wait for them, however, we will have to 
work on what we know from experience along this line 
and the author believes that he has not spent almost a 
life time on this subject without accomplishing some 
results and establishing some facts. 

So much appears to be certain that pure red lead well 
made and freed from all impurities and containing no 
vitrified particles will make the best priming coat for 
iron and steel that is subjected to salt water, provided 
such red lead has not had an opportunity to over- 
oxidize the oil with which it has been mixed for appli- 
cation. When pure dry red lead is mixed with pure raw 
linseed oil within twenty-four hours before application 
it does not require the admixture with driers or volatile 
thinners to permit its drying hard, yet elastic on the 
metal, but will within forty-eight hours become as hard 
as cement, while if mixed with base material, impure oil, 
or if permitted to oxidize the oil such red lead paint 
will not have the preservative quaUties that can be had 
from paints made from other pigments, such as ferric 
oxide or carbon paints. When these are properly put 
together from well selected pigments and manipulated 
with a vehicle that is free from any traces of acidity it 


only remains for the metal to be prepared to receive the 
coating before there is any indication of the formation of 
rust. Rustless or preservative coatings for iron and 
steel cannot be made in white or light tints for direct 
application to iron and steel, as white lead (basic lead 
carbonate) alone does not inhibit rusting and zinc oxide 
will not assist it, as it does not withstand expansion and 
contraction of the metal. Sublimed white lead (basic 
lead sulphate) and sublimed blue lead are not elastic 
enough either and therefore the first coat or priming 
paint for structural iron and steel should be composed of 
red lead, as outlined above, or an oxide of iron paint of a 
composition we are about to describe, but must be of 
necessity a red or other dark color. That such a coating 
will serve equally well as a second and third coat over a 
red lead priming and as a primer or first coating in place 
of red lead to be second or third coated with white paint 
or light tints has been proven by the author by exposing 
the paints referred to on iron and steel subjected to 
sulphur gases and to wind and weather for years. This 
was before researchers had discovered what pigments 
had inhibitive properties and what pigments promoted 
the formation of rust through stimulative charac- 
teristics. There is no inclination to belittle the work of 
scientific research, on the contrary, the author believes 
that much good will yet come from that source, but life 
at best is short and we are obliged to work upon the 
basis of past experience imtil we have found out more 
about the effects of certain pigments and vehicles on 
certain metals and vice versa. 

Metal Preservative Black can be made by grinding any 
good well calcined carbon black in well settled raw lin- 
seed oil or fire boiled linseed oil (if the latter is not avail- 


able, use the raw oil in preference to the present day 
boiled oil), using an extender of light gravity and red 
lead or litharge as drier in excess, thinning with fire 
boiled linseed oil and hard gum japan and turpentine for 
a moderately slow drying paint, while for a paint that 
will be subjected much to contact with sulphur gases, an 
addition of very hard gum varnish will make the paint 
more impervious. These hard gum japan and varnish 
compounds should have been proven by exposure tests 
extending through several years in order to feel secure, 
and an excellent paint of this kind in black can be made 
as follows : — Grind a soft paste by mixing 12 pounds best 
gp45 carbon black, 6 poimds powdered litharge (or 3 
pounds each litharge and red lead), 24 poimds finest 
floated silica or silex, 3 pounds whiting in 55 poimds raw 
linseed oil and thin this soft paste with 10 gallons fire 
boiled linseed oil and 1 gallon hard gum japan. This 
will make 20 gallons of paint, weighing a trifle over 9 
pounds per gallon. If hard drying and protection 
against the infiltration of gases is to be a special feature 
use a portion of hard gum varnish in place of the fire 
boiled oil for thinning. 

Metal Preservative Red may be made by grinding a 
base of 40 pounds bright red oxide of 95 per cent, 
purity, 8 pounds red lead, 2 pounds zinc chromate, 25 
pounds floated silex or silica in 25 pounds raw linseed oil 
thinning same with 5 gallons raw linseed oil, 1 gallon 
hard gum japan and 3^ gallon turps. This will pro- 
duce 123^ gallons erf paint weighing a trifle over 11^^ 
pounds per gallon. By substituting a long stock of hard 
gum varnish for part of the 5 gallons raw oil a hard 
drying product will be the result. 


Metal Preservative Maroon. — ^By substituting for the 
bright red oxide deep Indian red in similar quantity, a 
rich maroon paint of same quality as the red will result. 

Metal Preservative Brown. — ^Thirty pounds burnt 
Turkey umber, 10 pounds French yellow ocher, 6 
pounds Indian red, 20 pounds floated silex, 3 poimds 
whiting, ground in 32 pounds raw linseed oil, thinned 
with 5 gallons raw linseed oil, 1 gallon hard gum japan 
and 1 gallon turpentine, producing 14 gallons of a rich 
brown paint, weighing 11 poimds per gallon. Same 
remarks as to substituting hard gum varnish for the 
oil apply here. 

Metal Preservative Green of the bronze green type is 
best made by grinding a paste base as follows: — ^Ten 
pounds bone black, powdered, 15 pounds medium 
chrome yellow, 3 pounds Chinese blue, well oxidized, 6 
poimds litharge, 6 pounds zinc oxide, 30 poimds floated 
silex or silica, 32 pounds raw linseed oil, thinning with 
53^ gallons raw linseed oil, 1 gallon hard gum japan and 
1 gallon turpentine, producing 14^ gallons rich green 
paint, weighing about 10^ pounds per gallon. Same 
final remarks as to the varnish substitution. 

A few remarks in connection with metal preservative 
paints will not be amiss. A paint for metal must 
necessarily lay down closer to the surface than is the 
case on wood, where the pores absorb excessive oil, while 
on iron and particularly on steel the excess in oil must 
necessarily harden by absorbing oxygen from the air. 
Hence it is necessary for the paint maker and seller to do 
all he can towards educating consumers to handle paints 
on metal more carefully than those for wood and in 
labeling these paints, cautions should be embodied in 
the directions on the packages. By doing so the paint 
maker may save himself a vast deal of annoyance. 



This line of paint making is coming to the fore rapidly 
and there are, even now, many brands on the market 
that are offered for the purpose of coating such surfaces 
to keep them from dusting or withering and to make 
them pleasing to the eye as well by color schemes when 
it comes to walls, interior and exterior as well. A most 
important feature, however, is the coating of cement 
floors, concrete reservoirs, silos, cisterns, etc. Here is 
the most diflScult problem for the paint maker, and very 
few of the brands offered for the purpose so far have 
given satisfactory results. Up to within a few years ago 
various preparatory treatments for concrete and cement 
surfaces have been suggested to be applied in advance of 
painting, but while at least one of these gave satisfactory 
results in holding back alkalinic action of cement, even 
this was finally frowned upon by consumers as being a 
waste of time and labor, and the demand was for paint 
coatings of a nature that made the application of chem- 
ical solutions unnecessary. Carbonate of ammonia in 
solution was one method suggested for treating new 
cement walls, while a saturated solution of zinc sulphate 
as a wash in several appUcations was another, and a 
third was a solution of eight parts oil of vitriol in 99 
parts water for roughening the surface and converting 
the lime in the cement into the harmless sulphate of 
calcium, to be followed with any good priming paint as 
used on interior or exterior work generally finished in the 
usual manner. The sulphuric acid treatment has no 


found favor, because it affects the surface of the cement 
too strongly, and as pomted out above, the other treat- 
ments were found too cumbersome. It would -be a 
waste of time to describe the compositions of the pat- 
ented concrete coatings which appear to cover almost 
any possible vehicle that would seem to go far towards 
holding back the action of fairly fresh cement. Some of 
the other brands that have been selling fairly well show 
a composition of equal parts zinc oxide and either cal- 
cium carbonate in the form of marble dust, or calcium 
sulphate in the form of gypsum, or lithopone white and 
zinc oxide with magnesium silicate for pigment with a 
vehicle of linseed oil, gloss oil, pale drier and heavy 
naphtha. These, while comparatively low for cost, are 
not well adapted for waterproofing walls or for use on 
floors, unless finished eventually with other paints that 
give the finish desired. 

It is an established fact that linoleic acid is a good 
coating for holding back lime in cement mortar, but in 
order to make it available in a concrete or cement 
coating, it is best used in connection with other vehicles. 
The following formula has been tried with very satis- 
factory results on various cement plasters, both inside 
and exposed to the weather: — ^Ten pounds of builders' 
lime are slaked with three gallons of water and covered 
up. After 24 hours the liquid is poured off, filtered 
through cloth, and set aside. Grind in a suitable mill 60 
pounds Green Seal lithopone with 10 pounds raw linseed 
oil and 12 pounds refined paraffine oil (paint oil). 
Return this to a change can mixer and add first four 
pounds of the above lime solution, and then eight poimds 
linoleic acid and six pounds of pale timgate drier. This 
produces 100 pounds of a stout paint, weighing 16 


pounds per gallon, but is most too stout for easy working 
on porous surface and should be reduced with one gallon 
heavy petroleum naphtha, producing seven and two* 
thirds gallons of paint, weighing 14 pounds per gallon. 
The lithopone can be replaced by zinc oxide, but in that 
case it is advisable to use a portion of finest floated 
barytes, say two-thirds zinc and one-third barytes. 
For tinting this paint only lime proof colors should be 
used, and when the proportion of color is small, the 
colors are best ready groimd in linseed oil, otherwise 
where deep colors are wanted the dry colors are best 
ground together with the white pigment, increasing the 
vehicle portion accordingly. Limeproof colors com- 
prise all blacks, ultramarine blue, oxide of chromium 
green, green earth, yellow and red ochers, red oxides, 
siennas and umbers, raw and burnt, also zinc chromate. 
Paint made by the above formula will seal the concrete 
or cement surface with one application, but, of course, 
show a dull finish, nor will it dry with high gloss on 
second coat, but will make an effective priming coat for 
walls and floors as well. 



Bam and Roof Paints^ so called in distinction from 
the general line of ready mixed house and building paints 
to account for the difference in quality and selling price, 
are made to meet the demand for low prices, and the line 
of colors is usually confined to red, brown, slate or lead 
color, moss green or olive green. It is astonishing what 
nostrums have been sold under that name in the Far 
West, especially in red and brown. But we will omit a 
description of these and leave it to the reader's imagina- 
tion, what this dope must have been when we state that 
such goods were sold to jobbing houses at from 30 to 35 
cents per gallon in one-gallon tins at a time when linseed 
oil was 60 to 65 cents per gallon. Bam and roof paints 
are, when so branded, not recommended as the best 
paint for tin roofs, but more for shingle roofs that are 
not stained, for fences, outbuildings, etc., while for tin 
roofs on dwelling houses the best oxide of iron paint is 
none too good. Such a paint, either in red or brown, 
should be composed of the following ingredients: — 

Red. — Sixty pounds Venetian red, consisting of 30 to 
35 per cent, sesquioxide iron, ground in raw linseed oil to 
medium stiff paste, thinned with 4 gallons (31 pounds) 
raw linseed oil, 5 poimds liquid drier, 1 pound rosin 
varnish and 3 pounds emulsion, as described previously. 
This paint will keep well in suspension in sealed pack- 
ages and weigh 11^ pounds per gallon, and if the red is 
well selected and free of soluble salt of iron the paint 
will preserve the tin for years, provided the underside 


of the tin has been well coated before the laying of the 
roof. The same applies to Brown Paint for tin roofs, 
when it is made as follows: — Fifty-eight poimds of 
metallic brown, free from the by-products of sulphuric 
acid plants, ground in pure raw linseed oil to medium 
stiff paste, thinned with 31 pounds raw linseed oil, 5 
pounds liquid drier, 2 poimds rosin varnish and 4 pounds 
emulsion as above. This will make a paint of good 
covering capacity weighing 11 pounds per gallon. 

Slate or Lead color of high quality for tin roofs should 
be composed of pigments that are not apt to scale read- 
ily, hence zinc oxide should be used sparingly or not at 
all. Pure white lead or sublimed white lead witK a good 
portion of inert mineral base to reduce cost, tinted with 
pure oil lampblack, will give best results here. For 
example: 36 pounds white lead in oil, paste, 10 poimds 
whiting in oil, paste, and 20 pounds asbestine in oil 
paste, 3 poimds lampblack in oil, paste, 25 pounds raw 
linseed oil, 5 pounds liquid drier and 2 pounds emulsion 
will produce 7}/^ gallons of a slate or lead color of medi- 
um depth, weighing a little over 133^ pounds per gallon. 
If the paint is to be used at once the emulsion could be 
omitted, which will increase the weight to 133^ pounds 
per gallon and decrease the quantity of the batch by 
one-quarter gallon. 

When moss green or olive green for tin roof in the best 
quality is wanted nothing better can be offered than 
those greens made by the formulas given for house 
paints, but if the cost is too high for their use on roofs 
the paint maker has recourse to the inert bases described 
under extenders and fillers and their use, as these greens 
will carry large percentages of inert base before losing 
their hiding power. Coming back to the lower priced 


Bam and Roof paints for the purposes indicated above 
on rough surfaces, we will give a few typical formulas 
and of course the paint maker can vary these to suit his 
ideas as to cost of production. For a fairly bright red 
bam paint he can grind a base as follows: — Fifteen 
poimds native red oxide (which runs anywhere from 76 
to 90 per cent, in sesquioxide of iron), 15 pounds whiting 
and 45 pounds asbestine powder ground in raw linseed 
oil or, in case the market in that commodity is too high, 
in part linseed and part com oil, requiring 25 pounds of 
oil to produce 100 poimds of paste of light gravity* 
Thinning this base with 20 pounds raw linseed oil, 8 
poimds gloss oil, 15 pounds paint oil and 8 pounds drier 
will result in 13^ gallons of paint, weighing 11 poimds 
per gallon. 

Or the 100 pounds paste may be thinned with four 
gallons raw linseed oil, one gallon strong drier, one gal- 
lon gloss oil and two gallons emulsion, producing 143^ 
gallons paint, weighing 11 pounds per gallon, this cost- 
ing, however, a few cents more per gallon, but making a 
safer paint for woodwork. 

A brown bam paint can be made on the same basis 
with the exception that the paste should be composed of 
the following ingredients: — Forty-five pounds metallic 
brown, 10 pounds whiting, 23 pounds asbestine powder, 
ground with 22 pounds raw linseed oil. The same mle 
for thinning would apply here and the weight per gallon 
will not materially differ from that of the red. 

A lead colored bam paint can be made without the 
use of white lead or zinc oxide, and the use of lithopone 
white is suggested. Twenty-five pounds lithopone, 
green seal, 10 pounds whiting and 45 poimds asbestine 
ground in 20 pounds linseed oil, producing 100 pounds 


paste with from 2 to 2^ pounds lampblack in oil for 
tinting will make a dark slate or lead colored paint when 
thinned with 15^^ pounds raw linseed oil, 16 pounds 
paint oil, 8 pounds gloss oil and 7 pounds strong drier, 
weighing 183^ pounds per gallon, covering well on wood- 
work on bams or fences, etc. This paint will not be far 
in excess over the cost of red or brown and it is necessary 
to keep within that scope because the trade will not 
stand any variation in price on this line of paint, no 
matter what the shade or color may be. Olive green 
of this type is usually produced in larger establishments 
from remnants of higher quality brands, extended with 
inert base, while for the smaller manufacturer the most 
convenient way is to grind a suitable base on the follow- 
ing plan: — ^A base made by grinding 25 pounds Amer- 
ican yellow ocher of good quality, 8 pounds zinc oxide, 2 
poimds chemically pure green, medium, 3 poimds lamp- 
black, 32 poimds asbestine powder in 30 poimds raw 
linseed oil. Thinning this paste with 233^ pounds raw 
linseed oil, 16 poimds gloss oil, 8 pounds japan drier and 
8 pounds emulsion will produce 14 gallons paint, weigh- 
ing 11 poimds per gallon. For a moss green use a sim- 
ilar base, omitting the zinc oxide, but 3 pounds more 
chrome green increasing the asbestine powder to 37 



Shingle Stains of High Quality can be produced only 
by using the strongest and finest oil colors as base, 
because they are chiefly used for staining the shingles 
before being laid. Coal tar creosote is introduced as 
part of the vehicle for preservative quality, wood 
creosote having been found wanting in that respect. 
Aside from creosote all manner of thinning materials 
have been used, from common kerosene oil to petroleum 
benzine, gasoline and benzol. The latter is beneficial 
especially for certain woods, but competition in prices 
will not permit any extensive use of it. For light stains 
the usual run of creosote is by far too dark and cresylic 
acid is used instead in spite of its high cost. We will 
confine the description of the composition of shingle 
stains to a few formulas for the most popular colors and 
may mention the fact that stains made by these have 
held out splendidly for seven years, the roofs looking as 
good as new, the shingles having been dipped before 
being laid and afterwards given a brush coat of the stain. 

Deep Green Stain (Chrome Green Type). 

Fifteen pounds chemically pure chrome green deep in 
oil, one gallon benzine japan drier, four gallons creosote 
oil, four gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons. 

Mineral Red Stain (Venetian Red Type.) 

Seventeen pounds red oxide (95 per cent.) ground fine 
in oil, one gallon benzine japan drier, four gallons creo- 
sote oil, four gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons. 


Walnut Brcmn Stain (Dark). 

Thirteen pounds burnt Turkey umber, ground in oil, 
one-half gallon b^izine japan drier, one-half gallon 160- 
degree benzol, five gallons creosote oil, three gallons 
heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons. 

Silyer Grey Stain. 

Twenty pounds zinc white, ground in bleached linseed 
oil, one-eighth pound lampblack in oil, well beaten up 
with one quart pale liquid drier, after which another 
quart of same drier is added, also one-half gallon straw 
colored cresylic acid and when well mixed, eight gallons 
heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons. 

To decrease cost, when necessary, part of the heavy 
benzine may be replaced with 110-degree test kerosene, 
but under no condition should an attempt be made to 
lessen cost of production by adding base material to the 
color, as it does not hold in suspension, nor should 
aniline colors be substituted for pigment colors. Some- 
times it is desired to have shingle stains without creosote 
oil or carbolic acid of any kind, and in that case it is best 
to replace creosote, carbolic or cresylic acid by using 
part turpentine with high test kerosene and heavy 
benzine. Or, for example, to make a rich brown stain 
without creosote, mix 14 pounds humt Italian sienna in 
oil, break up with one-half gallon japan drier, add one 
gallon each linseed oil and turpentine, another one-half 
gallon drier, two gallons high-test kerosene and four 
gallons heavy benzine to make 10 gallons of stain. 



Oil Stains and Varnish Stains witli Pigment Bases. 

While of late years some paint makers have listed 
stains with fancy names in these two lines, the most 
popular are still those that imitate natural wood, as 
light and dark oak, cherry, mahogany, walnut, rose- 
wood and, perhaps, ebony. When we speak of oil 
stains we do not refer to a stain made of oil and pigment 
only, as such a material would not penetrate into the 
wood fiber. It simply indicates that oil is the binder, 
while volatile thinners, such as turpentine, benzine, 
solvent naphtha or benzol f lunish the penetrating agent. 
The colors forming the base should be ground very fine 
in raw or boiled linseed oil, and the stronger the color in 
staining power, the more effective the stain and the less 
color is required. It stands to reason that base mate- 
rial should not enter here, as it is useless and only tends 
to doud the effect of the stain. The following formulas 
for oil stains are based on high-quality goods, where 
permanency of color is preferred to low first cost: — 
For 10 gallons of stain use as a base for light oak, five 
pounds each raw Italian sienna and French yellow ocher, 
ground in oil. For dark oak, use eight pounds raw 
Italian sienna, one pound burnt Italian sienna and one 
pound burnt umber, all ground in oil. For cherry use 
five pounds each burnt Italian sienna and French yellow 
ocher in oil. For mahogany, six pounds burnt Italian 
sienna and four pounds maroon lake or rose pink in oil. 
For dark walnut use five pounds each burnt Turkey 


umber and Vandyke brown in oil; if light walnut is 
desired, use 10 pounds burnt Turkey umber of reddish 
tone in oil. For rosewood use 10 pounds rose pink and 
five pounds burnt Italian sienna in oil. For ebony use 
Nigrosene B (fat aniline color that has been dissolved in 
turpentine by gentle heat on a sand or hot water bath), 
two and one-half pounds color will be sufficient for 10 
gallons of stain, if dissolved in one gallon turpentine. 
To any of the above bases add gradually, while beating 
up in suitable mixer, three-quarters gallon strong liquid 
drier, seven gallons boiled linseed oil, and one and one- 
half gallons turpentine. To reduce the cost of manufac- 
ture the quantity of oil may be reduced by one-half and 
heavy benzine substituted for both the omitted oil and 
the turpentine, but in that case the liquid drier should be 
increased to One gallon. The bases given for oil stains 
will also answer for pigment Varnish Stains, using the 
same quantity as given above for every ten gallons pro- 
duced. A quick and hard drying varnish is required 
and the oil colors in each case should be first broken up 
in part of the liquid drier, of which at least one-half 
gallon should be used before adding the varnish, of 
which about nine gallons is required. If the varnish is 
too heavy in body add some turpentine or benzine, in 
addition to the drier, to the color before mixing it with 
the varnish. Make the stain flow freely from the brush 
and strain the material well before putting it up in the 
containers. Ebony is not called for in varnish stain 
lists, but Bog Oak Green is, and to produce 10 gallons of 
this would suggest the following: — ^Four pounds chem- 
ically pure chrome green medium in oil, one pound 
burnt Turkey umber in oil, and three pounds French 
yellow ocher in oil, thinned with one-half gallon strong 
liquid drier and nine gallons varnish as above. 


The varnish should be what is known to the trade as 
mixing varnish and should not powder, when after 
drying, it is rubbed with the tips of the fingers. 

Interior Decorative Stains: 

These stains are not made to imitate any natural 
wood, but are to give effects to harmonize with the gen- 
eral decorations or hangings in rooms of private resi- 
dences or offices, etc. They are made to penetrate well 
into the woodwork, on which they are applied and with a 
dull effect, from which a luster may be brought out by 
different treatments, such as waxing, shellacking, var- 
nishing and polishing. The better class of these are 
based on permanent pigments, similar to the oil and 
varnish stains just described, but while they are really 
oil stains, are made to dry more rapidly by using volatile 
thinners for the most part. They are applied with a 
brush, and before having had time to set, the surface is 
wiped with cloth in order to bring out the effect of the 
grain in the wood, the latter is filled with paste fillers as 
soon as the stain becomes dry, while close grained woods 
are treated by applying shellac or liquid filler over the 
stain or they are waxed, which latter makes the best 
finish on Southern pine, while shellac is best for scAt 
pine, white-wood or maple. It would carry us too far 
to give any number of formulas for stains of this type, 
therefore we will confine ourselves to a few examples. 
For instance, a nut brown is desired. To produce 10 
gallons of stain use 12 pounds drop black in oil, two 
pounds Venetian red in oil, and one pound medium 
chrome yellow in oil, one gallon strong japan drier, one 
gallon mixing varnish and seven gallons turpentine. 


Break up the oil color in part of the drier before adding 
the other ingredients. For a forest green stain use two 
pounds Chinese blue in oil and 12 pounds Dutch pink in 
oil, beat up the colors in part of the one gallon strong 
drier and add mixing varnish and turpentine as above. 

Stains with Aniline Colors as the Base. 

While the pigment stains are most permanent, aniline 
stains give clearer and more briUiant tones, and though 
most of them are prone to fade under exposure to strong 
light, they hold up fairly well when protected by varnish. 
The fat aniline colors, oil soluble, are very strong and it 
does not require a great deal of the color to produce a 
gallon of stain. The colors may be had in black, brown, 
blue, green, orange, several shades of red, and yellow. 
They are furnished in lump as well as in the powder 
form, the latter being most convenient. One to one 
and a quarter pounds of the stronger of these colors 
(red) dissolved in one gallon of turpentine will make the 
base for 10 gallons of oil stain; in the other colors, ex- 
cepting brown, a little more color will be required. To 
the color dissolved in turps add, for oil stain, one gallon 
strong japan drier, three gallons of boiled linseed oil and 
five gallons more of turpentine or benzine, as desired. 

To make Aniline Varnish Stains dissolve the fat 
aniline colors same as for oil stain in turpentine, using 
one gallon of the latter and adding nine gallons of mix- 
ing varnish of good body. If the latter is slow in drying, 
cut quantity to eight gallons and use one gallon good 
strong japan drier. 


Aniline Spirit and Water Stains. 

Tke^ can be readily produced by dissolving spirit or 
water soluble aniline colors in these liquids, but these 
preparations are not commercially profitable to the 
paint maker, as the consumers purchase the powders 
and do their own mixing. 



Dipping Paints for Wood or Metal require to be made 
specially for either surface, as that intended for wood 
will not always serve the purpose for metal. The paint 
for wood requires to contain a pigment that acts as a 
filler, while tin or smooth sheet iron or steel does not 
necessarily need it, in fact, it is best without it for cer- 
tain metallic surfaces. The function of a dipping paint 
is, first of all, to economize in labor, to cover uniformly 
any article immersed in it, and to dip freely without 
leaving fringes of paint at the edges and dry equally all 
over the surface thus coated. 

The most difficult problem in preparing a dipping 
paint for metal is to have the paint adhere to high ridgea 
and sharp comers or edges, and this is most difficult 
of all when the paint is to dry with a semi-gloss or full 
gloss finish. Dipping paints for wood are used in sash 
and door works, where the finished frames^ sashes and 
doors are dipped in liquid primers to keep them from 
warping through exposure before being set. These are 
generally cheap goods bought in liquid form and still 
further reduced by the addition of ordinaiy benzine or 
turpentine substitute. The usual method for making 
these was to grind zinc oxide and whiting in a mixture 
of linseed oil and gloss oil, thinning the semi-paste thua 
produced with petroleum naphtha (benzine) until of 
good consistency for brushing, because the paint is 
usually wanted in that form. At the present time, how- 


ever, the usage is to make a grinding of lithopone and 
whiting or asbestine powder in raw linseed oil, thinning 
with gloss oil, drier and benzine, tinting the resulting 
paint with lampblack in oil a very light gray or lead 
color. A formula for such a paint that is finding favor 
is as follows: — ^Twenty-three pounds lithopone, green 
seal, 30 pounds bolted whiting and 16 pounds asbestine 
powder are ground in 15 pounds raw linseed oil and five 
pounds gloss oil, producing 89 pounds semi-paste, which, 
after cooling, is reduced to brushing consistency with a 
mixture of 10 pounds gloss oil and five pounds benzine. 
The result is 104 pounds of paint, equal to eight gallons. 
It will not require over four ounces of pure lampblack in 
oil to make this a very light gray tint. Implement 
manufacturers use dipping paint for woodwork, such as 
lawn swings and the parts of farming implements, wag- 
ons, etc., and as a rule, where they use the paints mainly 
to stain and fill the wood and varnish over afterwards 
also for dipping, they purchase their requirements in 
paste form, thinning with naphtha, as they can purchase 
the latter at as low a price as the paint maker. But 
when it comes to what is called a one-coat dip gloss 
paint, the paint maker has some show of securing the 
trade for paint in liquid form. A bright red one-coat 
gloss dipping paint can be made by grinding para toner 
with a sufficient quantity of asbestine powder in boiled 
linseed oil to soft paste form, adding sufficient strong 
japan drier to make this dry of itself inside of eight or 
ten hoiurs, reducing this material with a free-flowing 
mixing varnish of rather thin consistency until the paint 
drips freely from hard wood, while covering the same uni- 
formly. Or the color and base may be ground in part 
boiled linseed oil and drier, as in the following formula :— 


14 pounds para toner, blueish, pure, 
66 pounds asbestine, dry powder, 
20 pounds boiled linseed oil, 
10 pounds strong drying japan. 

Result, 100 pounds paste — 7 gallons. 

For each gallon of this paste add at least two gallons 
of a mixing varnish as outlined above. 

When a blue one-coat gloss dipping paint is wanted, 
keep lead out of your base, use zinc oxide instead, or 
still better, lithopone, with enough good suspending 
material to give the required filling, and then beware of 
using a mixing varnish made with Manila gum in any 
case and China wood oil varnish, when zinc oxide is the 
pigment base. Dipping paint for sheetings of tin, if in 
red, give best results when a good red oxide, high in 
percentage of sesquioxide of iron is selected and ground 
fine in linseed oil with its own weight of a fine quality of 
magnesium silicate to a medium paste. Should be 
thinned, if selling price will permit, with spirits of tur- 
pentine, otherwise with substitute turpentine or ben- 
zine, adding sufficient good japan in either case. If 
gloss finish is desired one-half of the solvent thinners 
should be replaced with a good mixing varnish. 

A good formula for a dipping paste that will adhere 
well to tin on drying and not run or sag during the dry- 
ing process may be made as follows: — Grind to impal- 
pable fineness 250 pounds red oxide, containing at least 
90 per cent, sesquioxide of iron, preferably native red, 
250 pounds magnesium silicate (known to the trade as 
asbestine) in 165 pounds boiled linseed oil. To this soft 
paste add, mixing thoroughly, 10 gallons best drying 


japan and 40 gallons turpentine or heavy naphtha, as 
desired, or as selling price wU permit. Result 100 

The same red paste will answer for a high-grade 
dipping paint for iron, such as railings, fence posts, or 
the iron parts of implements, if the 665 pounds of paste 
is thinned with 15 gallons of good liquid drier and 35 
gallons hard drying mixing varnish. These, however, 
are paints which will find favor only with exacting con- 
sumers, because of the price it is necessary to charge. 

We do not intend to publish formulas for dope 
mixtures, and if any paint maker should be interested in 
such, he can readily work them out from the foregoing 
by simply using lower priced vehicles and thinners. So 
far as the pigments are concerned, there is very little to 
be gained by cutting cost in that direction, and it will 
be found that whenever too much extending base or base 
material is used in the pigment it will end in complaints 
on the part of consumers and loss of trade that was in 
the first place difficult to obtain. 



It is a well-known fact to the trade that the evolution 
of these flat finishes is due to a great extent to the efforts 
of the manufacturers of lithopone, both here and abroad, 
to find a greater market for this white pigment than that 
derived from the linoleum and oilcloth and shade cloth 
makers. That the efforts have been successful is 
proven by the favorable reception this material has 
received and the enormous output since the first brand 
was placed on the market by a certain varnish house. 
Quite a share of the credit for its success is due to the 
availability in late years of China wood oil varnish 
preparations and the progress made by petroleum 
refiners in perfecting the heavy gravity petroleum spir- 
its generally known as turpentine substitutes. The 
ordinary 62 degrees petroleum benzine would not have 
given the flat finish, and would have made the paint set 
so rapidly that it could not have been spread, while the 
addition of more oil would have tended to gloss up. 
Again, for a certain period the cost price of turpentine 
almost prohibited its use. Several years ago a number 
of varnish makers issued formulas for paint makers 
showing them how to prepare flat wall finishes by using 
the liquid supplied by them for the purpose. The 
results obtained by following these formulas varied 
considerably and even the batches made from time to 
time did not always turn out uniformly. One of the 
formulas in question, issued by one of the most prom- 
inent firms of varnish makers in the United States with 


a branch in Canada, is as follows: — ''Paste base to be 
ground on suitable mill: — 

1373^ pounds G. S. lithopone (brand speci- 
25 pounds XX New Jersey zinc; 
18^ pounds china clay, bolted English; 
313^ pounds bolted whiting; 
60^ pounds flatting grinding liquid; 

273 pounds. 
Blued with 1 ounce dry ultramarine blue. To the above 
add in a suitable mixer 4 gallons of a mixture of 46 parts 
by volume of turpentine substitute and 4 parts turpen- 
tine, producing a batch of 18 gallons weighing 16^ 
pounds each." What benefit the 4 parts of turpentine 
would have with 46 parts heavy petroleum naphtha is 
difficult to understand. The flat finish made in this 
formula did not work as well as the following given out 
by another firm of varnish makers: — "Grind on a water 
cooled mill these ingredients: — 

1373^ pounds G. S. lithopone; 
25 pounds XX horsehead zinc ; 
30 pounds bolted English china clay ; 
20 pounds English cliffstone white, bolted; 
1-16 pound dry ultramarine blue; 
633^ pounds flatting liquid (S}4 gallons); 

276 1-16 pounds. 
Result: — 19 gallons flat paint when thinned with 43^ 
gallons turpentine substitute or with 23^ gallons each of 
this and spirits of turpentine." This paint works fine, 
dries dead flat without sheen, but cannot be cleaned by 
scrubbing with water containing any alkaline soap, soap 
powder or anmionia. 


A washable flat wall paint which, however, shows a 
slight sheen, that has been made and sold for years 
successfully, is composed of the following: — Grind fine 
on a good white paint mill : — 

860 pounds green seal lithopone (normal) ; 
40 pounds American Paris white (bolted) ; 
5 pounds zinc resinate, powdered; 
50 pounds refined or bleached linseed oil; 
10 pounds spirits of turpentine; 
15 pounds turpentine substitute; 

480 poimds paste. 
The zinc resinate serves as drying medium and should be 
ground fine in part of the oil before it is added to the 
batch, or fused resinate of zinc may be dissolved by heat 
in the oil and so added. The idea of using zinc resinate 
instead of manganese resinate is because the latter 
makes whites dry out rather pink. To every 76 pounds 
of this paste base use either 10 pounds of turpentine 
substitute or equal parts of this and pure spirits of 
turpentine. Result: — Five gallons of flat wall paint of 
very good body weighing 17 pounds per gallon. 

Although some interested parties assert that a good 
flat wall finish can be produced only by the use of litho- 
pone, it has been demonstrated that such a material 
can be made by using zinc oxide and inert base. Of 
course, zinc oxide lacks in opacity in comparison with 
white lead or lithopone, but under certain conditions it 
becomes necessary to sacrifice economy to other 
considerations. Lithopone white is liable to become 
discolored even on interior walls from the effects of 
moisture and glaring strong light, while pure zinc oxide, 
free from sulphur, is unaffected. There has been a 


belief in paint making circles that zinc oxide cannot be 
flatted as can white lead or lithopone, but when it is 
considered that zinc oxide with the proper white base 
requires more vehicle for grinding and thinning than 
lithopone and much more than white lead, it stands to 
reason that only the right selection of base is required. 
A very good base for such a flat wall finish will be found 
by grinding equal parts of American zinc oxide and 
precipitated barium sulphate (blanc fixe) in a flatting 
liquid that has given good results with lithopone, 
thinning the resulting paste base with a good substitute 
turpentine, and if this should set too quickly for good 
flowing and drying without laps, add sufficient bleached 
linseed oil to overcome the deficiency. The blanc fixe 
may be replaced by equal parts of floated barytes and 
magn/esium silicate, but to increase the percentage of 
zinc oxide in order to give better opacity would not 
work out satisfactorily. 

Interior Flat Enamels that are found on the market and 
many of which are imported from abroad are really 
higher priced flat wall finishes, selling at a figure out of 
all proportion to their actual value or cost. One of 
these can be produced on the following basis: — Grind 80 
parts by weight of condensed French zinc white, green 
seal, in a vehicle composed of 10 parts of varnish made 
from white kauri gum (known as XXXXX) with only 10 
gallons of oil to 100 pounds of gum), 3 parts of palest 
lithographers' varnish and 10 parts pure turpentine. 
This will produce 100 poimds soft paste base. Let it 
stand for forty-eight hours covered with some turpen- 
tine to keep from skinning over, then thin down with 24 
pounds by weight of turpentine to the 100 pounds by 
weight of paste. This will give 7 6-10 gallons of mate- 


rial weighing 163^ pounds per gallon. By grinding cal- 
cined borax in varnish or pale oil and turps and adding as 
much as constitutes one-half pound of dry borax to the 
above batch, it will tend to make the material dead flat 
on drying. These flat enamels may be tinted to any 
desired effect with colors ground in oil if only small por- 
tions are required, otherwise the colors used should be 
groimd in japan and thinned with turpentine. 



The tenn "enamer* is very much abused, as it is 
often being applied to any gloss paint. Properly 
speaking, enamel paints are or should be made to resem- 
ble in appearance the finish given to articles of metal 
that have been enameled by the fumacing process. 
Enamel paints are made in two forms — air drying and 
baking — ^but in either case cannot be produced by com- 
bining pigments with drying oils and drying mediums 
alone. Gum varnishes constitute an essential part of 
enamel paint, and the harder the resins or gums the 
better will be the wear of the resulting product. The 
old-fashioned way of making white enamel for interior 
decoration has been to grind French process zinc white 
in clear damar varnish, adding a small portion of 
anhydrous white sugar of lead, previously ground fine 
in bleached oil or in damar varnish, thinning the paste 
so ground with either damar or very pale rubbing varn- 
ish to a consistency that flowed well from the brush and 
leveled down uniformly onto the surface. This style of 
enameling was known as china glossing, and is still in 
practice for moderate priced work. In the chapter on 
grinding white bases for enamel paints we have pointed 
out that 70 pounds French process zinc and 30 pounds 
white damar varnish will, when ground on a water 
cooled mill produce the proper base for china gloss, and 
we may add that in order to produce good drying and 
hardness, 3^ pound white sugar of lead, ground fine in 
oil or varnish, should be incorporated with this paste 


base previous to reducing it with 14 gallons varnish that 
may be either damar varnish or a good white mixing 
varnish of approved quality, but in neither case must the 
varnish be too heavy in body, and above all the paste 
base must have an ample time to cool after coming from 
the mill. The quantities of base and varnish mentioned 
should produce 20 gallons of china gloss weighing not 
over 10 pounds per gallon, while the general run of 
interior enamel white average between 11 and 12 
pounds per gallon when the pigment is pure French 
zinc. For interior white enamel that is to be rubbed 
and afterward poUshed, a hard gum varnish is required, 
because that made with damar varnish is most too slow 
and does not stand well when rubbing with oil and 
pumice, but requires rubbing with pumice and water. 
A high grade interior enamel white or porcelain finish 
that will stand rubbing with oil and makes a fine 
polished surface that cannot be surpassed can be made 
on the following formula: — ^Forty-five pounds French 
zinc in damar as above. 6 gallons palest hard rubbing 
varnish, 1 gallon pure spirits of turpentine. This 
will make a little over 9 gallons of enamel weigh- 
ing 11 pounds per gallon. Beat the base up with 
the turpentine first, then gradually add the varnish. A 
trifle of Prussian blue will give a porcelain effect, but 
must not be overdone. The mixing of enamels must 
never be done in a room with a temperature below 70 
degrees F., and all enamels must be carefully strained 
after mixing, having the apparatus dean as possible. 

When it is desired to tint white enamel paints to cer- 
tain color effects only the very piu'est and strongest colors 
should be selected and ground to the utmost fineness in 
oil or varnish, preferably the latter, when an appreciable 


percentage is to be used. Before adding the color to 
the white base it should be thinned to the consistency of 
varnish and carefully strained. Colored enamel paints 
for interior work are best made from pure pigments 
ground fine in varnish that may be pale or dark, accord- 
ing to the pigment that is embodied with it. The 
colors selected should be free from any extending mate- 
rial and as light in gravity as possible. For instance, for 
black, the finest quality of carbon black; for red, pure 
toner of the desirable shade; for yellow, pure chrome 
yellow; for green, chemically pure chrome green; for 
blue, Chinese or Prussian blue are most preferable. 
One quarter pound of finest carbon black, dry, and a 
similar quantity of dry toner for red, ^ pound dry 
chrome yellow, % pound dry C. P. chrome green and J^ 
pound Prussian blue, dry, to make one gallon when 
thinned with sufficient varnish will be ample. A hard 
drying mixing varnish is sufficiently good enough unless 
the enamel paint is to be rubbed, in which case a rubbing 
varnish is required. 

For a Bathtub Enamel the best base is a mixture of 
equal parts white lead and zinc white, and should be 
ground in oil and thinned with a good pale hard gum 
varnish as follows: — Forty pounds base as above, in oil; 
6 pounds pure spirits of turpentine, 54 pounds varnish 
as above. This will produce an enamel of excellent 
body for tin or zinc lined bathtubs, the result of above 
formula being 8J^ gallons. 

Exterior or Weatherproof Enamel should be composed 
of the base described in the chapter on grinding the 
white bases for enamels as practiced in Holland; that 
is, grinding French zinc white in heavy bodied or highly 
oxidized pale oil and ageing the paste for some time 


before mixing it with hard gum varnish. An excep- 
tionally high grade of exterior white enamel can be made 
by grinding 65 pounds condensed zinc white in 28 
pounds of the heavy oil and 7 pounds pure spirits of 
turpentine, permitting this paste to stand for a week or 
more, then placing same in a mixer, and to every 40 
pounds of the paste add 60 pounds of varnish made 
from XXXX kauri gum at the rate of 12 gallons linseed 
oil to 100 pounds gum, the grinding of the zinc in the 
heavy oil furnishing elasticity and wear, the gum var- 
nish the high gloss. This formula will produce 9 gallons 
weighing about 1 1 pounds. If this exterior enamel is to 
be tinted, oil colors will serve the purpose very well, but 
only such as are permanent to strong Ught must be 

Marine or Waterproof Enamels must have in their 
composition a hard gum varnish that has proven itself 
impervious to the action of water, and it stands to 
reason that Unseed oil cannot be its chief constituent. 
It should be made of palest kauri gum, with not too 
large a proportion of oil, the pigment for a white 
enamel of this kind being composed of zinc white ground 
in linseed oil. Fifty pounds of this base mixed with 63^ 
gallons of the varnish would produce 8^ gallons of 
paint. If the varnish does not make the paint dry 
suflSciently hard in reasonable time, a concentrated 
white drier may be used for part thereof to the extent 
of ^ or ^ gallon. Colored marine or waterproof 
enamels may be produced with pigments of the desired 
color, ground in oil, reduced to brushing consistency 
with a mixture of 1 part japan drier and 9 parts hard 
drying water resisting varnish. 


Baking Enamels are as a rule produced from pigment 
ground fine in fire boiled linseed oil and reduced for 
application with a hard gum varnish that carries a 
large percentage of oil. These enamels must flow out 
evenly, and when being stoved must not show any 
imperfections such as pin holes, brush marks, ridges, 
etc., which can only be prevented from appearing when 
the enamel is of full body. This body must be produced 
by the varnish, as it cannot be done by the pigment. 
As white lead cannot stand any high temperature in 
stoving (baking), the pigment must necessarily be zinc 
oxide or lithopone white for white baking enamel, and 
the oil, as well as the varnish, must needs be very pale. 
Damar varnish makes a good white baking enamel, but 
is rather brittle and very sensitive to chipping. A good 
formula for a white porcelain-like baking enamel for 
galvanized iron sheathing or tin that will not readily 
scratch or chip after baking for five or six hours at a 
temperature of 170 to 180 degrees F. may be made as 
follows: — Seventy pounds French process zinc ground 
in 30 pounds fire melted gum (la^mar varnish as the base, 
thinned, after standing forty-eight hours, with 6 gallons 
pale gum varnish that requires thirty hours to dry if 
used by itself. This produces 11 gallons weighing a 
trifle over 13 pounds, and may be reduced at the place 
of operation with equal parts turpentine and damar 
varnish if desired. The white can be tinted to any 
desired effect. Colored baking enamels are made with 
pigments ground in oil and reduced with baking varn- 
ishes of more or less dark color. 

The manufacture of Black Baking Enamels is essen- 
tially a problem for the Varnish Maker because to make 
them properly requires, that the asphaltums be incor- 
porated with the oil, etc. by heat. 


When liquid wood fillers were first placed on the mar- 
ket, they were offered as a shellac substitute, soft woods, 
such as white wood (poplar), white pine and spruce 
being more largely used in building operations and furni- 
ture than they now are. Denatured alcohol was then 
not in use as now, and wood alcohol shellac varnish was 
not much favored for interior work on account of the ill 
effects on the operator's eyes and lungs. Thus the ad- 
vent of Uquid wood filler was hailed with enthusiasm by 
painters, and the material at that time was composed of 
far better material than is the case with most of it 
to-day. Sharp competition on the part of the manufac- 
turers accounts for this. All sorts of mineral bases 
have been tried from time to time, silica and silex, china 
day, magnesium carbonate, barium carbonate, talc 
or soapstone and even terra alba and stii.rch. 

A good Uquid wood filler that will give satisfaction, 
but may be found rather high in cost to meet competi- 
tion in some quarters, is prepared as follows, the batch 
producing 50 gallons: — 

68 pounds best bolted English china clay; 
22 pounds boiled linseed oil (not too dark) ; 
10 pounds pale Uquid drier; 

100 pounds are mixed and run through a miU, 
then placed in a Uquid paint mixer and the following 
Uquids added to the thin paste: — 
12 pounds pale Uquid drier; 
SO pounds spirits of turpentine; 
308 pounds pale mixing varnish; 


This will weigh 9 pounds per gallon, and if the clay has 
been thoroughly dried and is naturally unctuous, it 
should not settle hard in bottom of container. As a 
matter of precaution, however, one gallon of emulsion as 
described under Ready for Use Liquid Paints may be 
stirred into a batch of 50 gallons. As the quaUty of 
liquid wood filler depends to a great extent upon the 
quaUty of the varnish used in its preparation, a filler 
sold at low price must necessarily be made from lower 
priced material. For a filler of that sort the following 
will serve as a guide: — Grind 50 pounds asbestine pow- 
der in 30 pounds raw linseed oil, which will produce 80 
pounds of soft paste, which reduce in a Uquid paint 
mixer with 3 gallons pale liquid drier and 34 gallons 
pale gloss oil (rosin and benzine Uquid) and 7 gallons 
benzine, resulting in a batch of 50 gallons weighing 1% 
pounds to 8 pounds per gallon, according to the body of 
the gloss oil. 

Liquid Fillers and Stain combined are produced by 
simply adding to the Uquid filler such colors as are des- 
cribed under varnish stains and in similar quantity per 

Paste Wood Fillers must have the faculty of closing up 
the pores and interstices of more or less open grained 
woods in such a manner that while the surface so treated 
becomes non-absorbent, the natural beauty of the wood 
must not be obscured, and if the wood has been stained, 
the filler must not duU the transparency of the stain, 
or if the filler has been colored the filling material must 
not injure the richness or transparency of the color. 
Therefore, the more translucent the filling material the 
more valuable the product, and while barytes, whiting, 
clay and gypsum have been and are still employed for 


the sake of cheapness^ the very best material is pure silex 
or silica. Starch and dextrine have also been used, 
especially for holding the heavier minerals in suspension, 
but as these perish readily under the influence of mois- 
ture, their use is not recommended. When barytes is 
used in paste filler it is done with a view to lessen cost of 
production, as barytes requires not much more than 
one-third the weight of vehicle required by silex, talc or 
clay. The latter two pigments are too unctuous, 
whiting is too prone to show up white imder varnish and 
terra alba or gypsum is too short and tends to cake hard 
with the vehicle in the containers. As a paste filler is 
thinned with turpentine or benzine, mostly the latter, 
and applied to the surface like a flowing varnish, and 
the excess of filler after its setting wiped off with tow, 
waste or excelsior, the vehicle in which the filler is 
ground must be so selected that the material does not 
work gummy and pull out of the grain. It is obvious 
that a japan containing rosin will not work properly 
along with the oil binder, and yet a strong drier must be 
used, as the filler is required to dry hard enough to 
sandpaper in twenty-four hours. Paste filler, light or 
natural, must be groimd in a liquid of 4 parts raw oil and 
1 part good grinding japan by volume. A good figure 
for a batch of paste filler, natural, is as follows: — 125 
pounds floated silex, 24 pounds raw linseed oil, 6 poimds 
medium grinding japan. When too stiff to go through 
the mill properly, add suflBcient thin Uquid drier or 
turpentine if not too high in cost. For colored fillers 
do not add colors in oil to above grinding, but use dry 
colors, as it will clean off the surface more readily. 


Iron fillers for surfacing castings and hiding the 
imperfections thereof are usually sold in paste form, so 
that they may be used as a plaster or putty, applying 
same with a wide spatula or broad knife, a sort of knifing- 
in operation and also as a brush coat when thinned with 
benzine or turpentine substitute. The color is usually a 
nearly jet black, but steel color is also used to some ex- 
tent. While white lead was at one time the most costly 
ingredient in the steel colored fillers, it has given way to 
zinc oxide or Uthopone, and very little of these enters 
into these paste paints. Black filler is the chief ingredi- 
ent in most iron fillers, but some are based on barytes 
and whiting, with lampblack as the coloring principle. 
The vehicle is composed of raw linseed oil and strong 
liquid driers, with the latter predominating. 

The very low price at which these goods are sold now- 
adays precludes the use of high grade japan driers. 

A fairly good iron filler for use as a plaster putty in its 
paste form or as a brush coat when thinned with sub- 
stitute turps or benzine can be produced on this plan, 
but is best made in a putty chaser: — Sixty-five pounds 
mineral black filler, 17 pounds common whiting, 8 
pounds raw linseed oil, 12 pounds Uquid drier (con- 
taining gum binder and benzine thinner), total 102 
pounds, resulting in 100 pounds product. When this is 
to be applied to castings a portion of the paste should be 
thinned with benzine and a coat applied over all of the 
casting, otherwise the filler will not hold, and when the 
filler is applied with the spatula as a surfacer, it must be 
wet up some with benzine or turpentine, so as to level 
down smoothly. 


Steel Color Machinery Paste Paints are thinned by the 
consumer with substitute turpentine or benzine, as the 
case may be, and applied with the brush, drying flat, 
thus hiding any imperfections that may be in the metal. 
They are as a rule furnished in several shades, Ught, 
medium and dark. The pigment usually consists of 
lampblack, barytes and whiting, or lampblack and 
whiting alone, with enough zinc oxide or lithopone to 
produce the desired shade. When the thinned paint is 
used for dipping, the best policy is to omit barytes 
entirely, thus avoiding precipitation of sediment. A 
medium shade of this form of steel color paste can be 
produced on the following plan: — ^Three pounds dry 
grinders' lampblack, 8 pounds lithopone white, 65 
pounds Paris white, 10 pounds raw linseed oil, 16 
pounds strong liquid driers, ground in one run through a 
30-inch mill; net result, 100 pounds. 

Machinery Gloss Paints or Enamels are bought mostly 
in the ready for use form, and when intended for decor- 
ative purposes on machine tools, looms, etc., they are 
simply colors ground in oil or varnish, reduced to liquid 
consistency with moderate priced mixing varnishes. 
When desired, however, for engine work in power 
houses and engine rooms, where a decorative effect is 
desired, higher grade goods are in demand. While in 
many places the work is done by the application of 
colors ground in japan, especially where the work is to 
be striped and finally finished in clear varnish, there is 
still a demand for engine enamels, and here the color 
must be ground in a suitable varnish and thinned with a 
varnish that is to hold its gloss under the effects of 
steam vapors and heat. It is essential to ascertain by 
tests what varnish will stand such conditions. 



Good putty for the use of painters and glaziers cannot 
well be made without the use of a chaser or edge runner 
mill, because only a thorough kneading will produce the 
proper mechanical union between pigment and oil. 
Strictly pure whiting and linseed oil putty consists of 
85% by weight of whiting and 15 parts by weight of 
pure raw linseed oil. Exacting consumers, who do not 
consider first cost so much as wear and durability will 
specify linseed oil, whiting and white lead putty and 
the usual rule is to use, in the pigment portion, 10 per 
cent, by weight of pure white lead. 78 lbs. by weight of 
whiting, 8 lbs. by weight of dry lead and 14 lbs. by 
weight of linseed oil are the right proportions for this 
sort of putty. The batches are regulated as to quantity 
by the size and capacity of the apparatus and when the 
mixing is well made, the material is discharged from the 
chaser and placed on the floor in heavy layers to under- 
go, what is termed a sweating (or ripening) process, 
occupying several days and nights, when it is replaced 
in a chaser for a second operation of kneading, which 
is continued until the putty will not stick to the hands, 
when using. Unless so treated putty will not work 
well, nor hold well. Putty of this character can be 
obtained from reputable manufacturers, when the con- 
sumer is willing to pay the price, but over 90 per cent, 
of all the conmiercial putty sold by jobbers and dealers 
cannot be properly classed as linseed oil and whiting 
putty, most of it being made with non-drying oils, the 


better grades with com oil, others with so-called paint 
and putty oil, and in many cases, marble dust replaces 
part of the whiting. Oil foots are also used with putty 
of this class, that is made to supply the demand for 
cheapness, which has been fostered by the trade them- 
selves by giving away putty when selling glass, thus 
creating an idea, in the minds of buyers, that putty is of 
no value. When putty of the quality last mentioned is 
used for glazing sash and closing up nailholes, it will not 
dry as it should, by oxidation, but simply hardens, in 
time, to a brittle mass and the slightest vibration will 
often make it lose its hold, crumbUng out of its place. 

Boiler Cement. 

Boiler cement can be made by grinding 24 parts by 
weight each of dry white lead, kaolin (clay) and black 
oxide of manganese, all powdered in hard gum varnish 
(not manila gum), that does not dry in less than 24 
hours of itself. It will require 30 parts by weight of 
varnish, the batch producing 100 parts by weight after 
grinding on a watercooled mill. It will stand hot water 
after hardening and high degrees of heat. 

Roof Cement. 

Roof cement for stopping leaks in tin and iron roofs is 
best made by boiling paint skins in raw linseed oil, until 
all the skins have softened, and when cooled somewhat, 
the mass is placed in a mixer, more dry pigment or oil is 
added as may be necessary and then run loosely through 
a paint mill. It should be in the form of a paste. 
Varnish bottoms with mineral pigment can be utilized 
in a similar manner. 


Rivet Head Cement. 

Rivet Head Cement or composition is usually made 
by grinding equal parts pure red lead and whiting in 
boiled linseed oil and japan, two parts of the former and 
one part of the latter. It should be ground to order 
only, on account of the hardening tendency of the red 
lead with drying oil and japan. It is best made in soft 
paste form, grinding say 40 lbs. dry red lead and 40 lbs. 
bolted whiting in 14 lbs. boiled oil through a mill and 
then adding in a mixer 7 lbs. japan. 

If wanted in black, rivet head composition is made 
by grinding 10 parts by weight of white lead, 5 parts by 
weight of litharge, 50 parts by weight of black filler in 
15 parts by weight of boiled linseed oil and 20 parts by 
weight of hard gum japan. A small percentage of 
lampblack added will give the composition more depth. 
As these compositions must dry flat, they must be 
prepared in a form stout enough to admit of thinning 
with turpentine or benzine. 




For many years back it has been the aim of those 
interested in paint materials to devise a comparatively 
cheap coating for the exterior as well as the interior of 
buildings that did not have the defects of ordinary 
whitewash, nor those of kalsomine» something that 
could be prepared by the consumer on the spot without 
the aid of heat and without the necessity to apply the 
paint in the hot state. 

That the curd of skimmed milk in combination with 
quick lime has great cementing properties has been 
known to the initiated for centuries and many old 
joiners still use this mixture in preference to glue for 
joining woodwork together. Many old formulas for 
water paints give skimmed milk as one of the chief 
ingredients, but so far as wearing quality of the coating 
is concerned, the recipes are not worth the paper they 
are printed on. 

This, however, is not due to the presence of the milk 
as a binder, but to the form in which the milk is intro- 

The casein of cows* milk is composed of 58 to 54 per 
cent, of carbon, 7 per cent, hydrogen, 16 per cent, 
nitrogen, 22.5 per cent, oxygen, 8 per cent, sulphur and 
85 per cent, phosphorus. It comes into commerce as a 
fiocculent white powder that is nearly insoluble in 
water, but nearly soluble in hot alcohol. By the addi- 
tion of soda, borax, quick lime, water glass, etc., in fact, 
with any alkaU, it becomes wholly soluble in water. 


The diflference between casein and other albumens lies 
in the fact that casein contains a small percentage of 
phosphorus, as above noted. 

While casein interests us only for its utility as a 
binding medium for paint, there are numerous uses for 
it in other lines of trade» such as imitations of articles 
usually made of celluloid, ivory, etc., for forming plastic 
figures, apparatus, also for glazes of confections and the 
like, where it does not collide with the pure food laws. 

It is diflScult to produce casein that is absolutely free 
from fat and calcium phosphate. By the use of a min- 
eral acid, especially acetic acid, casein is precipitated 
out of milk or out of casein salts. This is important, 
when the casein is to be used as the binding medium in 
cold water paint. When solutions of casein are heated 
by the addition of caustic lime the casein is precipitated 
in insoluble form, but the simplest method is to precipi- 
tate it by the addition of a mineral salt. 

Value of Casein as a Binder in Paint. 

However, in the manufacture of cold water paint, the 
casein must be soluble in the usual way and in order to 
make the paint most resistant to moisture and water the 
' addition of formaldehyde is resorted to, which also acts 
as a disinfectant, wherefore such paint is especially 
adapted for the interior of hospitals, schools, sanator- 
iums, etc., but great care must be taken in adding the 
formaldehyde, otherwise the casein may be thrown out 
of the paint, thus leaving it without binder. The 
addition of formaldehyde is protected by letters patent 
and there are any number of other patents on cold water 
paints and on casein, though none of them vary con- 


siderably, excepting as to the method and means of 
precipitation, while all of them agree that casein is pro- 
duced from skimmed milk. 

Processes for Making Casein. 

To relate the various processes would be carrying coal 
to Newcastle, so we will confine ourselves to the des- 
cription of a few of the more interesting. 

U. S. Patent No. 745,097 and German Patent No. 
135,745 are almost identical in the method of producing 
a casein that is practically free from fat, at least, it 
answers all practical purposes in that respect. It has 
been ascertained by chemical analysis that skimmed 
milk usually contains 2 to 3 per cent, fat, so that casein 
made from the untreated milk would contain 6 to 8 per 
cent. fat. The patent claims are that a casein free from 
fat can be obtained by mixing the skimmed milk with 
alkalies and separating the fat by passing the mixture 
through a centrifugal apparatus, after which the casein 
is precipitated in the usual manner by the treatment 
with acid. In order to separate the fat from the milk 
more readily, the milk and alkali mixture is warmed 
before passing it into the centrifugal machine. The 
precipitate is collected, washed, pressed and dried or 
used, as the case may be, in paste form after washing 
and pressing. 

Another patent describes a process in which sulphur- 
ous acid is used for precipitating casein from the milk. 
The milk is brought to a temperature of from ISO to 160 
degrees Fahrenheit and, while being agitated in a cov- 
ered tank with stirring device, the acid is run in. It is 


claimed that, by this method, the precipitation takes 
place more promptly and more completely than by 
any other. 

Bichamp says that a pure casein, free from ash, may 
be obtained by precipitating skinmied milk in the cold 
way with acetic acid. The precipitate is washed several 
times and ammonium carbonate added, until alkaline 
reaction takes place, when acetic acid is again used to 

Variety of Uses for Casein. 

Before we consider the manufacture of cold water 
paints from casein it may prove of interest to some of 
our readers to learn the various and manifold uses 
casein is serving in the industrial world. 

In the manufacture of certain foodstuffs, in calico 
printing, in soapmaking, in paper manufacture and 
others too numerous to mention, in fact, where animal 
glue was formerly indispensable it is now being used 
almost exclusively. We must not pass by without 
considering the great value of casein in cements for 
porcelain, chinaware, earthenware, glass and stone. 

W. A. Hall claims that a fire resisting cement can be 
produced with a mixture of casein, phosphate of soda 
and sodium sulphite, to which is added some pulverized 
air slaked lime. A well known cement putty is made 
from cement in dry powder, brickdust or ground 
quartz, mixed with casein. A small portion of air- 
slaked lime will improve it. It can also be made from 
the curd of skinmied milk and sifted air slaked lime with 
the same dry ingredients, omitting the casein. 

For mending fractures in porcelain, glass, etc., the 
best cement is made by dissolving casein in silicate of 


soda (water glass). A preparation from casein, that is 
at the same time antiseptic as well as water resisting, is 
made by using borax in dissolving the casein. This is 
used for sizing fabrics, which are placed in the solution 
and aft» removing therefrom and while still wet, are 
given a coating of a weak solution of tannic acid, which 
renders the casein insoluble in water. 

For paper and paste boards, etc., a good size can be 
made by dissolving casein in a solution of borax and the 
addition of liquid ammonia. Must be done with the 
aid of heat. 



Physical properties of cold water paint should be 
tested for spreading and covering power, for free work- 
ing under the brush and drying property, for resistance 
to moisture and water, atmospheric conditions, heat and 
behavior when mixed with coloring matter and last, but 
not least, the quantity of water required to reduce a 
given weight of cold water paint in the dry or paste 
form to brushing consistency. These tests are not as 
important to the user or consumer of cold water paint as 
they are to the manufacturer, because the trade expects 
that he or his agents know all about the various require- 
ments, otherwise they will not have the confidence of 
the purchaser, nor will they be enabled to meet claims of 
disappointed consumers with any degree of certainty or 
belief in their explanation, should by any chance the 
material notcome up to their claims or fulfill the expecta- 
tions of the user or his patrons. It goes without saying 
that cold water paints will not meet any and all condi- 
tions of surface, otherwise very little oil or varnish 
paints would be sold and used. To test spreading and 
covering power of cold water paint it is only necessary 
to weigh out a certain quantity, say one pound of the 
dry powder, when sold in that form, place in a dean pot, 
adding enough cold water and stir until a medium paste, 
free from lumps, is formed. This is allowed to stand, say 
about 30 minutes, although it is beneficial to stir it sever- 
al times during that period. Then the mass is well stirred 
with sufficient water, until it has assumed the consistency 


of an oil-paint ready for the brush, when the quantity of 
water used is determined by weight. A good cold water 
paint with casein binder should require one and one- 
half pints (1 J^ pounds) of water for every pound of dry 
paint. When the cold water paint is sold in paste 
form, it is only necessary to weigh out a certain quantity 
of the paste, reducing it with cold water and when of the 
right consistency, determine, by reweighing, how much 
water has been required. To ascertain spreading and 
covering power, a given quantity of the paint is applied 
on a plastered wall or suitable wooden surface in the 
same manner as it is done in practice. One pound of 
good cold water paint, ready for application with the 
brush, should cover at least 2^ to S square yards, unless 
the surface be very rough and porous. 

The working property of the paint is best tested on 
different surfaces, on smooth and rough plaster, on 
smooth and rough wood, also on brick and stone and 
with suitable brushes in a normal temperature, not 
below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The drying of the paint 
of course, depends on the porosity of the surface, as it 
will set much more rapidly on absorbent than on close, 
non-porous material. To test cold water paint for 
resistance to atmospheric influences, it is best to apply 
several coats on cement, as well as on lime mortar 
plaster, with exposures to the south as well as to the 
north and it is well to have this done in winter and in 
sunmier also. The observation should be conducted at 
least for two months in summer and three or four 
months in winter. To try its resistance against water 
the painting tests should be flushed with water from 
time to time. 


The trial of the paint for resistance to heat is best 
tested by coating wall spaces near radiators or heaters, 
stoves, ranges, etc., making frequent observations as to 
the appearance of cracks, blisters or scales. Of course, 
the surface, where such tests are made, must be in 
perfect condition. If then cracking, blistering or 
scaling is not apparent, the paint has sufficient heat 
resistance. The test can also be made by coating sheet 
iron Nos. 18 or 20, and submitting same to a tempera- 
ture of 212 to 240 degrees Fahrenheit in drying ovens 
for a few days. When after the iron has cooled the 
paint does not show cracks or blisters or does not scale, 
it is sufficiently heat resistant. As to miscibility and 
behavior with color cold water paints in colors or tints 
can be prepared only with limeproof or alkali proof 
colors, and the base used for colored paints must 
necessarily have a greater portion of casein binder in its 
make-up than is used for the ordinary paint that is 
neither a white nor a colored paint of great body. 
The process of manufacture of casein cold water paint is 
on the whole rather simple. The chief requisite is a 
good mixing and sifting apparatus, which will turn out 
appreciable quantities of dry paint in a day's time. As 
has been stated, it is necessary for the solution of casein 
to add an alkaline salt. For economic reasons it is best 
to use for this purpose calcium hydrate (hydrated lime) 
in powder form. This is at present prepared on a large 
scale in special machinery, where the output warrants 
such. But for preparing it on a smaller scale, it is only 
necessary to spread fresh burnt lime out on a dean floor, 
where it is sprinkled with water from a hose with fine 
spray nozzle. In a few minutes the lime falls into 
powder, while emitting carbonic acid. When the 
reaction is over and the hydrate sufficiently cooled, it is 


sifted in a cylindrical sifting machine for the protection 
of the workmen. K the calcium hydrate is to be trans- 
ported it is packed in paper-lined barrels to keep it from 
contact with the air, which would make it unfit for use 
in dissolving casein on account of its avidity for mois- 
ture. The relation of lime and water in the hydrate is 
usually 10 parts by weight of water to 383^ parts lime, 
and the composition of casein cold water paints is 
alkali soluble casein, calcium hydrate or another 
alkaline salt and a mineral pigment, varying according 
to the idea of the maker, also white and colored pig- 

It is not absolutely necessary to use alkali soluble 
casein, excepting as noted above for economical and 
practical reasons in the manufacture of cold water 
paint. When Water soluble casein is used the material 
contains the necessary mediums or additions for the 
purpose. Such additions are usually borax or bicar- 
bonate of soda, very seldom calcium hydrate. 



Pigments Most Suitable in Cold Water Paint. 

The basic mineral pigments in cold water paints are 
usually chalk (whiting), kaolin (china clay), magnesium 
silicate or alumina. The chemical examination of a 
popular brand of cold water paint resulted as follows: 
Organic matter, 15.5 per cent; calcium carbonate, 15.6 
per cent.; insoluble silicates, 40.5 per cent.; alumina, 
26.0 per cent.; water of combination, 2.4 per cent. 
Dissecting this report it will be good logic to say that 
the mineral matter consisted of an alumina silicate, pre- 
sumably kaolin or white pipe clay, while the calcium 
carbonate was introduced in the form of calcium hydrate 
in order to dissolve the casein, which is found in the 
analytical report under the caption of organic matter. 
The combined water belongs partly to the alumina and 
partly to the calcium hydrate. There was an entire 
absence of chalk or whiting, which in itself is rather in 
favor of the paint, because the presence of calcium car- 
bonate in the form of chalk or whiting is not favorable 
to the wear of the paint in a locality where sulphur 
gases prevail. There is a diflFerence of opinion among 
authorities on the subject as to whether whiting or white 
clay is best for pigment in cold water paint, but as a 
rule, economy in cost would favor the former, so long as 
technical objections are not considered. Ordinary 
white clay is not to be recommended, as there is always 
more or less risk of the cracking and scaling of the 
painted surface when such pigment is introduced. 


Finally for colored casein or cold water paints the 
coloring matter requires serious consideration. These 
pigments must not only be alkali proof, but should also 
to a great degree be light proof and, besides containing 
no free acids, must be ground impalpably fine and be 
bone dry. In addition these colors should have the maxi- 
mum staining power, because the rule is that the per- 
centage of coloring matter introduced should not be 
over 30, while the base pigment in a colored paint 
should not be under 70 parts by weight. That all pig- 
ments entering into the paint must be bone dry is 
important, because if any moisture in the pigment is 
present, lumps, both large and small, will form in the 
package and, becoming hard, will not readily dissolve 
on mixing with water and will give the paint a streaked 
appearance. The use of colored pigments that are not 
entirely free from acid, as may be the case with artificial 
oxide of iron reds, or with chemical pigments that are 
imperfectly washed, is liable to produce blistering of the 
paint during application, due to a reaction between the 
free acid and the alkaline salt that is present with the 
binder. The colors that will answer in casein paints 
are rather limited and consist principally of the follow- 

For Blue. — Ultramarine (lime proof) blue and imita- 
tion of cobalt blue. 

Fcyt Yellow. — ^AU yellow ochers, raw sienna, chrome 
yellow, Indian yellow, and some of the latest coal tar 
derivatives, as lithol fast yellow, chinazol and naphthol 
yellow S. 

Far Orange. — Chrome red in several shades for orange 
chrome, very deep hues, and autol fast orange with 
naphthol yellow for the lighter shades. 


For Red. — Orange mineral, red oxide, Venetian red 
Indian red, caput mortuum and lithol red R and G, also 
autol fast red, lithol claret R and B, etc. 

For Brown. — ^Umber, raw and burnt, burnt ocher, 
burnt sienna, manganese brown. 

For Green. — Oxide of chromium green. Cobalt green, 
ultramarine green, green earth, also lime greens made 
from best green earth and colored with Malachite green 
and brilliant green. 

For Black. — Carbon black, vine black, ivory or bone 
black, best mineral black. 

For White. — ^When the ordinary mineral pigment 
together with the calcium hydrate does not produce 
sufficient whiteness and hiding power: — ^Zinc oxide, 
lithopone and blanc fixe. 

The colors given in the foregoing list will, in proper 
admixture, produce any tint or shade that may be 
required in cold water paint, and whenever the color 
named appears too expensive, it may, if strong enough 
in staining power, be cheapened by employing more 
colorless mineral base. 

Whenever a solid color (not a tint), is desired, the 
colorless mineral base only is used, but when a good 
lively tint is wanted it is of advantage to add zinc oxide 
or lithopone or even blanc fixe to give solid appearance 
and sufficient hiding power to the paint, especially 
where transparent coloring matter is used. 

The composition of casein paints does not vary to any 
great extent. The chief value in this material lies in its 
proportion of casein, which even in the cheapest com- 
mercial brands is not below 10 per cent, by weight of the 
total and has been found in some as high as 20 per cent. 



Wh^i, however, it goes over this figure, then additions 
of whiting or china clay are made by the consumer be- 
fore using it- 
Formulas for Casein Paints. 

The following formulas will give an idea of the com- 
mercial brands on the market as sold in the dry pow- 
dered form: — 

Branded White. 

10% Ca^in, alkali soluble, 1 

5% Calcium hydrate, > 

85% Calcium carbonate, j 

£0.£0% Casein, alkali soluble, 
12.00% Calcium hydrate, 
67.75% Calcium carbonate, 
.25% Ultramarine blue. 

£0% Casein, water soluble, \ 
80% Calcium carbonate, J 

15% Casein, alkali soluble, 
10% Calcium hydrate. 
Calcium carbonate. 


^% Kaolin. 

In these as well as the following formulas calcium 
carbonate (whiting) and kaolin can be used either alone 
or in varying proportions in combination. 


Casein, alkali soluble. 
Calcium hydrate. 
Calcium carbonate. 
Oxide of iron red. 


10% Casein, alkali soluble, 
6% Calcium hydrate, 
69% Calcium carbonate, 
15% Ultramarine blue. 


10% Casein, alkali soluble, 
6% Calcium hydrate, 
40% Calcium carbonate, 
84% Kaolin, 
10% Chronium oxide green. 


15% Casein, alkali soluble, 
10% Calcium hydrate, 
^^% Calcium carbonate, 
20% Burnt umber. 

YeUow (Buff) 

10% Casein, alkali soluble, 
6% Calcium hydrate, 
70% Calcium carbonate, 
14% French yellow odier. 


15.00% Casein, alkali soluble, 
10.00% Calcium hydrate, 
73.00% Calcium carbonate, 
1.75% French yellow ocher, 
.«5% Vine black. 


Greenstone. Black. 

Casein, alkaK soluble, ^% ^asdn^ f^ f>»«W«* 

Calcium hydrate, iJ% galaum hydrate. 

Calcium carbonate, ^ Tr^\ ui ^ 

Piench yeUow ocher, «>% Mmenil black. 
Chrome yellow, D, Gray. 

«'00% IWnroof ffreen. ^ above, but decrease blade 

«.ou/o l^eprooi green. ^ ^^^ ^^ j^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

to 63%. 

In the manufacture of casein cold water paints for 
interior work, as in churches, theatres, hospitals, sana- 
toriums, schools, etc., a great selection of color b at our 
command that could not be used for exterior painting. 
Therefore a great many varieties of color effects may be 
obtained. It is a fact well known that casein cold water 
paints are claimed to be washable, but this is true only 
of some brands and here only in a limited sense. For if 
these coatings were washed with water daily for a 
number of days, they would be ruined in a short space of 
time. Trials have been made to prolong the life of the 
paint and these were partly successful. The casein 
paint coatings were given an additional coating with a 
solution of alum in water, which proved satisfactory on 
interior walls, but not outside of buildings. Further 
trials with formaldehyde proved this rendering the 
casein insoluble on the drying of the paint and there are 
now any number of letters patent protecting the various 
methods by which this end is attained. 

Use of Casein in Decoration and Art Painting. 

Pictures that are painted with casein colors are ex- 
posed to the vapors of formaldehyde, which treatment 
renders them insoluble in water. But inasmuch as 
this treatment is impracticable for large surfaces the 


practice is to add a certain percentage of formaldehyde 
to the ready for use paint immediately before applica- 
tion. To heighten the efficiency of the paint in this 
respect it is recommended to add to the water used for 
washing or cleaning of the surface, a small portion of 
solution of formaldehyde- 
While casein cold water paints are much more econ- 
omical in first cost and on account of the disinfectants 
introduced really more sanitary for the walls and ceil- 
ings of hospitals and other public institutions, it would 
be fallacy to expect that they are equal in wear and 
durability to enamel paints or varnish. But for the 
purpose mentioned it must be said in favor of water 
paint that after its drying there is still a certain degree 
of circulation of air that is not the case where enamel 
or varnish is used. 

When casein paints are used, be it for interior or 
exterior work, it is an absolute necessity that the surface 
is dry and that there will be no moisture before or after 
applying the paint. Ordinarily the surface should be 
somewhat porous, as the paint will not cover well or hold 
well on veryjfsmooth, glossy surfaces. Hence any kind 
of masonry, be it stone, brick, terra cotta, concrete or 
cement, also wooden girders, joists, in fact, any sort of 
timber may^be successfully coated and made to some 
extent fire resisting. Lately casein paints have been 
placed on the market that contain certain percentages 
of linseed^ oiU'^and are recommended for painting iron 
and steel, claiming for them rust preventing properties. 
The makers, however, are very careful to direct that the 
surface must be entirely free from rust before it is 
coated, a caution]^that holds good for any iron and steel 
protective paint. 



The decorators, who formerly used the better grades 
of glue and gelatine for their distemper and fresco 
material, have made progress in the use of casein, but 
they require far better material than the cold water 
paints described in the foregoing. While for ordinary 
painting the alkaline soluble casein is dissolved by the 
aid of the cheaper calcium hydrate, the decorator will 
use the water soluble casein and depend upon spirit of 
ammonia or solutions of borax, bicarbonate of soda or 
waterglass to effect the solution. For special purposes 
emulsions of wax or oil are sometimes added. There 
are certain precautions which the decorator must not be 
unmindful of and that is, when the surface is lime 
plaster, it should first be coated with diluted skimmed 
milk, while cracks or scaled parts must be filled up. 
Water stains or spaces previously whitewashed or 
kalsomined should be treated with alum size. For 
fresco painting the ground work must be especially well 
prepared. Every coat of plaster must be thoroughly 
dry before the next is applied so that not a trace of 
moisture can be present. The colors that are safe in use 
with casein in fresco and distemper painting are as 
follows: — 

Red. — Oxide of iron, Venetian red, Indian red, car- 
mine, alizarine lake, chrome red, English vermilion, 
French orange mineral (Tour's brand), also the latest 
azo reds. 


Yellow. — Cadmium yellow, French ocher, chrome 
ocher, chrome yellow, Dutch pink, raw sienna. 

Blue. — ^Artificial ultramarine blue and imitation co- 
balt blue. 

Green. — Oxide of chromium green, Guignet's green, 
ultramarine green, terra verte, Verona green, mineral 

Brown. — ^Bumt Turkey umber, burnt ocher, burnt 
Italian sienna, manganese brown. Vandyke brown is 
not recommended. 

White. — ^White lead, lithopone, zinc white, blanc fixe. 

Black. — Ivory or bone black, carbon or lamp black, 
vine black. 

A varnish that many take for a substitute for linseed 
oil varnish is known as casein varnish, but it is an error 
to think that this solution of casein in water will take 
the place of oil varnish. These products, under what- 
ever name they may appear in the market, are simply 
solutions of casein in liquid ammonia, borax or sodiiun 
bicarbonate, waterglass or caustic soda lye, to which are 
sometimes added emulsions of soap, rosin or wax, 
turpentine, etc., to make the so-called varnish dry more 
rapidly and more elastic. It is applied to surfaces 
where the natural color of the material is not to be 
changed by paint, as a cheap coating to give temporary 
protection, though some may believe that it will exclude 
moisture permanently. The cold water paints on the 
market that are sold in this country and in Europe under 
fanciful names number hundreds, not to say thousands, 
and it is astoimding to see the claims put forth in the 
specifications for letters patent. This does not mean, 
that all the cold water paints consist of casein as the 


binder, the brands containing animal glue are also 
quite numerous, especially those sold in the American 

The dry kalsomine paints that contain glue must be 
dissolved in boiling water, but they are nearly, if not 
entirely obsolete. It may interest some of our readers 
to learn that casein is being used as a fixative for in- 
soluble dyes in calico printing. The casein is dissolved 
in lime water for this purpose and so used. 

In conclusion we would point out that casein has 
obtained vast importance as a substitute for celluloid. 
While the latter is combustible in the extreme, casein 
does not readily take fire. The methods of manufacture 
are protected by a series of patents. Due to its high 
insulating properties, as also to the fact that it can be 
worked in the cold condition and formed into any shape 
after softening in hot water, its uses in this connection 
are almost unlimited. 



Aluminum Bronze Paint In Liquid Form. 

For Exterior Surfaces: 

I This may be made by mixing the aluminum bronze 
powder with the celluloid bronzing liquid (so-called 
banana oil) at the rate of 18% by weight of the powder 
and 82% by weight of the liquid, resulting in a yield of 
12 gallons liquid bronze, after allowing for waste and 
evaporation, while mixing. 

n Another method of production is to make the 
celluloid liquid on the following plan: Purchase waste 
cuttings or chips of celluloid, selecting only those, that 
are not dyed, but either translucent or at most a milky 
white, dissolving them in wood alcohol, amylacetate 
and refined fusel oil, then adding the powder as in I. 
3 pounds celluloid chips are dissolved in 60 pounds by 
weight of 95% wood alcohol or 188** denatured alcohol, 
20 pounds by weight of amylacetate and 5 pounds by 
weight of refined fusel oil, the last named being added 
when the chips are dissolved. Result 12 gallons liquid, 
with which is mixed 15 pounds fine aluminum bronze 
powder, yielding 12^ gallons hquid bronze paint. 

For Interior Surfaces on Wood or Metal Brush Work: 

III The odor of the so-called banana liquid being 
unpleasant to many persons and difficult to get rid of 
for some time, a lustrous and very durable aluminum 
liquid bronze paint can be made by mixing 16 pounds 
of the finest bronze powder with 60 pounds of a pale 
mixing varnish of the China wood oil tyi)e, that contains 
heavy petroleum naphtha (the so-called turpentine sub- 
stitute) for solvent, and 26 pounds 62** benzine. 


This batch will yield about 11 gallons, allowing for 
waste and evaporation in mixing. 

For Dipping Metals sitch as Tin or Galvanized Iron: 

IV Mix 15 pounds of the finest and most lustrous 
aluminum bronze powder obtainable with 55 pounds of 
pale mixing varnish, of the China wood oil type, as in 
III and add 15 pounds 62 "" benzine and 15 pounds 90% 
coal tar benzol, or well refined solvent coal tar naphtha, 
but avoid the use of solvent naphtha with a strong 
gaseous odor, as this is liable to give trouble, when the 
liquid bronze is put up in sealed cans or jars for any 
length of time. This batch will yield 12 gallons of 
liquid bronze, that will drip freely from the metal 
dipped into it without sagging or running. 

Note. When aluminum liquid bronze is to be 
applied over oil or varnish paint, it is best to use that 
made on form III whether it is inside or outside, as 
those made in forms I and II are very apt to lift the 
paint, because of the strong action of the solvents in 
those liquids. 

Anti-Fouling Paints or Compositions for Ships* 

The best formula believed to have been designed so 
far for an anti-fouling paint for the bottoms of steel 
ships or boats is based on ferric oxide in very fine 
division with a portion of zinc oxide, arsenic and red 
oxide of mercury in a vehicle of an alcoholic solution of 
shellac, with addition of pine oil. Linseed oil or fat 
varnishes must be avoided, as these promote marine 
growth in spite of the presence of poison. Anti-fouling 


paints must be lighter in gravity, than the non-corrosive 
paints over which they are applied, yet must not act as 
solvents for the latter. 

Antl-Corroslye or Non Corrosive Coatings for the 
Bottoms of Steel Ships. 

The first coating for this purpose is usually dry red 
lead mixed on the spot with raw linseed oil and, in the 
opinion of the author, nothing better can be devised. 
However next to the red lead a non-corrosive coating is 
required, that will, in a measure, not only protect the 
red lead from being aflfected by the sea water, but also 
give a solid base for the anti-fouling coating. This 
must be a paint, that is neutral and impervious, free of 
pinholes and other imperfections, and the very best for 
the purpose, that can be produced is of the following 
composition: 50 lbs. sublimed blue lead, 123^ lbs. 
zinc oxide, (American), 173^^ lbs. English cliffstone 
Paris white, ground in 20 lbs. heavy bodied linseed 
oil, (oxidized oil without drier) to form the base. 
One hundred pounds of this base, that may be colored 
with pure Indian red to make a sort of chocolate color is 
thinned with equal portions of raw linseed oil, turpentine 
and hard gum varnish to brushing consistency. 

Antl-Fouling Composition for the Bottoms of Steel Ships. 

The very best composition for this purpose so far 
designed is one that is based on an alcoholic solution of 
shellac and pine tar oil for vehicle, and finely ground 
ferric oxide of iron as pigment, with red oxide of mercury 
as the insecticide. The mixing formula is as follows: 
Dissolve 25 lbs. gum shellac T. V. or V. S. O. in 14 


gallons alcohol 95% (denatured will do). Grind 25 
lbs. zinc oxide American process and 25 lbs. dark Indian 
red (96% Fe^Os) fine as possible in 15 lbs. each pine tar 
oil and Venice turpentine, adding 10 lbs. mercuric red 
oxide on the last run, and add this to the shellac solu- 
tion, mixing the ingredients thoroughly and straining 
through a fine sieve. This will produce 19 gallons of 
paint. However, under existing conditions, it will not 
be a paying venture for paint manufacturers to intro- 
duce anti-f ouling compositions upon the market in this 
country at least, as naval authorities are very skeptical 
as to the merits of this line. 

Asphaltum Paints and Asphaltum Composltioiis. 

So called black asphaltum paints are often simply ben- 
zine asphaltum varnishes with or without admixture with 
coal tar. While the name asphaltum paint has become 
a synonym for something very cheap in the line of 
black paint, it need not deter the paint maker from 
placing a good article on the market. A good elastic 
black paint can be made by mixing 10 pounds grinders* 
lampblack in oil with 2 gallons raw linseed oil and ^ 
gallon liquid dryer, with 113^ gallons benzine asphal- 
tum varnish, thus producing 15 gallons black paint, 
that will stand exposure to the weather very well. 
An asphaltum composition, that is insulating and capa- 
ble of resisting high degrees of temperatures is made by 
melting in an iron kettle 200 poimds gilsonite asphaltum 
with 40 pounds candle tar, and addihg 80 gallons 160 "" 
coal tar benzol or solvent coal tar naphtha and 50 gallons 
62 "" benzine for a 100 gallon batch. 


Blackboard Slating. 

Blackboard Slating Liquid can be made in several 
ways. When it is desired in such form, that after the 
application of several coats the board may be written 
on with soapstone pencils, the following formula will 

In a suitable apparatus, mix 3 pounds drop black and 
^ pound ultramarine blue, both ground in oil with 3^ 
pounds washed emery flour and 12 lbs. coach japan, 
preferably made on a gum shellac base and when well 
beaten up, thin with 6 pounds gum spirits of turpentine, 
strain through a fine sieve and put up in well sealed 
cans or jars. The yield of this batch will be 2)^ gallons. 

Another formula, which however will not produce a 
slating for pencils, but a very good one for school 
crayons, is as follows: 

Take enough from one gallon of denatured alcohol 
to triturate 3 ounces dry lampblack and 5 ounces dry 
ultramarine blue. In the balance of the alcohol, 
dissolve one pound orange shellac; add to this the 
triturated black and blue, also }/^ pound rotten stone 
and % pound pumice stone both in fine powder, mix 
well, strain and bottle. 

Cements for Various Purposes. 

Paste Cement for Fixing Metal Letters on Glass. To 
be used by specialist in doing this work, the material is 
ground in putty like form and put up in one or two 
poimd tin cans for^easy carriage. Grind 70 lbs. dry 
white lead and 15 lbs. bolted English cliffstone Paris 
white in a mixture of 10 lbs. refined or bleached linseed 
oil and 6 lbs. white damar varnish. The user wets this 


paste with a little turpentine and fills the hollow part 
of the metal letter and places it on the glass. 

Casein Cement for Filling Holes and Interstices in 
Stone. Mix 10 parts by weight of casein, 40 parts 
slaked lime and 40 parts fine sand and enough mineral 
color to match the stone with sufficient water to form a 

Cement for Uniting Stone to Stone, Glass to Iron, etc. 
Make a paste of powdered litharge and glycerine and 
use immediately, as it hardens rapidly. This is a very 
good aquatic cement. 

Cement for Marble^ Tilesy etc. Mix by measure 2 parts 
of white Portland cement, one part air slaked lime and 
one part powdered litharge with enough silicate of soda 
of 88 "" Be strength to make a thin paste. 

Copper Paint for Wooden Shlp^s Bottoms. 

This is usually wanted in brown or copper color and the 
most effective paint known for the purpose contains 5 
pounds copper oxide in the form of fine scales, although 
it has been made with what was known as cement 
copper, which however contains as much as 25% other 
mineral, such as silica, clay, iron oxide, etc. 

The following formula produces a very high type of 
such a paint, preventing the adhesion of barnacles and 
formation of marine growth. 

40 lbs. Mineral Brown or dark native red oxide; 
5 lbs. copper scales in fine division; 
80 lbs. refined pine tar; 

12 lbs. shellac japan; 

13 lbs. heavy petroleum spirit; 

100 lbs. or 9 gallons of paint. 


Note. Linseed or other vegetable oils must be 
avoided sls forming part of this type of paint, excepting 
the very small portion contained in the shellac japan> 
because the presence of appreciable percentages of 
vegetable oil will promote marine growth. 

Copper Painty so-called » for Yacht Bottoms. 

Brown color is very seldom desired here, the favorite 
colors being green and bright red. The insecticide here 
need not necessarily be copper, but can be mercuric 
chloride (corrosive sublimate) or mercuric oxide (red 
oxide of mercury), either of which, of course, is much 
more expensive, than the oxide of copper, but being 
more active, less can be used in proportion, and the 
selling price of yacht compositions being higher, the 
maker can afford their use. 

J^^ormulas for First Class Yacht Compositions. 

Green: Grind 10 lbs. chemically pure chrome green, 
dark shade, 30 lbs. blanc fixe (precipitated barium 
sulphate), 2^ lbs. to 3 lbs. powdered corrosive subli- 
mate in 15 lbs. refined pine tar, as fine as possible, and 
thin the resulting paste with 80 lbs. of hard gum 
(preferably kauri) varnish, containing a minimum of oil 
and heavy petroleum spirit as solvent and add to this 
2 gallons of the heavy benzine, known to the trade as 
substitute turpentine. This batch will produce about 
9 gallons of paint. 

Bed: Grind 9 lbs. strong red oxide, 96% Fe^Os, 1 lb. 
pure para toner, blueish, 20 lbs. blanc fixe, 10 lbs. 
bolted whiting (English cliff stone), 23^ to 3 lbs. red 


oxide of mercury or corrosive sublimate in 16 lbs. 
refined pine tar as fine as possible, and thin the resulting 
paste with 8 lbs. shellac japan, 24 lbs. of hard gum 
(preferably kauri) varnish with a minimum of oil and 
heavy petroleum spirit as solvent and add to this 13^ 
gallons of heavy benzine, yielding 9 gallons of paint. 

Damp Proof Liquid, Clear and Colored. 

50 pounds air slaked lime, 12^ pounds sugar or 
glucose, and 2^ pounds alum are mixed with 10 
gallons warm water, until sugar and alum are fuUy 
dissolved. Then 18 pounds boiled linseed oil and 6 
pounds oil of eucalyptus are mixed with the solution and 
the resulting liquid may be still further thinned with 
water. When pigment is to be incorporated with the 
damp proof liquid, use zinc oxide for white, about 23^^ 
poimds to the gallon; for buff add sufficient yellow ocher 
to the white; for stone, yellow ocher and a trifle of raw 
umber; for drab, raw Turkey umber; for blue, add 
simply lime proof ultramarine blue to the liquid; for 
green, add yellow ocher to the last named and for red, 
add native red oxide. 

Dead Flat Finish, Quick Drying. 

Dissolve 2 parts by weight of gum sandarac in 7 parts 
by weight of ether. When solution is complete, add 7 
parts by weight of 90% benzole. If the finish is to be 
black, dissolve 2% of the total weight of nigrosene B 
(spirit soluble) in the ether and sandarac solution, before 
adding the benzole. 


En^e Enamels for Cold and Heated Parts. 

To manufacture enamel paints for the cold parts of 
engines is not a difficult task as it is only necessary to 
select a vehicle, that will, on the drying of the paint, make 
it an easy matter to wipe oflf any lubricating grease or 
machinery oil without injury to the gloss. As engines 
are usually made of smooth castings and these well 
filled and surfaced, any well ground color of the desired 
shade will answer for the ordinary decorative enamel, 
when reduced to brushing consistency with a good mix- 
ing varnish, the percentage of color required depending 
upon the shade desired. Thus for a black enamel, 4 
oz. of best grade carbon black, ground in oil may be 
added to one gallon of a quick drying mixing varnish, 
and will then cover, while it would require about 3 
pounds of English vermilion to obtain fair covering. 
To produce a tinted enamel for engines, such as a warm 
gray, would require 5 lbs. zinc in oil or varnish tinted 
with lampblack and a trifle of yellow to one gallon of 
the mixing varnish and so on. 

Unless specified, no paint maker of the present day 
would undertake to use English vermilion or orange 
mineral and cosine vermilion in this connection, as he 
has the red toners of the paranitraniline type at his 
command, one half pound of which, if pure, will when 
ground in varnish and added to enough mixing varnish 
to make one gallon of paint, cover very well over a 
suitable priming coat or ground. 

When it comes to enamel paint for the heated por- 
tions of engines, the matter of preparing same is quite 
diflferent, the material being much higher in cost and 
requiring caution in selection, when it comes to such 
colors as green, red, blue, etc. The temperatures being 


rather high, heat proof colors must be selected and the 
varnish must also be one, that will bake hard and yet 
retain its elasticity under the extreme conditions of heat 
and cold. Green oxide of chromium is really the only 
green pigment, that will withstand this, so that an olive 
or bronze green enamel can be made by mixing enough 
carbon black with chrome oxide green to produce the 
effect and if needed, a small portion of alizarine red lake 
will assist in producing the proper tone. But in select- 
ing the chromium oxide green, that known as Guignet's 
green must not be used, as high temperatures will 
destroy its fine color by removing its water of hydra- 
tion. Toluidine red is a fast red, that is heat and 
alkali proof, and while very high in price, when chem- 
ically pure, will stand reduction with best china clay or 
infusorial earth, so as to bring cost within competitive 
limits. Imitation of cobalt blue, will stand quite high 
temperatures without change, and if a small portion 
of zinc oxide can be added without obtaining too light a 
shade of blue, will be the best pigment for a blue 
engine enamel. Whether these heat proof enamel 
paints are made in the solid colors or in tints on a base 
of zinc white, they should not be made to air dry too 
rapidly, not under 24 hours in the ordinary temperature 
of a room, otherwise they will not last. 

Floor Crack Filler or Joint Cement. 

The very highest grade of floor crack filler, that is prac- 
tically colorless, but may be colored to match the finish 
that is to be applied, is made by grinding a good grade of 
perfectly dry cornstarch in a mixing varnish of the fol- 
lowing composition: 165 lbs. hardened rosin are melted in 
a copper kettle, and when done, 80 gallons strong boiled 


linseed oil introduced and kept at a simmemig heat 
until 80 lbs. beeswax (pure country yellow) is also dis- 
solved, when kettle is removed from fire to the thinning 
room, where 45 gallons spirits of turpentine, that is 
added, will yield 95 gallons of a vehicle, that cannot be 
excelled by any other for producing an imshrinkable 
crack filler, when mixed with enough cornstarch to 
make a paste of the consistency of soft putty. A 
trifle of raw Italian sienna will give it the color of light 
oak on drying. In making the varnish, hardened rosin 
may be replaced by melting 150 lbs. F. rosin and intro- 
ducing 15 lbs. air slaked builder's lime, treating it until 
well fused, before the oil and wax are added. 

When dark color is not objectionable and rapid 
setting and hardening is desired, the cornstarch may be 
ground in a shellac japan of the following composition : — 
40 gallons vanish makers' raw linseed oilltnd SO pounds 
orange shellac V. S. D. are combined in the usual way, 
in a kettle of suitable size, and fused with 100 pounds 
varnish makers' red lead, 10 pounds litharge and 15 
pounds precipitated black oxide of manganese and held 
over the fire, until the usual test for japan is had; when 
the batch has cooled sufficiently, 70 gallons of spirits of 
turpentine added in the thinning room and the result 
will be 110 gallons of grinders' shellac japan. When, 
for any reason, the cost of this is too high, use equal 
parts turpentine and heavy petroleum naphtha for thin- 

There are other crack and crevice fillers, but these are 
home made and do not interest the paint maker, be- 
cause they have to be used immediately after prepara- 


Floor Wax Polish in Paste Form. 

To prepare this in the proper way, in quantity, a 
steam jacketted copper kettle is the best apparatus, 
and in this the following quantities of material are 
placed, until finally the whole mass is thoroughly amal- 
gamated and uniform: 

20 pounds yellow country pure beeswax \ all bro- 
8 pounds camauba wax Vken or 

8 pounds paraffine wax ) sliced 

When the waxes are melted, add 6 ounces of good pure 
oil soap and 10 Troy grains of fat oil yellow, lemon 
shade (oil soluble aniline) and 3 oimces synthetic oil of 
almonds (oil of myrbane) ; turn off steam and thin, while 
agitating the mixture with 6^ gallons spirits of tur- 
pentine and 3^ gallons heavy naphtha (turpentine sub- 
stitute). This batch should produce, allowing for some 
loss by evaporation and shrinkage, 100 lbs. floor wax. 
Keep agitated and fill into tin cans, while warm, using 
friction cover cans, pints for one pound size, quarts for 2 
poimd size, half gallons for 4 pound size and gallons for 8 

Floor Oils or Floor Dressings. 

A floor dressing, that may be used on finished floors 
to advantage as a polish, when rubbed in well is best 
made by mixing thoroughly 7^ parts by measure of 
raw linseed oil, 1^ parts of pure spirits of turpentine 
and ^ parts orange shellac varnish, made with dena- 
tured alcohol. Must be always well shaken in the 
package, before use. 

Ordinary floor oils to keep the dust down in ware- 
rooms, workshops, etc., are made by heating paraffine 


oil, of .885 specific gravity, in a steam jacketted kettle, 
until it simmers and then add, while agitating, one 
pound melted paraffine wax, of 130** melting point. 
This will answer very well as a polish for furniture and 
bars, as it cleans and polishes in one operation. If a 
trifle heavy in body, use a little pure turpentine for 
thinning. To disguise the odor of the paraffine oil, add 
about 10 drops of oil of myrbane to each gallon. 

Furniture Polish and Polish for Cabinet Work. 

Dissolve }/2 pound orange shellac in one quart of 
denatured 188** alcohol, then mix with this 3 pounds 
of raw linseed oil and 23^ pounds spirits of turpentine, 
then mix ^ poimds butter of antimony (antimony 
trichloride) and J^ pound muriatic (hydrochloric) 
acid, adding this to the other ingredients, agitating it 
very thoroughly. It is applied with a soft cloth and 
will clean and polish at the same time. 

Polish for Fine Woodwork. 

High polish for fine woodwork is easily prepared. 
Mix two parts by volume of orange shellac varnish, 
cut in denatured alcohol and one part of raw linseed oil. 
This must always be shaken well before using and 
applied with a soft cloth, that shows no lint, rubbing 
briskly until hard and glossy. 

Furniture Wax Polish In Liquid Form. 

Dissolve in a sand or water bath, J^ pound yellow or 
white pure beeswax in 2 pounds of raw linseed oil and 
]4: pound turpentine. Allow to cool to a temperature 
of about 80** F., then add 3^ pound denatured alcohol 
orange shellac varnish, stirring the mixture well. Apply 
with a cloth and rub briskly. 


Gold Bronze Paint in Liquid Form. 

In preparing this for the trade, for jobbers* or dealers* 
shelves, the manufacturer must take especial care to 
select the very finest gold bronze, nothing coarser than 
that known as No. 6000 will do; also see that the 
liquid does not contain any turpentine or rosin spirit, 
as that would tend to green oflf the bronze very rapidly. 
A varnish that contains appreciable portions of oil will 
not serve the purpose, as it will dull the luster of the 
bronze. A very good formula for gold paint is as fol- 
lows: Melt hardened rosin in a kettle and pour the 
melt on a flat pan to cool. When it has become hard, 
powder it by running through a drug or spice mill or 
crush in a mortar, then dissolve it, in the cold way, in 
any hydrocarbon, whose boiling point is below 300 ^'F. 
Ordinary 62** benzine, that is treated with five per cent, 
of its weight of caustic lime in powder by agitation and 
then clarified by filteration has given the best results. 
Ten pounds of the remelted and powdered hardened 
rosin to ninety pounds of benzine will make the best 
liquid for gold paint. Forty pounds fine gold bronze to 
100 pounds of the liquid will produce close to 18 gallons 
liquid gold bronze. 

Black Iron Filler for Rough Castings. 

This is for use in surfacing castings. Should be used 
as a priming coat, made thin with benzine and applied 
with the brush. Then when dry, should be gone over 
with the paste filler, using wide flexible spatulas, wetting 
the paste slightly with benzine in order to smooth it 
down. When dry it is sandpapered and when gone 
over with some turpentine or benzine, must not show 


cracking or parting on drying. In order to obtain best 
results, the japan in which the pigments are ground 
for this filler, should consist of the following ingredi^ 
ents: — 

95 lbs. kauri brown chips, 15 lbs. hardened rosin, 
35 gallons raw linseed oil, 60 lbs. litharge, 10 lbs. fine 
black oxide of manganese, fused as usual in making 
japan, until a clear plaster is had, when tested on glass. 
Take to thinning room and cut out first with 10 gallons, 
turpentine or turpentine substitute and reduce with 50 
gallons 62 "^ benzine. Should result in 100 gallons of 
brown japan. To produce 100 lbs. of filler, place in a 
chaser or strong mixer 3 gallons of this japan with 64 
lbs. mineral black filler and 16 lbs. Paris white. 

High Grade Iron Filler and Surf acer, also 
Steel Ciolor Finish. 

This is usually applied on smooth castings, two coats, 
being given. When dry and hard, it may be rubbed 
with pumice and water, but is mostly smoothed down 
with emery cloths and oil. The following formula 
produces a light shade of steel color, but by increasing 
the percentage of lampblack, a medium or dark shade is. 
obtained. Must be ground fine on suitable mill : 

30 lbs. slate flour (ground slate); 

15 " 

bolted American Paris white; 

15 " 

fine silica or pumice; 

H " 

dry lampblack; 

8H " 

dry white lead; 

8M " 

barytes, floated; 

20 " 

black filler japan; 

2H " 

hard rubbing varnish; 

100 lbs. 


Ordinary Steel Color Paint in Paste Form. 

For a dark steel color, that is to be simply used on 
iron or steel, either for dipping or for application with 
the brush, after thinning with benzine or turpentine 
substitute, the inert material must be buoyant in order 
to keep in suspension and prices being rather low, the 
pigment must be selected so as not to require too much 
of the more expensive vehicle. 

For producing 100 lbs. of the paste, the following may 
be mixed in a chaser without grinding in a mill: — 

6 lbs. lithopone, 4 lbs. dry lampblack, 68 lbs. Amer- 
ican Paris white, 10 lbs. raw linseed oil and 14 lbs. 
brown japan of the grade described in the following 
formula. (Figuring on a total of 102 lbs. of material 
allows for waste and evaporation in the process of 

Ordinary Brown Japan. 

Fuse by melting 100 pounds F rosin, 6 gallons raw 
linseed oil, 15 pounds litharge and 15 pounds fine black 
oxide of manganese, cut with 7 gallons substitute 
turpentine and finally thin with 60 gallons of 56** 
benzine. Result 60 gallons. 

Strong Ihying Brown Japan. 

Make as above, but use 100 pounds F rosin, 20 pounds 
brown sugar of lead, 10 gallons raw linseed oil, 30 pounds 
fine black oxide of manganese, cut out with 5 gallons 
of 90% coal tar benzol and thin finally with 45 gallons of 
56 ** benzine. * Result 65 to 67 gallons. This is an 
excellent drier for moderate priced ready mixed paints 
containing mineral pigments. 


Cheap Gold Size Japan. 

Melt 110 pounds hardened rosm and fuse with 9 
gallons varnish maker's linseed oil and 44 pounds 
litharge. Thin with 50 gallons turpentine. Result 
67 gallons. 

High Grade Grinding Japan. 

A reliable japan for use in grinding coach colors, etc., 
can be made by fusing 55 pounds brown No. 3 kauri 
gum with 17 gallons V. M. linseed oil, 100 pounds 
litharge and 20 pounds fine black manganese oxide, 
until the drying mediums are well amalgamated, when 
55 gallons of turpentine is added in the thinning room. 
The result, when settled clear, will be 72 gallons, 
weighing 83^ poimds each. This japan dries not merely 
on top of the film, but right through, and the only 
drawback is, that it requires settling in a warm storage 
room for over a month, before it becomes clear enough 
for use. This is not the case with grinding japans made 
with gum shellac. 

Lacquers for Brass. 

An excellent clear spirit lacquer for brass may be 
made by dissolving, with the aid of gentle heat, in a 
water bath in a well tinned vessel, that can be closed to 
avoid evaporation, one pound of gum sandarac, one 
and one quarter pounds bruised white shellac and one 
quarter pound gum elemi in four gallons of 188** 
denatured alcohol. When dissolved, strain oflf and 
treat the sediment with more alcohol, then filter 
through cloth. 

Another good formula for clear brass lacquer is to 
dissolve one pound seed lac, one pound bleached shellac 
one half pound genuine Venice turpentine in three 
gallons of denatured alcohol (188'' grade). 


Colored lacquer for brass can be made by simply 
dissolving gamboge and dragon's blood separately in 
alcohol, straining the resulting colored liquids and add- 
ing sufficient of each to either of the above clear lac- 
quers to obtain the desired effect. 

Lake Boats' Seam Cement White. 

This so-called cement or imskrinkable putty is used 
to quite an extent for what is known on the inland 
lakes as a material for ^^aying seams'" on wooden craft 
and is in the form of glaziers' putty. Should be mixed 
as stiff as possible, then permitted to "sweat" a few 
days, and finished by giving it a loose run through a 
mill, or if the batch be large enough, put through a 
putty chaser. For a batch of 500 pounds mix the fol- 
lowing: 260 pounds bolted gilders' whiting, 75 pounds 
bolted English china day, 30 pounds dry white lead, 
80 pounds pure white lead in oil (keg lead) 50 pounds 
bodied linseed oil (without drier), 10 poimds pale rosin 
oil, 5 pounds paint (paraffine) oil. 

This is pressed into the seams with flexible putty 
knives of proper width, after the edges of the seams have 
been given a coat of seam paint, of the following 

Lake Boats' Seam Paint White. 

Grind fine the following paste: 44 poimds bolted 
gilders' whiting, 6 pounds keg lead in oil, 12 poimds 
bodied linseed oil. On cooling, thin this paste with 18 
pounds bodied linseed oil and 22 pounds paint oil 
(paraffine oil, debloomed). Net result 100 pounds or 
8^ gallons liquid paint, weighing close to 11^ lbs. each. 


If these compositions are required in colors, such as 
buflF or red, use ocher for the former with the white and 
strong red oxide for the latter; for gray or lead color, 
tint with lamp-black. The cement, when used as out- 
lined, after coating the edges of seams with the paint, 
will never dry brittle, but retain its toughness and 
elasticity, and therefore toill not lose its hold. 

L»c«m#tiye Finish Black. 

For a batch of 5% gallons jet black locomotive 
enamel grind 13 pounds finest grade carbon black, that 
has been freed from moisture in a drying oven or kiln, 
in 12 gallons of a good grade of rubbing varnish through 
a water cooled mill as fine as possible, and when this 
soft paste has cooled sufiBciently, place it in a liquid 
paint mixer, beating it with 3 gallons gum spirits of 
turpentine, then add gradually 35 gallons of long stock 
kauri varnish and strain through very fine mesh wire 
sieve or strainer. The rubbing varnish used in grinding 
may be replaced in part by say 4 gallons of a good coach 
grinding japan to 8 gallons of rubbing varnish and the 
latter should be short stock kauri gum of the 8 gallon 
oil variety while the long stock finishing varnish used 
for thinning is best for the purpose, when of the 20 
gallon oil formula. The former practice of using gen- 
uine ivory black or drop black has been pretty well 
abandoned, because of its settling tendency, no matter 
how fine it was ground. 

Locomotiye Enamel Brunswick Green. 

Follow the formula for black with the exception, 
that instead of grinding 13 pounds carbon black, only 9 
pounds of the black and 7 pounds of chemically pure 


chrome green, medium are ground in 4 gallons coach 
grinding japan and 8 gallons of rubbing varnish. If 
any special shade of this green is desired, the proportions 
of black and green may be changed to suit or the shade 
of the green changed to light or dark as required. 

Locomotiye Inside Gab Enamel. 

This is usually green and the practice is that chrome 
green in japan is thinned with turpentine and so applied, 
drying flat and finished with clear varnish. However, 
this is not the rule with all roads and when cab enamel is 
called for it is wanted in ready-for-use form. The 
light or medium shades of chrome green are preferred 
and chemically pure green is the best to use for this 
class of goods to avoid sediment in the package. The 
following formula will give very good results: 

Grind 25 pounds chemically pure chrome green light 
or medium shade, or a mixture of these shades as may 
be required, in 2 gallons of coach grinding japan, 
through a water cooled mill fine as possible and on the 
last run add one gallon rubbing varnish of not too dark a 
color. Thin the resulting soft paste, when cooled, with 
at least three gallons pure gum spirits of turpentine, 
then add gradually 42 gallons of a good hard drying 
varnish, that dries of itself within 12 hours. Result 50 

Marine White Enamel for Yachts. 

Grind best French process zinc white in the very 
palest bodied linseed oil, that may be in the nature 
of blown oil or lithographers' varnish without drier. 
The proper proportions are: 


60 lbs. dry zinc white, 30 lbs. of the bodied oil and 
10 lbs. gum spirits of turpentine. Allow this base to 
cool, then beat it up in a power mixer (change can) with 
2|^ gallons turpentine and add 163^ gallons palest 
kauri gum varnish (wearing body or white enamel 
varnish, so-called). 

If marine enamel of lower price is wanted, grind 
American selected zinc white in place of the French 
process zinc, as above, and thin in the same proportion 
as above, using a good white mixing varnish. The 
weight per gallon in either case should not exceed 10 
pounds in order to make the enamel flow freely. 

Marine Eggshell Gloss White. 

A white paint of this class is often in demand for 
yachts and motor boats. The idea is to have as little 
glare as possible and the paint is expected to last one 
season only and is expected to wear in such a manner, 
as to make it easily removable leaving a clean surface 
for repainting. 

Grind a base of 45 pounds American zinc oxide, and 
SO pounds magnesium silicate (asbestine) and one 
pound white sugar of lead in 24 pounds of clarified or 
refined linseed oil and, on cooling, thin this paste with 4 
gallons tumpentine and 2 gallons moderate priced 
white mixing varnish, producing 10 gallons of paint, 
weighing 13 pounds per gallon. 

This paint applied to the hulls of steel craft, will 
gradually wear oflF and leave a surface, that, with very 
little sandpapering, will be ready to receive new paint, 
without the necessity of burning oflF or using paint 


When selling price permits, a paint of similar char- 
acteristics, but of far better covering capacity can be 
produced by grinding a base of 40 pounds sublimed 
white lead and 40 pounds American zinc white with 2 
pounds white sugar of lead in 18 pounds refined oil, 
thinning this soft paste with 2J^ gallons turpentine, }/^ 
gallon pale drier and 2 gallons of clarified oil of good 
body, thus producing 8% gallons of paint, weighing 
15J^ pounds per gallon. The use of varnish in this 
latter formula is best avoided, as sublimed white lead 
does not act well with varnish, when the paint is kept 
in stock for any length of time. 

Marine Black for Ship's Hulls 

A very good black paint for use on steel ships above 
the water line is produced by grinding a paste as follows : 

10 pounds best gas carbon black, 5 pounds dry red 
lead, 30 pounds water floated silex or silica, 55 pounds 
boiled linseed oil. It may be put up in paste form to 
be thinned by the consumers with linseed oil, dryer and 
turpentine or may be put up in ready for use form by 
the following formula. Beat up in a paint mixer 45 
pounds of the paste black and add 43 pounds boiled 
linseed oil, 7 pounds strong liquid dryer and 5 pounds 
turpentine. Result 100 pounds or 11 gallons paint. 

Note. Do not use a japan or liquid dryer, that con- 
tains rosin or lime, but let it be a concentrated oil 
dryer. This black is considered a very high grade 
material and will give very good service. 

Marine Black with Magnetic Oxide 

This paint can be put up in paste form after grinding 
on the following formula: 75 lbs. magnetic black oxide. 


precipitated, 1 lb. carbon black, 6 lbs. zinc oxide, 18 
lbs. fire boiled linseed oil. The percentage of oil re- 
quired depends largely on the gravity and fineness of 
the magnetic oxide. It may also be cheapened for cost 
by the addition of barytes to the extent of one third the 
weight of the magnetic oxide without materially in- 
creasing the oil required in mixing and grinding. It is 
not recommended to ofiPer this paint in liquid form. 

Marine Black with Asphaltum Base 

A good black paint, useful on the hulls of wooden or 
iron vessels, where long continued wear is not looked for 
so much as low selling price may be made by mixing 
carbon black paint with benzine asphaltum varnish. 
It is necessary, however, that the latter, when tested by 
itself, should dry to the touch in three or four hours. 
The black to be mixed with this must be ground in 
boiled oil and must not be extended with any heavy 
inert material, such as barytes, etc., nor should it 
contain any whiting, gypsum or silex. To 8 gallons 
benzine asphaltum varnish (free from coal tar) add 4 
pounds lampblack in oil previously mixed with 12 
pounds boiled linseed oil and % pounds strong liquid 
dryer. When well mixed, strain through a sieve or fine 
paint strainer. Result 10 gallons. 

Mortar Colors (Moist in Paste) 

There is quite a demand for these by the building 
trades, but to manipulate this material profitably 
requires facilities for handling at little cost. Where 
the output is large, edge runner mills (chasers) are best 
adapted, but the kneading machines, similar to those 


used in bakeries are also quite handy. The colors 
most in demand are limited to less than half a dozen 
comprising black, red, brown, buflF, and chocolate, very 
seldom green or blue is desired. Of course the colors 
must be alkali proof and should be strong, although not 
brilliant. Usually natural oxides and yellow ochers 
are selected, while for black mineral black is favored, 
very seldom vegetable black. The percentage of water 
in mortar color depends upon the gravity of the pigment 
and its fineness as well. It is merely necessary to wet 
up the pigment with water and give it a thorough mix- 
ing, so as to form a uniform mass, that will not dry up 
too readily or permit the water to separate in the 

Mast Color (also U. S. Navy Spar Color) 

This spruce color eflFect was quite extensively called 
for before the present modem navy had developed, and 
it is still a favorite with mariners of the merchant 
service. When made in paste form, the following com- 
position was in vogue: 

64 pounds dry white lead, 16 pounds American zinc, 
6 pounds French yellow ocher, 1 pound strong Venetian 
red, ground in 13 pounds refined linseed oil. 

To produce this color in ready for use form, mix 70 
lbs. white lead in oil, 20 lbs. zinc white in oil, 8)^ lbs. 
French yellow ocher in oil, Ij^ lbs. Venetian red in oil 
and thin with 5 gallons raw linseed oil and ^ gallon 
good turpentine japan. Result close to 9 gallons of 
paint, weighing 16 lbs. per gallon. 

For commercial purposes, where there are no speci- 
fications to follow and selling price must be low, the 
addition of a moderate proportion of inert extending 


material, would not injure the durability of the paint, 
although diminishing body and spreading capacity. 
The paste may then be mixed and ground as follows: 
52 pounds dry white lead or sublimed white lead, 18 
pounds American zinc oxide, 4^ pounds dry French 
yellow ocher, 5€ pounds dry Venetian red, 15 pounds 
dry asbestine, 143^ pounds raw linseed oil. In ready 
for use form it would figure out as follows: 70 pounds 
of the paste, thinned with 26j^ pounds raw linseed oil 
and S|^ pounds liquid drier; will result in 100 pounds 
or 6^ gallons liquid paint, weighing 15 pounds per 
gallon. The difference in cost per gallon for material 
between the paint made without extender and that 
made with extender is 12^ per cent, in favor of the 
latter, when figuring dry lead at Oj^c and zinc at 53^ 
per pound and linseed oil at 52c per gallon of 7J^ 

Paints to Specifications 

To design a paint, be it in paste or liquid form, 
requires a thorough knowledge of the materials, that are 
to be used; that is, their chemical composition, as most 
specifications are worded in chemical names and 
synonyms. For instance, a structural iron paint of 
dark chocolate brown is wanted in paste form, the 
specifications calling for a pigment being composed of 
not less than 23%, nor more than 28% sesquioxide of 
iron (Fe^Os), not over 2% carbon, not less than 2% 
nor more than 5% carbonate of lime (CaCOs), balance 
to be inert material, not less opaque than sulphate of 
lime, to match in color the standard sample submitted, 
etc., the pigment to be ground fine enough in pure raw, 
well settled linseed oil to meet certain tests, that are 


also described. The pigment portion of the paste to be 
not less than 73% nor more than 76% by weight and 
the vehicle not less than 24% nor more than 27% by 
weight. Then follow the usual rules under which 
shipments will be rejected. Now in order to meet the 
specifications it is immaterial, whether the pigment, 
containing the requisite percentage of sesquioxide of 
iron is an artificial product or natural or whether it is 
red, brown or yellow, so long as the color to be matched, 
can be obtained without the addition of more carbon 
black or the addition of a pigment, that would increase 
the percentage of sesquioxide of iron over the limit. 

When the paint to this specification was made 
originally, the author found, that to use sulphate of 
lime in the form of gypsum made grinding rather 
difficult and after selecting the proper pigment with the 
required portion of iron oxide, made use of a fine grade 
of clay, thus making manipulation in mixer and grinding 
through the mill more simple, because in this way the 
color was not materially changed in grinding. Thus 
the color produced consisted of a native red, averaging 
89 per cent, sesquioxide of iron, the carbon black 
specified, balance of pigment being china clay, or in 
detail as follows: 

13^ pounds carbon black, 3 pounds whiting, 22 
pounds native red as above and 47^ pounds china clay 
or a total of 74 pounds dry pigment and 26 pounds of 
raw linseed oil. 

It will be noticed, that for instance a burnt ocher of 
from 28% to 30% sesquioxide of iron would have served 
the purpose equally as well and made the addition of 
china clay unnecessary. Yet the cost of a burnt ocher 
of that strength or a native red ocher would be higher. 


than the cost of china clay and the texture of the ocher 
would not be equal in fineness to that of the clay. All 
of these points must be considered to make it possible 
to meet competition as well as the chemists' specifica- 

Another structural iron paint, where the specifica- 
tions read as follows: The pigment of which this paint 
is to be composed must consist solely of 60% sesquioxide 
of iron, FcaOs, 23% silica, SiOa, 5% red lead, PbaO* 
5% white lead, PbCOs, 5% zmc oxide, ZnO, and 2% 
zinc chromate, ZnCr04. The vehicle must consist of 
well settled, pure raw linseed oil and not over 10% 
drier, and the volatile matter must not exceed 4%. 

The pigment must be 55% and the vehicle 45%, 
with a permissible variation of not over 2% either way. 

Considering these specifications not from the chem- 
ical, but from the practical standpoint, it is difficult to 
see, what function the white lead and zinc chromate 
exercise in this paint, when it is to be used over old 
painted surface and not on the bare metal, as was the case 
here. But leaving this aside, the items of 60% ses- 
quioxide of iron and 23% silica would indicate, that a 
silicate of iron is wanted, yet this is rather difficult to 
obtain in a red, such as the desired color must be. 
Judging from the prices, at which proposals for this 
paint are awarded, the red pigment cannot possibly be 
a chemically pure oxide of iron and as the lower priced 
grades or native reds always contain more or less 
alumina in addition to silica, the specifications cannot be 
strictly adhered to by the successful bidders. To all 
appearances, then it may be assumed, that the nearest 
approach is a paint made about as follows: 38^ lbs. 
native red of 87% FcaOs, 7^ lbs. silica, 2^ lbs. dry red 


lead, 2^ lbs* dry white lead, 2^ lbs. zine oxide, 1 J^ lb. 
zinc yellow, 40 lbs. raw linseed oil and 5 lbs. strong 
drier. Weight about 12^ lbs. per gallon. 

Megilp for Artists. 

This should be in every assortment of artists* tube 
colors, it being used by them as a drying medium. It 
is prepared as follows in quantity: 

Heat in an enameled kettle 12 pounds raw linseed oil 
with 10 ounces of fine litharge for 30 minutes, stirring 
with a glass rod all the time, then set aside to cool and 
settle. After 24 hours decant the oil off the sediment 
and filter it. Also melt on a water bath 4 pounds gum 
mastic in 8 pounds gum spirits of turpentine and when 
the gum is dissolved, set the kettle away over night, 
then filter the solution and stir it into the oil. When 
thus well mixed, set the material in a cold place, during 
the winter time, and in summer keep in a refrigerator. 
Fill tubes only, when called for. 

Gumption (Drier) for Artists. 

Mix well together, one volume concentrated solution 
of white sugar of lead, two volumes bleached linseed oil 
and two volumes of gum mastic, dissolved in turpentine. 

Paint Remover at Low Cost. 

When surface is to be repainted and the discoloration 
of wood not considered, as on bams or other rough work, 
a cheap remover may be made as follows: Dissolve 7 
pounds of 98% caustic soda in 2 gallons of water and 
allow to cool. Wet up one pound each of ordinary com- 


starch and china clay with water and reduce the result- 
ing paste until 2 gallons of water have been added to the 
dry starch and clay. Add the latter to the caustic soda 
solution, when a smooth paste will result. Apply 
liberally to the paint and when the old coating has 
lifted, scrape oflF with a light touch and wash with dear 
water. This paste will also remove wall paper or 

Paste Drier for Printing Ink Plate Printing. 

This material should be made up in an edge runner 
mill (chaser) in the form of a medium stiff paste and in 
order to be successful, the pigments must be of utmost 
fineness and entirely free from grit. The white lead in 
oil must be ground stiff in refined or bleached linseed oil 
at the rate of 8 pounds of oil to 92 pounds pure white 
lead (basic carbonate), and the materials must be put 
into the chaser in the order given here. For a batch of 
500 pounds, allowing for a few pounds of waste, place 
in the chaser gradually 

240 lbs. natural white barytes, water floated; 

120 " bolted English Cliffstone, whitmg; 
60 " pure white lead, stiff ground in oil; 
45 ^^ pale boiled linseed oil and 
40 " special solution, as per formula below. 

Note. Mix the linseed oil and solution before adding 
it slowly to the pigments. 

Special Solution for Above Paste Drier. 

Dissolve, in 5 gallons hot water, 40 pounds anhydrous 
white sugar of lead, also 53^ pounds chemically pure 
sulphate of manganese (in crystals) in 13^ gallons hot 


water. When solutions are complete, add the two 
together and strain through cheese cloth to remove any 
fibre, lint or other undissolved matter. Result 100 
pounds. This solution will also serve for a 

Paste Drier, Without White Lead, for Paint. 

For an excellent material, where liquid driers are 
undesirable, and for a batch of 500 lbs. the following 
ingredients are used: 

250 pounds best bolted American Paris white, 
125 " fine white barytes, 

75 " siccatized linseed oil, 

50 " special solution as above. 

Note. The siccatized linseed oil is made in the cold 
way in a revolving barrel or drum as follows: 

For 25 gaUons placed in the apparatus, add 50 pounds 
sifted litharge and let it revolve by power for 8 working 
hours, then draw the resulting oil into a settling barrel 
or tank and permit the oil to clear. The residue, which 
consists of litharge and oil foots can be used with cheap 
roof paints. 

Manganese and Lead Paste Drier. 

A paste drier used by manufacturers of printers* 
and lithographers' inks in the consistency of fairly stiff 
putty is produced by pulverizing fine 32 pounds anhy- 
drous white sugar of lead and 8 pounds fused resinate of 
manganese in 8 gallons of double boiled manganese^oil 
to impalpable fineness. May be ground on a good stone 
mill with large eye and finished smooth on roller mill. ,, 


Paste Drier Without Manganese. 

This is useful for mixing with white oil paint, where 
the pink cast given by manganese salts is to be avoided^ 
as for inside work: Mix 7 pounds dried zinc sulphate, 
33^ pounds fine litharge, 2 lbs. white sugar of lead in 2 J^ 
poimds pale boiled oil and grind fine as possible. Then 
mix 20 pounds dry white lead and 50 pounds bolted 
Paris white with 15 poimds pale boiled oil, grind and 
on the last run through mill, add the 15 pounds of 
driers, first ground to make 100 pounds of soft paste 

Paste Drier for Zinc White or Lithopone. 

Guynemer's Drier, that at one time was quite a 
favorite for drying zinc, especially for flat inside work is 
now practically obsolete, even in Europe. It was 
ground with too much zinc oxide to exhibit great drying 
strength* Zumatic Drier also is not a good drier for the 
purpose as manganese borate, which was a component 
part of the material, has the bad fault of making inside 
walls dry out pinkish, when coated with white, in which 
it is used. 

15 lbs. resinate of zinc, powdered; 

10 " sulphate of zinc, well dried; 

50 " zinc oxide, American; 

25 " refined or bleached linseed oil; 
are groimd very fine and put up in suitable containers^ 
One pound of this drier will dry from 25 to 50 lbs. of 
zinc white or lithopone paste paint, thinned for flatting 
with turpentine. 

Resinate of Zinc Drier. 

Resinate of zinc, when precipitated and packed in 
casks is very apt to be subject to spontaneous combus-^ 


tion and to make a paste drier with zinc resinate alone, 
it is best to use fused zinc resinate, dissolving 10 pounds 
in 10 gallons of varnish makers' linseed oil and in the 
resulting drying liquid grind dry zinc oxide at the rate of 
25 pounds of the oil to 75 pounds zinc, producing a 
rather soft paste. 

Primer for Galvanized Iron. 

Grind a soft base as follows: 

48 pounds lithopone of normal composition; 
20 " pure graphite of 85% carbon; 
4 " Indian red of 95% oxide iron; 
12 " bodied linseed oil; 
16 " color grinders' (hard gum) japan; 

100 lbs. 

Thin this paste, when suflSciently cooled, with 2 
gallons hard gum rubbing varnish and 2 gallons pure 
spirits of turpentine. Result: — 9 gallons of dove gray 
paint, weighing 14 pounds per gallon, that will permit 
any good paint applied over it to adhere to the metal 

Paint for Metal, (Tin or Iron.) 
High Grade Red for Roofs, Sheathing, etc. 

Grind a soft paste as follows: 

50 pounds native red, powdered (88% FejOs); 
23 ** magnesium silicate (asbestine) ; 
27 " raw linseed oil; 

100 lbs. 


Thin with 6 gallons raw linseed oil, 1 gallon brown 
japan or oil and turps drier, resulting in a batch of 13 
gallons of red paint of fairly bright color, weighing close 
to 12 pounds per gallon. 

Note. The 73 pounds of native red oxide and 
asbestine may be replaced with any good red oxide, 
containing anywhere from 30 to 40 per cent, of ses- 
quioxide of iron. 

Red Graphite Paint (Paste). 

Red graphite, if so found in nature, is simply a mix- 
ture of graphite and red clay and therefore not as good a 
pigment, as the mixtures sold in practise to consumers, 
who specify the material for use on structural iron. A 
good durable paint of that name is prepared as follows: 

Paste. 46 pounds natural graphite (85% carbon) ; 
23 " native red (about 88% FcaOg) ; 
31 " double boiled linseed oil; 

100 pounds mixed and ground fine. 

Red Graphite Paint (Liquid Form, ready for Use.) 

Thin 100 pounds of above paste with 10 gallons 
double boiled linseed oil and 2 gallons strong brown 
japan, resulting in 19 gallons of paint, weighing fully 10 
pounds per gallon, covering well in one coat. 

Roof Stopping (for leaky tin roofs). 

Place into a change can mixer, 19 pounds rosin oil 
(first run will do), 3 pounds pine tar (free of water), 30 
pounds cheap Venetian red, 24 pounds ground slate 
(slate flour) and 24 pounds common whiting; mix well, 


adding a few ounces finely chopped fibre or cow's hair. 
Put up in paste form and sold by weight. Pressed into 
leaks with flexible putty knives. 

Red Mineral Primer Paste for Engine Tenders. 

One of the largest concerns building locomotives 
use for priming the bodies of tenders a dull red in paste 
form, which they thin with substitute turps. Can be 
made by mixing and grinding 55 pounds native red 
oxide (of not less than 75% FcaOa), 25 pounds ground 
slate (slate flour) in 10 pounds raw linseed oil and 10 
pounds cheap brown japan. 

Rivet Head and Butt End Cement for Steel Vessels. 

The following composition has been in use for many 
years by one of the largest ship building companies in 
the United States: 

Paste for Trowelling and Knifing in: 

Mix and grind to a medium stiflf paste the following: 

50 lbs. dry basic carbonate of lead; 

12/^ " bolted American Paris white; 

15 " pure Indian red, deep shade (95% 

10 " hard gum coach japan; 
12 J^ " hard gum rubbing varnish; 

100 lbs. 
The same cement for Flowing: 

92 poimds of the paste cement (4 gallons) thinned 
with one half gallon spar varnish of fair grade and one 
gallon of turpentine will produce 5J^ gallons of what is 
known as marine cement for flowing, weighing 18)^ 
pounds per gallon. 


Roof Paint Elastic Black (Cheap). 

In a portable iron kettle, of 100 gallons capacity, 
melt 150 pounds black rosin and 150 lbs. tar pitch 
together, then add 15 gallons of tar oil (heavy naphtha) 
and when this is well in, take kettle from fire (or if kettle 
is not portable, draw fire) and add 25 gallons of thin 
benzine asphaltum varnish, stirring the mixture well, 
while kettle is still hot. K on cooUng, the black paint is 
too stout to spread readily imder the brush, thin with 
benzine or still better, with solvent naphtha. The 
formula, as above given, should produce not less than 67 
gallons of paint, making allowance for waste. 

Ship Paints, (as sold by ship chandlers). 

These are in paste form furnished in various sizes 
and styles of packages. The grinding is usually done 
in a careless way, but more often the goods are simply 
put through a mixer, and very frequently it may be dis- 
covered, that the pigments are not mixed with pure 
linseed oil, but in a linseed oil emulsion, carrying as 
much as 33% water. The following formulas, while not 
prohibitive for cost, are based on pure linseed oil as 

Boot Topping for Ships. 
100 pounds basic lead sulphate (sublimed lead); 



American zinc oxide; 
whiting, common; 
Indian red, deep (American); 
natural barytes, ordinary fine; 
raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds finished product. 


If the Indian red is in fine divisi<m, a very tlioiougfa 
mixing will make this paste smooth enou^ and thus 
obviate the necessity for grinding in a milL The 
sublimed lead may be replaced by basic lead carbonate 
(white lead). 

Blade Marine Faint. 

40 pounds ordinary lampbladc, dry ; 
360** ** baiytes; 

100 "" boiled linseed ofl; 

500 pounds paste. 

Jet Black Marine Faint. 

15 pounds gas carbon blade, dry; 

25 ** day (kaolin); 
360 " ordinary barytes; 
100 '' boiled linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. First grind carbon black and day in 75 
pounds of the oil. When done, place in a change can 
mixer, add balance of oil and the barytes. 

Marine Blue Paint. 

15 pounds Prussian blue, dry; 
35 ** English china day; 
385 " ordinary barytes; 
65 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. First grind the Prussian blue and day in 35 
lbs. of the oil, place the resulting blue in change can 
mixer, add balance of oil and the barytes. 


Bronze Green Marine Paint. 

20 pounds chemically pure chrome green, dark 

10 ** burnt Turkey umber, powdered; 
10 " chemically pure chrome yellow, lemon 

396 " ordinary barytes; 
65 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. Grind the first three items in 25 pounds of the 
oil, place in change can mixer and add balance. 

Burnt Turkey Umber Marine Paint. 

200 poimds burnt Turkey umber in oil; 
280 " ordinary barytes; 
20 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Note. Use change can mixer for above. 

Chocolate Color Marine Paint. 

150 poimds purple oxide of iron (powdered) ; 

25 " American zinc; 

25 " asbestine powder; 
235 " ordinary barytes; 

65 " raw Hnseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. Grind the first three items in 45 pounds of the 
oil through a mill and add balance in the change can 


Oxide of Iron Red Marine Paint. 

125 pounds Persian Gulf red (powdered); 

25 " asbestine powder; 
280 " ordinary barytes; 

70 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Note. Grind the first two items in 45 pounds of the 
oil on a buhr stone mill and add balance in change can 

Marine Green Paint» any shade. 

65 poimds chemically pure chrome green in oil; 
35 " china clay, fine bolted, dry; 
350 " ordinary barytes, dry; 
50 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Note. This formula is for a medium shade and when 
given time to mix thoroughly in a change can mixer, 
will produce a smooth paste. For the dark green, the 
proportion of oil must be slightly increased, while for 
the light shade, it may be somewhat decreased. 

Marine Grey Paint. 

200 poimds red seal lithopone, dry; 

2 " Prussian blue in oil; 

3 " lampblack in oil; 
245 " fine white barytes; 

50 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Note. This can be made in any power mixer, as 
grinding in mill is not required. May be made in an 
edge runner mill (chaser), but it is not economical to 
discolor the apparatus by the shading material. 


Mast Color Paint. 

100 pounds sublimed white lead (or basic lead car- 


25 " 

American zinc oxide; 

«5 " 

whiting, bolted; 

7 " 

medium chrome yellow in oil; 

3 " 

Venetian red, medium in oil; 

285 " 

fine barytes; 

55 " 

raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. A thorough mixing is all that is required to 

produce a smooth paste, if the white ingredients are free 

from grit. 

Teak Ciolor Paint. 

150 pounds red seal lithopone, dry; 

30 " 

mineral brown (purple tone); 

5 " 

French yellow ocher; 

5 " 

Venetian red, medium; 

250 " 

ordinary barytes; 

60 " 

raw h'nseed oil; 

500 poimds paste. 
Note. It is most economical to grind the first four 
items in 35 pounds of the oil and add balance in change 

can mixer. 

Venetian Red Marine Paint. 

100 pounds Venetian red, medium (30% Fc^Qb) 

in oil; 
365 " ordinary barytes; 
35 " raw linseed oil; 
500 poimds paste. 
Note. Mix thoroughly in change can mixer. Most 
so-called Venetian reds for this trade contain only one- 
half of the weight of color referred to above and twice 
the weight of barytes. 


White Lead Marine Pkdnt. 

This is rarely ever made up for marine trade to be 
sold by ship chandlers, but we will make note of a few 
formulas that have been used: 

200 pounds dry white lead (basic carbonate) ; 
250 " fine white barytes; 
50 "" refined linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Ground in stone mills of large diameter. Another 
brand was composed of: 

100 pounds dry white lead (basic carbonate); 
100 '^ sublimed white lead (basic sulphate); 
250 " white barytes; 
50 " refined oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Ground as above. 

Zinc White Marine Paints. 

The best selling brand of this character known to the 
author, was made as follows: 

225 pounds extra selected American zinc oxide; 
225 " Missouri floated barytes; 
50 "" refined linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. In order to manipulate this with such a small 
percentage of oil, it was necessary to give the material 
a good chasing under a powerful wheel. 


Combination Marine White Paste. 

160 pounds dry white lead (basic carbonate) ; 

65 ^^ American zinc oxide XX; 
225 " fine white barytes; 

50 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. The above is best manipulated in chaser and 
smoothed by running over granite rollers. 

Non-Darlcening White Dedc Paint. 

The following paint is not affected by sulphur gases, 
sometimes prevailing on steamer decks: 

35 pounds sublimed white lead (basic lead sul- 

35 " American zinc oxide XX; 

10 " floated barytes, extra fine; 

5 " magnesium silicate (asbestine) ; 

15 ^^ refined or bleached oil; 

100 pounds paste. 

To make this in form ready for use: 

Mix thoroughly: 

82 pounds of above paste; 
3J^ " spirit of turpentine; 
4 " pale bodied linseed oil; 

^ " pale drying japan; 

^ " refined oil; 

100 pounds. 

Result 6)^ gallons paint, weighing 15 lbs. 6 oz. per 


Slushing Compound for fiastingn, 

A cheap liquid paint for keeping iron castings from 
rusting, while stored exposed to the elements. 

30 pounds mineral brown or red; 
30 ^^ common whiting; 
24 "" paraffine (paint) oil; 
4 "' cheap liquid drier; 
14 " benzine; 

100 pounds- 7 J^ gallons. 

Note. Mix mineral brown or red, and whiting, in 
the oil until a smooth semi-paste results, then add the 
drier and the benzine. This slushing compound is used 
only to coat the castings until they are made use of, 
when the slushing is easily removed with hot soda solu- 
tion or benzine. 

Ship's Bunlser and Hold Paint, Liquid. 
Quiclc Drying Red. 

Mix and grind a paste as follows: 

50 pounds Indian red, pale (95% Fe^Qs) ; 
10 " American zinc oxide; 
10 " fine barytes; 
10 " bolted whiting; 
20 " boiled linseed oil; 

100 poimds soft paste. 

Thin 100 pounds of the paste with one-half gallon 
brown japan and 6 gallons of thin mixing varnish, 
producing 10 gallons of paint ready for use. 


Ship*8 Hold Paint White, Liquid. 
(Quick Drying). 
Mix and grind a paste as follows: 

68 pounds red seal lithopone (standard quality); 
17 " bolted American Paris white; 
16 " pale boiled oil (heavy body) ; 

100 pounds paste. 

Thin this paste with 5 gallons pale mixing varnish of 
China wood oil composition, that will dry of itself in 
from six to eight hours. Result 10 gallons of ready for 
use paint, weighing 13^ pounds per gallon. 

Silicate Paint. 

When silicate paints are called for, it does not follow 
that they are to contain silicate of soda or potash 
(water glass), but that a certain portion of the dry pig- 
ment is to consist of silica or silex. Sometimes they are 
termed silicated paints and, unless otherwise designated, 
oil paints are referred to. Silicate paints are usually, 
when called for in white, based on zinc oxide or litho- 
pone for the covering principle and here are a few speci- 
men formulas for paste goods. 

White Silicate Paint, Paste. 

200 pounds red seal lithopone (30% ZnS); 
200 " finest floated silica (pure white) ; 

25 " bolted American Paris white; 

75 " refined or bleached linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 
Note. This is best manipulated in a chaser and 
smoothed by running over granite rollers. 


Green Silicate Paint* Paste. 

Mix in a power mixer (change can preferably) ; 

85 pounds chemically pure chrome green light, 

ground in linseed oil; 
180 " fine barytes; 
180 ^^ finest floated silica or silex; 
55 " raw linseed oil; 

500 pounds paste. 

Note. K given time to mix thoroughly, it will not be 
necessary to run through a mill, otherwise a loose run 
wiU be required to produce a smooth paste. 

Silicate of Soda Paints. 

The liquid for these compounds is best prepared as 
follows: Mix 100 pounds of silicate of soda of 40* 
Beaume and IS gallons water; boil the mixture and 
while boiling, sift coarse powdered rosin to the amount 
of 25 pounds into the kettle, stirring until the rosin is 
dissolved, then strain through cheesecloth. Use pale 
rosin, so as not to discolor white or light tints. The 
above will yield 20 gallons liquid, which can be used 
alone with lime proof pigments or may be mixed with an 
equal volume of raw or boiled linseed oil to produce a 
washable paint. In giving the following formulas for 
paints of the latter type, we shall refer to the vehicle as 
mixed thinners, meaning a mixture of equal quantities 
by measure of the liquid and raw linseed oil. The most 
convenient form to offer these paints in is a semi-paste, 
so that the consumers may thin it for use with either 
water or oil. 


White for Exterior Use. 

20 pounds American zinc white; 

15 " bolted American Paris white; 

80 " asbestine powder; 

85 " mixed thinners; 

100 poimds semi-paste- 7 gallons. 

White for Interior Use. 

20 poimds red seal lithopone; 

10 " bolted American Paris white; 

35 " asbestine powder; 

85 " mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste- 6^ gallons. 

These whites may be tinted with colors ground in oil, 
with the exception of Prussian or Chinese blue and 
chrome greens. 

Solid washable paints, may also be prepared with the 
mixed thinners referred to, and we shall confine our- 
selves to giving a few specimen formulas. 

Washable Water Paint Black. 

25 pounds mineral black; 
25 " asbestine powder; 
50 " mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste -8 gallons. 

For use, this should be reduced with equal portions 
of linseed oil and water. 


Washable Watar Faint Bliie. 

10 pounds ultramarine blue (lin^ proof); 
15 '* bolted American Paris white; 
35 " asbestine powder; 
40 '^ mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste- 7 gallons. 

Washable Water Faint Yellow. 

30 pounds French yellow ochre; 
25 " asbestine powder; 
45 *' mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste-8 gallons. 

Washable Water Paint, Red. 

20 pounds Venetian red, medium shade; 
10 " bolted American Paris white; 
30 " asbestine powder; 
40 *^ mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste-7 gallons. 

Washable Water Faint Green. 

15 pounds lime proof green (of desired shade); 
40 " asbestine powder; 
45 '' mixed thinners; 

100 pounds semi-paste- 7 J^ gallons. 

Note. These semi-pastes will usually stand gallon 
for gallon of water, when applied to rough surfaces, such 
as stone, brick or undressed lumber, but on surfaces like 
smooth plastered walls or dressed wood, it will not per- 
mit as much thinning. It also requires exposure to the 
air for a week or so, before the painted surface will per- 
mit washing. 


Silicate Enamels for Metal. 

Wkiie for imitating enameled ware. 

Mix 30 pounds French zinc oxide; 
30 " dry blanc fixe; 
25 " clear water; 
20 " silicate of soda, 40 ""Beaume; 

105 pounds. 

Run the zinc, blanc fixe and water through a mill to 
make a fine pulp, then mix the silicate of soda with the 
pulp and strain through a fine sieve. The result should 
be 100 pounds of liquid paint, equal to 8 gallons. . Should 
be blued with a little ultramarine blue ground in water, 
and when two coats have been applied to sheet iron, 
steel, etc., and each coat baked at 180 "" F., the][eflFect will 
resemble porcelain enamel. 

A similar eflPect may be obtained, if the French zinc 
oxide and blanc fixe is replaced by a similar weight of 
best grade lithopone white, which will slightly decrease 
the cost. 

Tinted Silicate Enamels. 

Add to either of the whites, of the description just 
given, the necessary coloring matter in pulp form, but 
use only colors, that are alkali proof. 

Tallow and Zinc Composition. 

Although the practice appears to have become some- 
what obsolete, some mariners may still call for this 
paint, that found favor up to recent years for the cbating^ 
of the bottoms and rudders of iron or steel ships. 
Some of the manufacturers of marine specialties pre- 
pared a zinc soap, grinding zinc oxide in this and mixing: 


the resulting paint with tallow, but it is useless to go to 
the trouble of preparing the soap. A composition made 
on the following plan will give equal, if not better, 

Mix and grind the following paste: 

64 pounds American zinc oxide; 
16 " American Paris white; 
20 ^' manganese boiled oil; 

100 poimds medium soft paste. 

Have some boiled tallow on hand, of the quality used 
for engines, and warm it somewhat, then mix 50 pounds 
of the above paste with 4 gallons of pale mixing varnish 
and 20 pounds of the boiled tallow. This should 
produce 8 gallons of composition. The pale mixing 
varnish referred to need not be necessarily of extra high 
quality, but must not pudding up the paint. A small 
portion of varnish foots with the varnish will do no 
harm in this preparation. 

Trunk Paints. 

Some years since the base of trunk paints was pure 
white lead in the lighter colors, but at the present time, 
this material is mostly sold at ruinous prices and its 
make-up is almost on a par with barrel paints. Yet 
there are still some makers of trunks, who although 
buying cheaper material, than their predecessors did 
years ago, prefer fair quality goods at moderate prices, 
to the very poor grades very often offered. There are 
two kinds used, one to dry flat to permit varnishing over, 
while some are wanted to dry with gloss over a priming 
of glue size. To make a flat drying trunk paint in 
buff color mix and grind: 


15 pounds red seal lithopone; 
50 " gilder's bolted whiting; 
15 " yellow ochre; 
20 " boiled linseed oil; 
10 " gloss oil; 

100 pounds paste. 
Thin with i gallons benzine. Result S}/^ gallons. 

For an olive green trunk paint, also flat drying, mix 
and grind: 

20 pounds yellow ochre; 

i " C. P. chrome green, medium; 

1 " lampblack, dry; 

5 ^^ American zinc oxide; 

10 " asbestine powder; 

35 " gilder's bolted whiting; 

13 " boiled linseed oil; 

14 " gloss oil; 

100 pounds paste. 
Thin with 3 gallons benzine. Result lOJ^ gallons. 

When part of the gloss oil in the pastes can be 
replaced by varnish foots, it will make the paints dry 
more quickly and insure hardness, but the varnish foots 
must be fairly liquid and not consist of hard sediment 

To make trunk paints dry with gloss finish, use the 
same paste as abqye. However, do not thin with 
benzine, but instead reduce it with a quick drying 
mixing varnish of fair toughness and elasticity. 

Note. The trunk paints here referred to are for the 
canvas covered traveling trunks, and as there are a good 
many diflFerent colors, it is hardly necessary to describe 


formulas at lengthy because every large trunk f actoiy 
has its own standards, that require to be matched. It is 
not necessary to use imported oxides, ochers, si^mas 
and umbers in this class of paint, unless the trunk 
manufacturer is willing to pay for hi^ class goods. 

Miscdlanaoos Paints for Iron or Steel. 
First Goat Bladi for Baldnft. 

Mix and grind fine: 

12 pounds best carbon black; 

40 '' blown bodied linseed oil; 

16 ** hard gum japan; 

82 ** turpentine or turps substitute; 

100 pounds soft paste. 

For application with spraying machine or for dipping, 
thin the paste with 100 lbs. turpentine or 50 lbs. each 
turpentine and turpentine substitute, producing 200 
pounds liquid black or 25 gallons, weighing 8 pounds 
per gallon. Bake for 2 or 3 hours at 250 to SOO"" F. 

Second Goat Black or Gloss Finish for Baking. 

The first coat will dry nearly flat on baking and a 
finish with high gloss is given as a rule. 

Mix and grind fine: 

5 pounds best grade carbon black; 
15 " heavy bodied boiled linseed oil; 
40 " medium heavy hard gum baking var- 

Let set until cooled and add to the 60 pounds of soft 
paste, 40 pounds turpentine asphaltum varnish of high 
grade, not of too heavy body. This batch should pro- 


duce 12 gallons of enamel, unless too much is lost by 
evaporation in grinding. If the paste is ground in a 
good water cooled mill, the result from a mixing of 60 
pounds should be not less than 58 pounds and the 2 
pounds of volatile thinner lost, should be added as 
turpentine when the paste is being thinned. 

Flat Black (Air Drying) for Smooth Iron or Steel. 

Mix thoroughly and strain through fine mesh: 

30 pounds drop black, ground in japan; 
35 " black asphaltum varnish, "B" ; 
35 ^* gum spirits of turpentine; 

100 pounds- 12 gallons. 

The drop black does not require to be of the highest 
grade, but should be ground fine. This black is not so 
well adapted for dipping, as it is for apphcation with an 
ordinary flat varnish brush or a spraying brush. 

Flat Black (for Spraying on Planished Metal.) 

Mix and grind fine as possible on water cooled mill: 

4 pounds finest jet carbon gas black; 
12 " bodied drying linseed oil; 
20 " color grinders* japan; 

36 pounds. 

Add enough good rubbing varnish to the above to 
make 40 pounds of material, which thin with 4 gallons 
gum spirits of turpentine and 5 gallons good turpentine 
substitute. Result 13J^ gallons. If selling price per- 
mits doing so, omit the substitute turps and use 9 
gallons gum spirits. 


Non-Corro8iye or Rust Preventative Black Paint for 
Steel Freight Gars or Coal Cars. 

Since research in paint problems has developed the 
fact, that sublimed blue lead acts as a rust-inhibitive 
in paint for iron and steel surfaces, and since it has 
become a practice to bake priming coats as well as 
finishing coats on the metal parts of automobile bodies 
and even on steel cars, it will prove interesting to note, 
what can be done along this line. Naturally it would 
hardly seem practical or economical to employ a pig- 
ment like sublimed blue lead on the pressed steel of 
which ordinary coal cars are composed and yet, after 
giving the subject serious consideration, it may be 
found to be worthy of extensive trial. The first or 
priming coat would be nearly dead flat and when 
baked on the metal at moderate temperature, say 150 
degrees, it would also be practically non-abrasive, and 
on account of its superior spreading properties, the 
paint the author has in view would not be out of reach 
on account of price. 

Priming Coat for Steel Freight Equipment, etc. 

Pastel Mix and grind without overheating: 

50 pounds sublimed blue lead; 
5 " American zinc oxide; 

3 ^^ gas carbon black; 

8 " bodied linseed oil (without drier) ; 

4 *^ hard gum japan drier; 

8 " heavy petroleum naphtha; 

78 pounds soft paste. 


If the paint is to be used for air drying, it is best to 
thin the paste with enough pure turpentine to make 100 
pounds. If for baking, it may be thinned with turps 
substitute. In either case the batch should make 7 
gallons of paint, ready for application, after a thorough 
stirring. This primer will air dry inside of 4 hours and 
readily bake hard enough in 2 hours to admit of a 
second or finishing coat, which can be of the type 
usually specified by the various railroad corporations. 

Steel Car Black Finish for Baking or Forced Air Drying. 

Mix and grind fine a paste, consisting of: 

12 pounds gas carbon black; 
25 '* pure floated silica; 

13 " dry asbestine powder; 

50 " raw, well clarified linseed oil ; 

100 pounds soft paste. 

Reduce this paste with 8 pounds oil japan, 4 pounds 
turpentine and a mixture of 16 pounds bodied linseed 
oil and 72 pounds kettle boiled oil. This will produce 21 
gallons of paint, that is jet black and dries with good 
gloss by air or baking. Nor is its cost prohibitive and 
the selling proposition need not stand in the way, 
where good and lasting results are actually and honestly 
looked for by the purchaser. 

Surfacers and Enamels for Steel Passenger Car Painting. 

It is at once a difficult and thankless task to give 
recipes or formulas for this class of work, because of the 
fact, that most every railroad company, whose equip- 
ment consists of steel passenger and baggage and mail 


coaches have their own standards, that must be 
matched. Take for instance, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Tuscan red, that is supplied in paste form, ground 
in raw linseed oil and turpentine to specifications. If a 
color grinder were to furnish this color as a ready to use 
enamel, he would hardly ever succeed in producing 
two batches uniform in color eflFect after application. 
This is why the painters of that road still make use of 
the method in practice for years, even if they do bake 
every coat, that is, they reduce so much paste with so 
much coach japan, rubbing varnish and turpentine. 
Were they to add more varnish at one time than 
another, the color would show quite a diflFerent efifect. 
And the same applies to such a one as Pullman color to a 
still greater degree, although this color can be ground 
directly in varnish, that would serve well for baking. 
Still there are no two Pullman coach colors in japan, as 
received from various shops, precisely alike. Therefore 
in matching a Pullman color, which may be termed a 
composite color, in ready for use form as an exterior 
gloss or enamel finish, the pigments must be ground in 
clear baking varnish, if the finish is to be baked. 

Types of Pullman Coach Body Color Ground In 
Coach Japan. 

40 pounds French yellow ocher, dry; 
10 " orange chrome yellow, dry; 
14 " drop black, powdered; 

1 " gas carbon black; 
32 " color grinders' japan; 

3 " rubbing varnish; 

100 pounds. 


Ground on water cooled mill, until fine, then placed 
in a mixer, where the necessary shading color is added 
in fine paste form to produce exact shade of standard, 
when thinned with turpentine and varnished over. 

This is used on the passenger cars of a prominent 
Southern railroad, both on the bodies, trucks and plat- 

Another shade of Pullman Car Body Color in Japan 
with much better covering qualities and richer eflFect is 
produced as follows: 

SO pounds ivory drop black, dry; 



medium chrome yellow, dry; 
orange chrome yellow, dry; 
indian red, deep, dry; 
alizarine red lake, dry; 
color grinders* japan; 

100 pounds. 

Ground on water cooled mill until fine, and on last 
run add one-half gallon good rubbing varnish to give a 
buttery consistence to the paste. 

Note. The practical color grinder will admit, that 
colors of this composition will give varying results, if 
used as color and varnish coats, according to the 
percentage of varnish used and the nature thereof. 

Joint Compound for Steel Cars for 
Subway or Tunnel Service. 

This should be almost similar to the Rivet Head or 
Butt End composition for steel ships, and applied when 
the sheets are joined. 


Must be in the form or consistency of medium stiff 
putty and the following makes the best composition, 
which should be run through a water cooled mill with 
large eye; taking good care not to overheat the mate- 

60 pounds basic carbonate of lead, dry; 

10 " red lead; 

10 ** fine bolted whiting; 

15 " rubbing varnish of high grade; 
5 " raw linseed oil; 

100 pounds. 

A thin coating of this compound is applied, when the 
sheets are rivetted together, the excess being pressed 
out during the operation, and collected for future use. 

Brown Zinc in Paste Form as Specified by the 
U. S. Navy Department. 

This is really a misnomer, as there never was such a 
pigment known to the trade. A one time student of 
applied chemistry, long since deceased, suggested this 
formula to some one in authority and it has been among 
the United States Navy Department specifications for 
some 22 years as follows: 

40% zinc oxide; 
5% red lead; 

and not less than 20% sesquioxide of iron. 
Balance to be composed of the gangue occurring with 
oxide of iron in nature. Must not contain Hme in any 
form. In other words it may consist in the pigment 
portion of 40 parts by weight of American zinc oxide, 5 
parts dry red lead and 55 parts of mineral brown, such 


as will give the shade desired by the service. Usual 
proportion of pigment in the paste 78 to 80%, raw 
linseed oil 20 to 22%. 

Waterproof Compositions for Fishing Rods and Baiting 
Articles of Wood. 

Primer for Dipping the Bare Wooden Objects. 

Dissolve waste chips or cuttings of celluloid that are 
free of coloring matter in amylacetate, at the rate of one 
pound of the chips to three gallons of the solvent. 

This will keep the wooden objects from splitting 
when immersed in water, as the latter will not soak into 
the wood. 

If the objects, such as high priced fishing rods are to 
be finished in the natural, at least two dippings in the 
above are required. 

Note. This liquid cannot be used for brushing, as 
the second coat is hable to raise the first. 

Waterproof Enamel for Wooden Fishing Baits. 

Make a heavy bodied celluloid lacquer by dissolving 
2 pounds gun cotton in 10 pounds commercial acetone 
and 20 pounds amylacetate. Add to this amount one- 
half pound castor oil to make it flexible. For a white 
enamel, to be applied by dipping to fishing baits, over 
the priming above referred to, grind best French process 
zinc in white damar varnish, 68 parts dry zinc to 32 
parts damar varnish, and for every 4 pounds of white 
paste, use one gallon of the celluloid lacquer. If this 
does not drip freely, reduce slightly with more amylace- 
tate. This white enamel may be tinted with colors 


ground in varnish, but oil colors must be avoided. 
This enamel may be made more impervious to water and 
show a far better finish by being dipped into a final 
coating of Transparent Waterproof Finish which 
is made by pulverizing best selected 5X Kauri gum, 
dissolving 2 pounds of this in 5}/^ pounds, allowing it to 
clear by settling and final filtering. 

Waterproofing Compound for Export Canvas Covered 


Very flexible and durable compositions are made in 
various colors by grinding chemically pure pigments of 
great color strength in castor oil to fairly stiflF paste 
form, which are let down with celluloid varnish for use 
on canvas covered packages. These are mostly used 
for the transportation of powder and other explosives, 
the color denoting contents of the packages to the 
initiated. It has been ascertained, that when gun 
cotton in solution with amylacetate has a certain small 
percentage of castor oil added, the resulting film, when 
dry shows a toughness nearly three times greater, than 
does the film of the straight solution. Pigments such as 
Prussian blue, chemically pure chrome greens, chrome 
yellows, toluidine red are mostly in favor and may 
be ground fine in castor oil in about the same proportion 
as if linseed oil were used. The proportion of paste color 
and celluloid varnish varies according to the nature of 
the protection desired, and the bulk of the paste. So 
for instance 4 oz. of Prussian blue will color one gallon of 
varnish, while from 6 to 8 oz. of dark chrome green and 
from 8 to 12 oz. of chrome yellow and 8 oz. of toluidine 
red are required. 


Grinding Colors In Turpentine. 

While not very often in demand, it will so happen, 
that for a special purpose, such grindings are specified. 
In order to avoid waste by evaporation and splashing, 
the grinding must be done on mills of slow speed, the 
stones being encased. Drop black, Prussian blue and 
ochers are rather hard to grind in turps, while white 
lead, zinc, lithopone and the chrome yellows, umbers 
and sienna are usually soft. Unless a small portion of a 
lubricant, such as oil or varnish is used in addition to the 
turpentine, the loss is entirely too great and it is next to 
impossible to obtain a smooth paste. The proportion 
of pigment, oil and turps required are about as follows, 
allowing for evaporation: 

White lead: 



2 refined oil 

, 8 turps 

Zinc white: 





23 ' 







65 ' 


Prussian blue: 







French ocher: 





30 ' 


Chrome yellow, M 





35 ' 


" green, pure 





30 ' 


Bone black: 







Umber and sienna: 





45 ' 


Vandyke brown: 







If any of these batches are to produce 100 pounds 
finished material, the portions of turps here given must 
be increased in the mixing by 10 per cent, at least. 


Abun-no-ki; 273 

Aburayiri; 273 

Aoetate of Ie«d; See "Lead aoeUte." 

Acetate of lead green; 178 

Aeheeon graphite; 129 

Adulteration in linseed oil; 270 

Ageing white lead; 37 

Agitator used in pulp process of grinding white 

lead; 40 
Air drying flat black for smooth iron or steel; 

floated baiytes; 83 
Alabaster; 08 
Aleurites oordota; 273,274 

TriboU; 274 

Fordii; 273,274 
AUcaU soluble casein; 884.891 
Alkaline paint remover at low cost; 424 
Alisarine red lake; 214, 217, 229, 236, 391 
Alum coating to increase durability of casein 

painto; 389 
Alumina hydrate; 183 
Aluminum bronse dipping paint for metal; 898 

paint; 397 
Amaranth; 230 
American burnt umber; 168 

Paris white; 87 

raw umber; 165 

sienna; 168 
earth; 165 

vermilion; 222 

line lead; 44 
Amianth; 103 
Andes, Louis Edgar; 269 
Animal black; 115, 117, 118, 119 

glue paints; 393 
AniUne colors, oil soluble; 844 

oil test for turpentine; 803 

spirit stains; 345 

stains; 344 

varnish stains; 844 
Anti-corrosive coatings for bottoms of steel 

ships; 399 
Anti-fouUng composition for bottoms of steel 
ships; 899 

Paints for ships' bottoms; 898 
Antimony yellow; 255 
Antwerp blue; 133 


Apparatus, antiquated; 18 

for grinding colored pigments; 111 
line white; 46,48 

for mixing and grinding lithopone; 66 

for pulp grinding of white lead; 38,39 

general remarks on; 13 

required for white lead grinding; 31 
Arrangement of building; 14 

of factory; 14 

for liquid painto; 14 
for mixed paint making; 69 
Artificial baiytes; 84 

ultramarine; 141, 144, 147, 392 

vermilion; 221,226,235 
Artists, gumption drier for; 424 

megilp for; 424 

tube colors; grinding whites for; 77 

tubes, fiUing; 230 
Asbestine; 103 

in combination whites; 50 

pulp; 103 

use in Uquid fillers; 104 
Asbestos; 103 
Asophorred; 234 
Asphaltum; 151 

base marine black; 419 

painto and asphaltum compositions; 400 

varnishes; 400 
Atlantic City test fence, lithopone; 63 
Aureolin; 258. 260 

Austria, production of lithopone in; 52 
Autol fast orange; 386 

red; 234 
Automobile bodies, baUng; 448 
Aao-scarleto; 224, 235, 391 
Asurebhie; 141,142 


Baking enamels; 361 

finish for steel cars, black; 449 
gloss finish for; 446 
paint, first coat black; 446 
priming ooato on steel; 448 

Banana oil, to make; 897 

Bankulofl; 274 




Barium oftrbonato; 86 

not a safe paint; 86 
ehloride; 86 
efaromate; 266 
■olpbate; 81 

•ulphide, preparation of; 68 
Bam and roof painta; 886 

typical formnlaa; 887 
Bam paint, brown; 887 
green; 838 
lead color; 886, 887 
red; 836.887 
date; 836, 888 
Bamades, paint to prevent growth on ahipe; 402 
Barrel painta; 806 
blue; 148 
bright red; 222 
Baryta rock; 68 
white; 78 
yeUow; 266 


Baiytee; 81 

artificial or blanc fixe; 84 

eauential in litbopone manufacture; 64 

floated; 82 

in combination whites; 60 

inofl; 83 

preparation of; 82 

testing; 83 

for fineness; 84 

uses of; 83 
Base for high class outoide white paint; 816 

lower price outside white; 816 
Bases for dipping painta; 70 

for mixed painta, how ground; 70 

inert mineral; 44 
Basic lead chromate; 220 

sulphate, grinding; 43 
Bathtub enamel; 360 
Bear lampblack; 126 
Beckton white; 64 

Belgium, production of lithopone in; 62 
Belts, endless for cooling white lead; 84 

storage; 16 

as penetrative agent for stains; 841 , 

for shin^e stains; 830 

used in stains and paint removers; 804 
Berlin blue; 134. 138 
Betanaphthaline; 224 
Binder for paint, value of casein; 376 
Birch; 240 
Bistre; 161, 162 
Bitumen; 161, 162 

of Judea; 162 


Black, anfanal; 116, 117, 118, 119 
ash; 68,60 
asphaltum painta; 400 
baking enamel; 361 
bone; 116, 118, 119. 887, 892 
carbon; 119, 121, 122, 123, 392 
casein or cold water paint; 887,889 
charcoal; 122 

dead flat finish, Quidc drying; 404 
drop; 117 

elastic roof paint (cheap) ; 431 
engine enamel; 406 
fillers; 130 
finish for steel cars, baking or forced air 

drying; 449 
first coat for baking; 446 
flat, air drsring for smooth iron or steel; 447 
for spraying on planished metal; 447 
Frankfort; 123 
gas carbon; 116,117,887,392 
iron filler for rough castings; 410 
ivory; 116, 119. 124, 387. 392 
lake; 131 

lamp; 120,121,125,392 
lead; 129 

locomotive finish; 416 
marine paint; 432 

for ships* hulls; 418 
with asphaltum base; 419 
with magnetic oxide; 418 
metal preservative; 328 
mineral; 130 

paint, rust preventative for steel freight or 
coal cars; 448 

U. S. Navy department specifications; 
pigmenta, grinding; 116 
powdered drop; 116, 116 
rivet head composition; 371 
second coat for baking; 446 
sugar house; 116 
varnishes; 122 

for engine finishing; 117 
vine; 123. 392 
washable water paint; 441 
Blackboard sUting; 401 
Blackening of lithopone; 61,66 
Blanc de Comines; 64 
fixe; 77. 78, 79, 84 

for artista* tube colors; 77, 78 
oil absorption; 86 
preparation of ; 86 
weight of; 86 
Bleached linseed oil for grinding i^to lead; 29 
Bleaching of tung or China wood oil; 281 
Bleeding; 228 
Bleu Mineral; 138 
Blind or shutter greens; 818 




Blue, Antwerp; 133 

asure: 141,142 

barrel paints; 148 

Berlin; 134.138 

Bremen; 134 

BninBwidc; 135 

Celestial; 140 

Chinese; 136, 138, 142 

oobalt; 141 

cold water painto; 386, 888 

enamel; 138 

heat proof enamel; 406 

imitation of oobalt; 141, 142, 143, 892, 406 

indigo; 149 

lead; 22 

effect on mQls; 22 

Boblimed, for freight can; 448 

not adapted for priming iron or 
steel, 328 

leather; 140 

lime; 149 

marine paint; 432 

night; 139 

one coat gloss dipping paint; 349 

Paris; 138 

pigments; 123 

printing inks; 139 

Prussian; 138 

reflex; 139 

seal lithopone; 62 

smalts; 141 

steel; 139 

Thenard's; 141 

ultramarine; 141, 144, 333, 386, 392 
extended with gypsum; 99 

▼erditer; 134 

washable water paint; 442 
Boats' seam cement white; 414 

white paint for seams; 414 
Body, in white lead; 26 
Bog oak green varnish stain; 342 
Boiled oil for white lead grinding; 29 
Boiler cement; 370 
Bolted English china clay; 95 
Bombay nut oil; 295 
Bone black; 115, 118, 119, 387. 392 
grinding in turpentine; 455 
vehicle for; 116 
Boot topping for ships; 431 
Bordeaux; 229 

Bottle gieen; 171. 185, 186, 190, 319 
Brass, lacquers for; 413 
BraaU wood; 213 
Bremen blue; 134 
Brewster green; 171,188 
Bright red barrel painto; 222 
Brilliant groen; 171. 179, 387 
Brimstone srellow; 265 


Bronse green; 171. 184, 185, 188, 189, 196, 202, 

marine paint; 433 
paint, aluminum; 397 

for dipping metal, aluminum; 898 
gold, in liquid form; 410 
Bronsing liquid, celluloid, to make; 897 


Brown bam paint; 337 

Caledonian; 151 

Cappagh; 152 

Casein or cold water paint; 387,388 

Cassel; 151, 153. 169 

Cologne; 151, 153, 169 

floor paint: 324 

manganese; 392 

metaUic; 151, 153, 154 

metal preservative; 380 

mineral; 151; 153; 154 

japan, ordinary; 412 
strong drying; 412 

I^gmento; >»^ying and grinding; 151 

pink; 258 

roof painto; 164 

Vandyke; 151, 169. 392 

walnut, shingle stain; 340 

line in paste form as specified by U. S« 
Navy Department; 452 
Brunswick blue; 135 

green; 171. 188, 190, 191 

for locomotive i>ainting; 190 
locomotive enamel; 415 
Buggy painto; 305 
Buhr stone, French, for grinding white lead; 32 

tnillM for grinding sublimed lead; 43 
Building, arrangement of; 14 

best adapted for liquid paint making; 09 

painto; 313 

required for pulp process of grinding white 
lead; 38 
Bunker and hold paint, quick drying red; 438 

Burnt ooher; 392 

sienna in distemper; 162 
in japan; 161 
inoU; 161 

in pigment stains; 161 
Italian and American compared; 160 ] 
mixing and grinding; 159 
Burnt Turkey umber; 167, 168 
marine paint; 433 
umber mixing and grinding; 167 
Butt end cement for steel vessels; 480 



oompound for 

Cab enamel, loocxnotive; 416 
Cabiaet work, polish for; 409 
Cadmhun ye low; 253, 2M, 261, 264, 265, 902 

in vamiah; 264 
Caeruleum; 140 
Calcium carbonate; 87, 05 

hydrate; 883 

beet way to pack; 888 
Calcined bone black; 115. 110 

magneaia; 105 

plaster; 05, 07 
Calcining llthopone; 50 
Caledonian brown; 151, 152 
CanaiyyeUow; 246.247,268 
Candle black; 130 

nutoU; 206 
Canvas covered paokagM, 

waterproofing; 454 
Ci4>pagh brown; 152 
Caput mortum, 887 


Car finish for steel equipment, baking or forced 
air drying; 440 
paint, black for freight equipment; 448 
Pftipftng steel passenger equipment, sur- 
facers and enamels for; 440 
Cars, steel for subway or tunnel service, joint 

compound for; 451 
Car-body yellow in Japan; 266 
Carbon black; 110. 121, 122. 123. 802 

as a base for black vamishee; 122 
packing; 120 
Carbonate of ammonia for cement walls; 331 
of barytes; See "Barhmx carbonate." 
of lead; See "Lead carbonate.'* 
of lime; 87 

of sine; See "Zinc carbonate." 
Carmine; 220. 230. 231. 232, 233 
No. 40; 220, 230. 234 
lake; 230.232 
French; 234 
substitute; 228.235 
Carriage or buggy paints; 805 

part lake; 233,234 
Cartage; 14 


Casein and cold water paints; 873 
additk>n of formaldehsrde; 876 
as a fixative for dyes; 803 
alkaU soluble; 884.801 
cement for filling holes in stone; 402 
oomposition of ; 875 
origin and uses of ; 875 

I for making; 877 

CASEIN— Continued 

use in decoration; 880 
uses for; 878 

value as a binder in paint; 876 
water soluble; 301 
paints, colored; 886 
oomposiUon of ; 887 
containing linseed oO; 800 
formulas for; 388 
uses of; 301 

process of manufacture; ^383 
paint; black; 387,380 
blue; 886. 388 
brown; 387, 888 
gray; 880 
green; 887. 388 
greenstone; 880 
oranger 886 
red; 387.388 
sandstone; 888 
white; 887, 888 
yellow; 886, 888 
pafaits daimed to be washable; 880 

water required to thin; 882 
varnish; 802 
Cassel earth; 151,153.160 
Cast hon filler for rough work; 410 
Castings, oompound for slushing; 488 
Castor oil; 200 
Celestial blue; 140 

Celluloid bronaing liquid; to make; 807 
lacquer; 453 
substitute; 802 


Cement coatings; 831 

patented; 882 
Cement surfaces, preliminary treatments for; 

sulphuric acid treatment; 881 

sine sulphate treatment; 831 

and putties; 860 

boiler; 370 

casein, for fiUing holes in stone; 402 

fireproof; 106 

for fastening metal letters to glass; 401 

for Joints in floors; 406,407 

for Doarble. tfles. etc.; 402 

for paying seams of lake boats; 414 

for porcelain, glass, etc.; 878 

rivet head; 371 

and butt end for steel ve ss el s; 430 

roof; 870 

for uniting stone to stone, glass to iron, ate.; 
Cements for various purposes; 401 
Chalk; 87 




ChwMteristios of gypflum; KX) 
of leaded Bino; 46 
of Uthopone; 66 
of lixus lead; 46 
Charcoal black; 122 

in stniotural iron painta; 123 
Charlton white; 61,62 
Chaser and roller mill for grinding combination 

whites; 60 
Chasers for grinding white lead; 83 
for grinding sine white; 4d, 48 
Chatemuo lake; 230 
Cheap elastic black roof paint; 431 
liquid filler: 306 
gold sise Japan; 413 
mixed paints; 317 
paint for rough work; 300 
Chemical and phsraical constants of tung or 

China wood oil; 283 
Chemically pure green; 173. 176, 178. 170 
Chemistry of China wood or tung oil; 281 
"Chemistry of Paint and Painting;" 163 
Cherry stain; 341 

pigment stain; 161 
China clay; 01 

characteristics of; 92 
in shade cloth manufacture; 06 
where found; 02 
oil absorption; 04 
tests and uses; 03 
gloss; 71 
glossing; 367 


China wood oil; 260,273.274 
bleaching; 281 
chemistry of; 281 
coagulating at high temperature; 

compared with linseed in drying; 

drying uniformly; 280 
effect on linseed oil or varnish; 280 
empirical examination; 284 
exports from China; 202 
hardening of; 281 
in enamel varnishes; 280 
in floor varnishes and paints; 280 
in combination with rosin; 270 
in manufacture of varnishes; 278 
in polishing varnishes; 200 
in rubbing varnishes; 200 
physical examination; 286 
phsrsical properties; 277 
principal uses; 287 
production; 276 
testing: 283 


unsafe to use with lead or sine; 

varnish in flat wall finishes; 861 
varnishes not suited for grinding 
sine white; 72 
Chinasd; 886 
ChineMblue; 136,138,142 
red; 222 

uses for tung oil; 277 
vermilion; 231 
white; 76. 77. 78. 70 
wood oil; 276 
Chocolate color marine paint; 438 
Chloroform iodine test f<^ tung or China wood 

oU; 284 
Chromate of lead srellow; 246 


Chrome green; 171, 172, 174. 170, 183, 106, 202, 

dipping paints; 182 

extenders for; 173 

for plate printing; 178 

for wire cloth; 178 

in Japan; 170 

in ott; 172. 174 

mills best adapted for; 176 

shingle stain; 330 

tube colors; 183 
Chrome ocher; 244. 246, 802 
Chrome red; 222, 301 


Chrome yeUow; 230, 246, 247, 248, 260, 264. 
266, 260, 263, 802 

dipping paints; 260 
grinding in turpentine; 466 
in Japan; 263 
medium; 248,264 
oil required for grinding; 260 
orange; 260, 264 
Chromhun oxide green; 171, 172, 108, 106, 106, 

203, 333, 887, 302, 406 
Church, A. H.; 163 
Cinnabar green; 172. 106 
Citrine yellow in Japan; 266 
Citron yellow; 246.266 
Qaretlake; 236.237 
Clay in combination whites; 60 
in paint; 01 

vs. whiting for cold water paints; 886 
Cleaning apparatus necessary; 67 
Cleanliness important in pahit grinding; 70 
Clear brass lacquer; 413 

damp proof liquid; 404 
Cliffstone Paris white; 87 




Coaeh colon, Japan for grindinc; 413 
hrory black; 125 
japana; 806 

japan for grinding drop black; 117 
paintera* green; 171, 179, 181 

blanc fixe va. baisrtea for extend- 
ing; 182 
lampblack; 126 
red; 233.234 
red; 233. 234 
Coal black; 123 

oar (itoel) black paint; 448 
tarbenaole; 303 
ereoaote; 830 
derivativea. red; 220 
naphtha; 303 
Coating! for iron or ated. testa of ; 328 

for bottoms of sted ships, anti-conoalTe; 

for cement and concrete; 331 
metal p r es erv ative; 327 
rustless or preservative for iron or steel; 
Cobalt blue; 141 

smalts; 141 
green, 103. 201. 203, 387 
yellow; 258.260 
Cochineal lake; 230. 231 


Cold water paints; 373 

animal glue binder; 393 

black; 387. 389 

blue; 386. 388 

brown; 387.388 

colored: 386 

gray; 389 

green; 387,388 

greenstone; 389 

red; 387, 388 

manufacture of; 385 

orange; 886 

pigments most suitable; 385 

process of manufacture; 383 

sandstone; 888 

tests for; 381 

white; 387. 388 

whiting vs. clay; 385 

to test working property; 382 

uses of; 391 

yeUow; 386, 388 
Cologne earth; 151. 153 
Colorado sine lead; 44 
Color grinder's Japan; 307 

for drop black; 117 
Color, mast or spar in paste and ready for u 

COLOR— CoBtlnuMi 

Pullman; 450 

spruce effect for spars; 420 
Colored baking enamels; 361 

casein or cold water paints; 386 

damp proof liquid; 404 

laoqueri for brass; 414 
Colors affected by sine lead; 45 

forming base of stains; 341 

for mortar, moist in paste; 419 

grinding in turpentine; 455 

limeproof; 333 

of bam and roof paints; 335 

that can be aafely used in cold water 
paints; 386 
Combination marine white paste; 437 

whites; 50 
Combined lead and sine whites; 49 
Commercial chrome green in ofl; 172, 177 

lampblack; 127 

putty; 369 
Compactness imparted to pulp lead by man- 
ipulation; 41 
Comparison of chaser and roller mill with stone 
mill for grinding sine white; 48 

of Italian and American burnt sienna; 160 
Composite green colors; 184 

greens in Japan; 188 

for exterior house painting; 319 
Composition, anti-fouling, for bottoms of steel 
ships; 309 

asphaltum; 400 

for ships' bottoms, anti-foaUng; 396 

of casein paints; 387 

of leaded sine; 46 

of sublimed lead; 43 

rivet head; 871 

tallow and sine; 443 

waterproof for fishing rods and wooden 
baits; 453 
Compound for Joints of steel cars for subway or 
tunnel service; 451 

for slushing castings; 438 

for waterproofing canvas covered packages; 
Compounding of bases for mixed paints; 69 


Concrete and cement coatings; 331 

coatings, patented; 882 

surfaces, preliminary treatments for; 331 

sulphuric acid treatment; 331 

sine sulphate treatment; 381 
Cooler for white lead after grinding; 34 
Cooliikg wlkite lead after grinding: 34 
Copper, effect of presence in white lead; 23 

paint for wooden ships' bottoms; 402 

paint for sracht bottoms; 403 

pans for drying white lead; 41 




Copperas red; 206 
Com oil; 298 

starch; 106 
Corrosion of metals; 327 
Cost of manufacturing lithopone; 57,60 

of shingle stains, to decrease; 340 
Cottonseed oil; 299 

Covering capacity of white lead vs. spreading; 

of cold water paint, to test; 381 
Crack fillers; 107 

for floors; 406,407 

Crawshay red; 206 
Cremnits white; 74, 77 
Creosote; 339 

Cresylic acid for shingle stains; 839 
Crimson lake; 230, 232 
Crude turpentine; 302 
Crusting of white lead by standing; 35 
Cylinder process of white lead corrosion; 25 
Cypress; 240 
Cyprus raw umber; 164, 165, 167 

umber; 153 

Damage caused by linseed oil foots; 270 
Damar. French sine in; 72 

varnish as a vehicle; 72 
Damp proof liquid, clear and colored; 404 
Dampness, effect on white lead and sine paste; 

Dark colored floor crack filler; 407 

oak stain; 841 

steel color for iron and steel; 412 

walnut brown shingle stain; 840 

walnut stain; 341 
Dead flat finish, quick drying; 404 

Sea asphaltxmi; 151 
Deck paint, non-darkening white; 437 
Decoration, use of casein in; 389 
Deep green shingle stain; 339 
Density imparted to pulp lead by manipula- 
tion; 41 
Derbyshire spar; 98 
Designing paint to comply with specifications; 

Detection of adulteration in linseed oil; 270 
Devil's red; 226 
Dewey red; 226 
Dextrine; 106 
Diameter of mills for grinding white lead; 32 

of millstones; 112 
Disagreeable properties of tung or China wood 

oU; 277 
Discoloration of lead dried on iron pans; 41 


Discoloring of lithopone; 61, 62 
Distemper colors, green; 202 
white; 70 
painting; 391 


Dipping paints; 347 

aluminum bronse, for metal; 898 

bases for; 70 

chrome green; 182 

chrome yellow; 250 

for farm implements; 348 

for fishing rods and wooden baits; 453 

for metal; 347 

formula for; 348 

for tin; 849 

high grade for iron; 350 

for wood; 347 

olive green; 187 

one ooat gloss blue; 849 

oxide of iron; 218 

thinning; 847 
Dokuye-no-abura; 273 
Domestic ocher; 239 
Drab floor paint; 323 
Draw putty; 76 
Dressings for floors; 408 


Driers; 305, 306 

Drier for printing ink for plate printing; 425 
gumption, for artists; 424 
Ouynemer's; 427 
megilp for artists; 424 
paste, for sine white or lithopone; 427 
manganese and lead; 426 
without manganese; 427 
resinate of sine; 427 
without white lead for paint, paste; 426 
Zumatio; 427 
Drop black; 117,119 
ivoiy; 125 
in Japan; 117 

dense; 118 
powdered; 115, 116 
Dry ground white lead; 27 
kalsomine paints; 893 
method of grinding white lead in oil; 28 
mineral black; 130 
white lead ageing in casks; 37 
examination of; 22 
tests for whiteness and fittenflni; 
Dryers; See "Driers:" 




DiyiBcolndlMd: 337 

oltUBgoflaiidliMeedoaooinpnwl; S91 
dw U> potymerimtioa; Ml 
orChiaftwoodofl; 280 
*a>nrin8 oib. Boiled Oa aad ScUd and Lkiuid 

DiykiC rooms in IHhopooe mHraUetm; 60 
Dodl«3r. Dr. Chailn B.; 900,215 
Dmbflltjr ol aDglo ti. mrtnl picnMat pahiti: 

Dorabfe white enuMl; 78 
Donbo White; 64 
DwC eolor floor peint; 828 
downflooroil; 408 
free grinding room for eBMBel; 71 
Doteh pink; 357, 266. 260. 363, 808 
inJApMi; 308 
pffooem white lead; 31.35 

ENUe UmpblMdt: 130 

Etfth. Ceeeel or Cologne: 161,168 

Ebony etain; 343 

Boooomy in grinding ehrome greens; 175, 170 
EdelweiM; 64 

Effect of tung oO on linseed ofl or Tnmiib; 880 
Kggrf>ri1 glosi white, marine; 417 
Egjrptian asphaltom; 161 
Eladin test for tang or China wood ofl; 385 
ElaeoUoadd; 283 
Elaeomargario acid; 282 
Elaeoeteario acid; 282 
Elastio blaok roof paint, efaeap; 481 
n; 171.172,107,203 
B green; 172, 106 
Empirical examination of Tung or China wood 

oO; 284 
Emulsified paints; 318 

I for miied paints; 310 
formula for; 310 

r in pure lead and sine paint; 814 


.baking; 361 
bathtub; 360 
bhie; 138 

•sterior or weatherproof ; 860,300 
looomotlre, Brunswick green; 416 

cab; 416 
manufaetttie, ripening of white base; 73 
marine; 417 

or waterproof ; 360 
Orr's white; 61 


mflls r e quir ed; 71 

white and colored; 857 

white, grindmg bases for; 71 
sBicate white for imitetii^ wnsmiiiil ware; 

ultramarine btoe; 147 
Tarnishes, Tung or CUna wood ofl In; 260 
wateiproof for wooden fishi^ baKs: 458 
white, duiable; 78 

fbryaehte; 410 


air drying and baking; 867 
black baking; 801 
for cold and heated parte of 
for metal, silicate; 443 
for steel psssungwr ear pafaitlng; 440 
faftteriorflat; 354 
machinery; 866 
porch chair; 806 
tinted: 856,860 

use of Hthopone in; 60 
I canvas belte; 84 
enameb; 866 
for eold and heated parte; 405 
MkTamishes; 117 
Ki t| iM i> diinaday; 08 

difistone Paris white; 87 
drop black; 110 
kalsomine; 06 
Itthoponee; 64 
orange lead; 368 
pink; 300, 303 

quicksihrer vermiBon; 331,801 
Tuscan red; 313 
Venetian red; 300 
TcrmiUoa; 338,885 
yeUowozkle; 340 
Bnnfa, William D.; 900 


e; 333 

vermilion; 331 
red; 330.333 
lealt; 106 
Errors in factory, te prerent; 17 
Esopus millstones; 113 
Europe, production of lithopooe in; 88 
Euzanthle acid; 357 

Exposure teste pan dry va. pulp ground white 
lead; 38 





Extended V«netian reds; 906 
Extenders and fillers; 81 

in mixed paints; 818 
Exterior aluminum bronse paint; 807 

enamel; 860,800 

white paint, lilioate of soda; 441 

Facilities for transportation; 14 



arrangentent for mixed paint maUnc; 

arrangement of; 14 

errors, to prevent; 17 

aystem for naming materials; 17 

Fat aniline colored; 844 

Fern green; 188, 101 


Filler and surf aoer for iron, high grade; 411 

black, for rough iron castings; 410 

for cracks in floors; 400,407 

oxide of iron; 344 
Fillers, black; 130 

iron; 307 

liquid and paste; 808 

or extenders; 81 

paste, wood; 804 
Filling artists' tubes; 380 

cans; 10 

packages; 15 
Fine grinding of oO colors; 1 13 

woodwork, polish for; 400; 
Fineness, to test baiytes for; 84 
Finish, dead flat, quick drying; 404 

flat wall; 351 

for iron, steel color; 411 

for locomotives, black; 415 

transparent waterproof ; 454 
Fire insurance; 15 
Fireproof cement; 105 

coating; 104 
First coat black for baking; 440 
FishoU; 207 

Fishing rods, waterprool compositions f6r; 458 
Flake white; 74,77,70 
in Japan; 74 
Flat black (air drsring) for smooth iron or 
steel; 447 

for sprajring on planished metal; 447 

enamels, interior; 854 

finishes, grinding baaes for; 70 

finish, quick drying; 404 

FLAT— Continued 

waU finishes; 351 

formulas for; 853 
paint; 04, 05, 00, 07 
work, sine white for; 47 
Flexible compound for waterproofing canvas; 

Floated barsrtes; 83 
Floor crack fillers; 107 

or Joint cement; 400,407 
oUs or dressings; 408 


Floor paints; 833 

brown; 834 
drab or dust color; 838 
bouse paints used for; 838 
lead color; 334 
mixing varnish for; 834 
red; 334 
spruce color; 834 
walnut; 334 
varnishes and paints, tnng or China wood 

oUin; 380 
wax polish in paste form; 406 
Flowing cement for rivet heads and butt ends 

of steel vessels; 430 
Footo in linseed oU; 370 

arrangement of tanks to 
overcome; 30 
Forced air drying finish for steel cars, black; 440 
Foreign metals in white lead; 38 
Forest of Dean red; 300 
Formaldehyde in casein paint; 870 


Formulas for bam and roof paints; 887 

for casein paints; 388 

for dipping paints; 348 

for first daas yacht compositions; 408 

for flat wall finishes; 853 

for Uquid wood fillers; 303,304 

for oil stains; 341 

preventing errors in factory; 17 
Frankfort black; 133 

Freight car colors, P. R. R. specifications; 300 
reds; 200 

equipment, steel, priming coat for; 448 

or coal car (steel) black paint; 448 
French buhr millstones; 113 

stone mills for white lead; 83 

burnt ocher; 313 

carmine; 234 

ocher; 213 

grinding in turpentine; 455 
marking of packages; 241 



FRENCH OCHER— Continued 

compared with Enslish, Italian and 

domestio; 243 
in Japan; 261 
oranse mineral; 221,253.891 
Paris green; 102 

Superior yellow lake in drops; 268 
yeUow ooher; 239, 241. 242, 244, 245, 253, 

259, 261, 392 
sincindamar; 72,357 
Fresco colors, white; 79 

painting; 891 
Fall strength green; 179 
Furniture polish for cabinet work; 409 
or floor oU; 408,409 
wax polish, in liquid form; 409 

GaUipot; 302 

Galvanised iron; aluminum bronse paint for 

dipping; 398 

primer for; 428 
Gamboge; 256 
Garandne; 231 
Garlun balsam; 275 
Gas carbon black; 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, 123. 


sold as lampblack; 120 

Gasoline; 303 

Geranium lake; 235 

German process orange mineral; 253 

Germantown lampblack; 126 

Germany, production of lithopone in; 52 

Gilders' whiting; 87 

bolted whiting; 88 
Glass and iron, cement for uniting; 402 

cement for; 378 

cement for fastening metal letters; 401 
Glasinglead; 76 

white; 78 
Gloss finish for baking; 446 

oU; 305 

paint; 357 

macddnery; 368 

white; 66, 72 

eggshell, for yachts and motor boats; 
Glyoerides of oldo add; 282 
Gold bronse paint in liquid form; 410 

imitation of, in Japan; 268 

■iae Japan; 307, 413 

idiite lead ground in; 37 
Golden ocher; 244, 253, 259, 262 

in Japan; 262 
Government fast red; 224 


Gray casein or cold water paint; 389 
marine paint; 434 
silver, shingle stain; 340 

Grm>hite; 129 

pMnt,red; 429 


Green, acetate of lead; 178 
bam paints; 338 
bog oak, varnish stain; 342 
bottle; 171, 185. 186. 190. 319 
Brewster; 171,188 
briUiant; 171, 179. 387 
bronse; 171, 184, 185, 188, 189, 196, 202, 
marine paint; 433 
Brunswick; 171, 188. 190. 191 
locomotive enamel; 415 
casein or cold water paint; 387. 388 
chemically pure; 
chrome; 171, 172. 174. 179. 183. 196. 202. 
in Japan; 179 
cinnabar; 172. 196 
coach painters' 171. 179, 181 
colors for artistB and decorators; 196 
ccnnposite colors; 184 

in Japan; 188 
distemper colors; 202 
earth; 172. 193. 199. 200. 333, 887, 892 
emerald: 171,172.197.203 
emeraude; 172. 198 
extended; 173, 180, 181 
express; 181 
fern; 188, 191 
full strength: 179 
Guignet's; 172, 193, 196, 197, 198, 203, 

heatproof enamel; 406 
Ukes; 193.202 
Leipsic; 197 
magnesia; 104 
marine paint; 434 
meadow; 197 

Merrimac; 171,188,190,191 
metal preservative; 330 
milori; 171, 179 
mineral; 392 
mitis; 197 
moss; 819 
mountain; 172 
nitrate of lead; 178 
oUve; 184. 187. 188, 191, 208, 819, 820 

trunk paint; 448 
opaque; 197 





oxide of ohromium: 171. 172, 108, 196, 108. 

Paris; 171, 172, 102, 104, 107. 208 

parrot: 107 

Paul VeroDeae; 107 

patent; 107 

pigments, mixing and grinding; 171 

Quaker; 171, 185. 186, 100 

rare for coach work; 102 

Rinmann's; 201 

roof paints; 336,338 

royal; 171 

Russian; 171. 100 

sap; 172. 100 

Schweinfurt; 172. 107 

seal lithopone; 52 

shingle stain; 330 

Siberian; 171 

silicate paste paint; 440 

smaragd; 108 

sugar of lead; 178 

ultramarine; 171, 172, 103, 201, 203. 387, 

Verona; 172.100.802 

Vienna; 107 

washable water paint; 442 

yacht composition; 403 

sine; 103,201.203 
Greenstone cold water or casein paint; 380 
Griffith A Cawley*s patent; 52 
Griffith's patent; 51 
Grinders' lamp black; 127 


Grinding bases for white enamel paints; 71 
black pigments; 115 
brown pigments; 151 
burnt umber; 167 
chrome green in oil; 174 

mills best adapted for; 176 

yellows, oil required; 250 
colored pigments ^ 111 
colors in turpentine; 455 
combinations of white lead and sine white; 

green pigments; 171 
japans; 306 
Japan, high grade; 418 
lampblack; 127 
lithopone; 66 
metallic browns; 154 
pulp process whits lead; 38 

weighing box; 40 
quick dxying whites; 74 
raw umber; 166. 167 
red pigments; 205 

lead and vermilion; 210 
siUca; 102 

GRINDING— Continuad 

surface of mills, care for; 112 
umber; 163 

white bases and pigments; 60 
for liquid paints; 60 
white lead, apparatus required for; 81 
in chasers and roller mills; 33 
in ofl, dry method; 28 
oil required; 26 
pulp process, 27 
quantity of oil required; 84 
stone vs. steel rollers; 83 
temperature of room; 20 
white pigments in water; 70 
whites for artists* tube colors; 77 
srellow pigments; 230 
sine white; 46,48 
inoU; 48 
Guynemer's drier; 427 
Guignet's gieen; 172, 103, 106, 107, 108, 208, 

Gum spirits (turpentine); 801 

thus; 302 
Gumption drier for artists: 424 


Gypsum; 05 

as an extender for oil paints; 08 
for solid colors; 00 
for ultramarine blue; 00 

oharaeteristics of ; 100 

dead burned; 06 

for various purposes; 08 

in combination whites; 50 

testing for use in paint; 00 


Hardening in packages, tendency of sine white; 
of paint in cans; 16 
of tung or China wood oil; 281 
Heat proof colors; 406 

enamels, green, red and blue; 406 
resistance, testing cold water paint for; 888 
Heating of white lead mills during grinding; 82, 

Heavy bensine; 801 

bodied linseed oO; 78 
Helio fast red; 234 
Hematite, red; 205 
Hemlock; 240 
Hempseedoil; 206 
High grade grinding j^)an; 418 

iron filler and surfaoer; 411 
quality shingle stains; 880 
HoU paint, quick drying red; 488 
quick drying white; 430 




HoUmnd. special linMed oil made in; 78 
Hoepitals, advantace of eaaein paints; 800 
House paints; 313 
Hulls of ships, marine black for; 418 

of steel or wooden ships, asphaltum 1 
marine black for; 419 
Hydrate of lead; See "Lead hydrate." 
Hsrdrated lime, process of preparing; 882 

oxide of iron; 153 
Hydrocarbon solvents; 303 
Hydro-cas-caibon black; 110 


Identifying materials in factory; 17 
Imitation Indian yellow; 257 

of cobalt blue; 141, 142. 148, 392. 406 

of gold in Japan; 262 
Impalpable white in damar; 72 
Imperial scarlet; 222 
Implement manufacturers' dipping paints; 848 

painting, reds for; 227 
Importation of umber; 163 


Indian red; 206, 211. 212, 214, 219, 232, 238* 
236, 387, 391 

gypsum as an extender; 99 
U. 8. Navy Department specifications; 
Indian yellow; 253,257 

India rubber goods, use of lithopone in man- 
ufacturing; 53 
Indigo blue; 149 
Inert mineral bases; 44 

j^gmentB in combination with sine lead; 45 
Inflammable materials, storage of; 15 
Inside white; 317 
Insurance, to obtain low rates; 15 
Interior aluminum bronse paint; 397 
decorative stains; 343 
enamel white, high grade; 358 
flat enamels; 354 
white; 318 

work, sine white for; 47 
white paint, silicate of soda; 441 


Iron and glass, cement for uniting; 402 

Iron baking paint, first coat black; 446 

second coat; 446 

effect of presence in white lead; 28 

fillers and machinery paints; 367 

and surf aoer. high grade; 411 

black, for rough castings; 410 

GREEN— CoBtlauMi 

flat Uadc. air drjring; 447 
galvanised, primer for; 428 
gloss finish for baking; 446 
high grade dipping paint for; 850 
or steel paints; 446 
oxide reds; 205. 211. 391 

gypsum as an extender; 99 
paint for; 428 

to comply with specifications; 423 
for structural work; 123 
plaster putty for; 867 
preservative paints, general remarks; 880 
protective paint, metallic brown; 154 
red lead for priming; 327 
rustless or preservative coatings for; 328 
seequioxide. percentage in mineral brown; 

sheathing paint, high grade; 428 
steel color finished for; 411 
Italian and American burnt sienna oompaied; 

pink; 258. 259. 268 
sienna; 157 

Earth; 155 
yellow oxide; 246 
Ivory black; 
coach; 125 

contrasted with bone black; 124 
drop Made; 125 


Japans; 305 

Japan, cheap gold else; 412 

for grinding drop black; 117 

for moderate price mixed paints; 412 

goldsise: 307 

grinding or coach; 306 

hi|^ grade grinding; 418 

ordinary brown; 412 

strong drying brown; 412 
Jersey Lny White; 54 
Jet black marine paint; 482 
Joint cement for floors; 406. 407 

compound for steel cars for subway or 
tunnel service; 451 

Kaolin; 91.92,98,94.96 
Keg lead; 21 
Kegs, steel; 41 
Kerosene; 301, 303 

for shingle stains; 889 
King's yeUow; 258 



Knifing-in cement for rivet beads and butt ends 
of steel vessels; 430 
lead; 78 
Kremser white; 74 
Kukui oil; 296 

Labeling packages, to prevent errors; 16 
Lacquer, celluloid; 453 

for brass; 413 
Lake boats' seam cement white; 414 
seam paint, white; 414 


Lake, alisarine red; 214,217,229.231,232.236, 

carmine; 230,232 
carriage part; 233.234 
chatemuc; 230 
claret; 236,237 
cochineal; 230, 231 
crimson; 230,232 
garanoeNo. 6; 231 
geranium; 235 
madder; 230 
maroon; 232 

permanent red; 229,230,235 
red; 232. 233, 235 
rose; 228. 232, 233, 235 
scarlet; 228, 230 
Turkey red; 232 
yeUow; 257,258 


Lamp black; 120, 121. 125. 392 

and carbon black compared; 121 

brands of; 126 

gas carbon black sold for; 120 

grinding; 127 

in turpentine; 455 

ground in water; 128 

in Japan; 128 

selection of; 127 

testing; 126 
Lapis-lasuli; 143 
Leadacetate, excess of in white lead; 23 

presence in white lead; 22.2 

test for presence in white lead; 23 
and manganese paste drier; 426 
black; 131 

carbonate, proportion in white lead; 24,25 
ehromate; 245 

basic; 220 
color bam and roof paint; 886.387 

LEAD— Continued 

colored floor paint; 824 

dried on iron pans dicoloring from rust; 41 

glasing; 76 

hydrate, proportion in white lead; 24.25 

hydrate carbonate; See "White lead." 

.keg; 21 

knifing-in; 76 

sublimed; See "Sublimed lead." 

sulphate, basic; 43 

white; See "White lead." 
Leaded sines; 44.46 
Leadless paste drier for paint; 426 
Leakage; 17 

Leakage during factory processes; 17 
Leaky tin roof, stopping for; 420 
Leather blue; 140 
Leech.NealACo.: 212 
Legislation, paint; 314 
Leipeic green; 197 
Lemon yellow; 247, 251, 263 
Letters, metal, cement for ^Mtening to ^ass; 

Letting down; 81 
Light oak stain; 341 
Lima wood; 228.230 
Lime blue; 140 

proof colors; 333 

sulphate of; 95 
Linoleic acid for cement coatings; 332 
Linoleum, use of lithopone in manufaturing; 52 
"Linseed and Other Seed Oib"; 269 


loU; 269 
books on; 269 
compared with tung or China wood oil 

as to drying; 291 
foots; 270 

arrangement of tanks to avoid 

trouble; 30 
effect in white lead grinding; 30 
in special casein paints; 390 
promoter of marine growth; 403 
quantity required for grinding white 

lead; 34 
selection for grinding white lead; 28 
special heavy bodied; 78 
storage: 270 

sulphuric add process for grinding 

pulp lead; 41 
tests for purity; 270 
weight per gallon; 271 
liquid and paste wood fillers; 363 

damp-proofing, dear and colored; 404 
drier; 306 




LIQUID— CootinuMi 

filler and sUin oombined; 864 
cheap; 905 
formuUfor; 303.864 
UM of aebeetine in makiiig; 104 

cold bronxe paint; 410 


liquid paint bases ground aoft; 70 
mixer; 311 

See also "Mixed paints." 
arrangement of factory for; 14 
present methods for formulating; 818 
ready for use; 300 
liquids, pumping; 16 
Liquid wax polish for furniture; 409 
litharge cause of yellow cast in white lead; 23 
Lithographers' inks, manganese and lead paste 
drier for; 426 
▼amish; 121,140 
Lithol claret; 387 
fastyeUow; 886 
vermilion; 224 


ithopone base waU paints; 851 
brands of; 62 
characteristics; 55 
compared with sine white and white lead; 

composition of ; 58 
cost of manufacture; 57 
darkening from efiFect of li^t and moisture; 

discoloring; 61,62,65 
effect of moisture; 61,62 
effect on health; 60 
English brands: 54 
for making enamels; 56 
for oil paint making; 56 
for shade doth manufacture; 52, 55, 65 
German brands; 54 
grades of; 53 
history of; 51 
in combination whites; 50 
not good exterior paint; 63 
limitations of ; 61 
materials used in manufacture; 56 
mixing and grinding; 66 
must be dry; 67 
oO absorption of ; 55 
painte; 318 
paste drier for; 427 
plant required for manufacturing; 57 
possible defects; 55 
process of manufacture; 58 


tests for pigment value; 64 

time for manufacture; 60 

use by paint manufacturers and painters; 

uses of; 53 
white; 51 

as a pigment; 64 
Locomotive enamel, Brunswick green; 415 
finish black; 415 
inside cab enamel; 416 
painting, Brunswick green; 190 
tenders, red mineral primer; 430 
Low cost marine black with asphaltum base; 
paint remover; 424 
Lower price outside white; 315 
Lumps forming in combined lead and sine 
whites; 49 


Machine for filling artists* tubes; 230 
Machinery gloss paints or enamels; 368 

paints; 367 

paints, steel color; 368 

lequired for putty nuAufaoture; 860 


Madder; 231 

lake; 230 

Magenta, 228,286 
Magnesia; 104 

green; 104 

white; 105 
Magnesite; 104 
Magnesium silicates; 103 
Magnetic oxide marine black; 418 
Mahogany pigment stain; 161 

stain; 341 
MaiseoU; 296 
Malachite; 172 
Manganese and lead paste drier; 426 

black; 181 

brown; 392 
Manufacture of cold water paint; 385 

of lithopone, materials used; 56 
Manufacturing lithopone, cost; 57 

plant required; 57 
Maple; 240 
Marble, cement for; 402 

dust; 87, 91 
MargaroUc add; 282 


Marine black for ships' hulls; 418 
with asphaltum base; 419 
with magnetic oxide; 418 




blue paint; 432 

eggshell gloss white; 417 

enamel; 360, 417 

gxeen paint; 434 

grey paint; 434 

growths promoted by vegetable oil; 402 

paint, black; 432 

bronse green; 433 
burnt Tiirkey umber; 433 
ohoodate color; 433 
jet black; 432 
oxide of iron red; 434 
Venetian red; 435 
white lead; 436 
Zinc white; 436 
white enamel for yachts; 416 
paste, combination; 437 
Marking packages of French ocher; 241 
Maroon lake; 213.228.232 
metal preservative; 330 
oxide; 205.211 
Mars red; 205.213 

yeUow; 213. 253. 254 
Mast color; 420 

paint; 435 
Master painters' association tests of chrome 

yellow; 248 
Massicot; 23 
Materials, to identify in factory; 17 

used in manufacture of lithopone; 56 
Meadow green; 197 
Medium chrome yellow; 248, 264 

in japan; 264 
Megilp, for artists; 424 
Menhaden oil; 297 
Merrimac green; 171, 188, 190, 191 
Metal letters, cement for fastening to ^ass; 401 
pan under mills; 113 


Metal, planished, flat black for spraying; 447 
preservative black; 328 
brown; 330 
coatings; 327 
green; 330 
red; 329 
maroon; 330 

paints, general remarks; 830 
silicate enamels for; 443 
Metallic brown; 151.153,154 

as an iron protective paint; 154 
Method of grinding combination lead and lino 
whites; 50 

of making mixed paints; 811 
Milori green; 171.179 

Mills best adapted for grinding chrome greens; 

to special colors; 113 


care for grinding surface; 112 

for grinding bases for mixed paints; 70 
suUimedlead; 43 
white lead, speed of ; 32 

metal pan under; 113 

speed of; 112 
Millstones, diameter of ; 112 

efifect of blue lead; 22 

Esopus; 112 

French buhr; 112 
Mineral bases, inert; 44 

black; 130 

blue; 133 

brown; 151.152,154 

green; 392 

oil, test for; 285 

paint oil; 300 

primer paste for locomotive tenders; 429 

red shingle stain; 339 
Mining ocher in England, Germany, Italy and 
United States; 20 

in France; 240, 241 
Miscellaneous bluee; 149 

paints for iron or steel; 446 
Misdbility of lithopone; 55 
Missouri sine ores; 46 
Mitis green; 197 


Mixed paints; See also ''Liquid paints." 
Mixed paints; 311 

base for high class outside white; 315 
for lower price outdde white; 315 

composite greens; 319 

emulsion for; 316 

making, arrangement of factory for; 69 

present methods for formulating; 313 

solid colors; 318 

solid red; 321 

sublimed lead as a base for; 43 

very cheap; 317 

why emulsified; 313 
Mixer for cooling white lead after grinding; 34 
Mixers for white lead; 31 
p\ilp lead grinding; 41 


Mixing and grinding blue pigments; 123 
brown pigments; 151 
burnt sienna; 159 
burnt umber; 167 
green pigments; 171 
lithopone; 66 

red lead and vermilion; 219 
red pigments; 205 
umber; 163 
yellow pigments; 239 




Mizins y«rai«h: 306 

for floor paint; 334 
Modem flat wall finkhet; 361 
Moisture, effect on Uthopone; 62,63 

harmful to srellow ocher; 242 
Mortar colore, moist in paite; 419 
Moai green; 319 

bam paint; 338 

tin roof paint; 336 
Motor boat ecgaheU floes white; 417 
Mountain green; 172 
Muncy. Pa., black fillers; 130 


Naphtha, solrent; 303 

Naphthol yellow 8; 386 

Naples yellow; 252. 256, 261, 266 

in japan; 265 
Natural gas black; 120 

sienna; 156 
Neutral white; 54 
New Tuscan red; 214 
Nigerseed oil; 296 
Night blue; 139 
Nitrate of lead green; 178 
Non-bleeding red; 223 

Non-corrosive coatings for bottoms of steel 
ships; 399 

or rust preventative black paint for 
steel freight cars or coal can; 448, 
Non-darkening white deck paint; 437 
Non-fading or permanent reds in oil; 224 

red; 225 
Nut brown stain; 843 

Oak stain; 341 


Ocher, burnt; 392 

chrome; 244, 245, 392 

English, Italian and Domestic; 243 

French yellow; 239, 241, 242, 244, 246. 

253. 259. 261. 392 
golden; 244.253,259,262 
wnining in EIngland, Germany, Italy #"d 
United SUtes; 240 
in France; 240,241 
Oxford; 242, 253, 254 
red; 333 

Roman; 253. 254 
Southern; 244 

yeUow; 239, 253, 254, 259. 333 
as a priming coat; 239 
U. S. Navy specifications for; 240 
Odor of tung or China wood oil; 277 


See under q)ecial names: Linseed oil, tung 
or China wood oO, poppyseed oil, Bombay nut 
oil, walnut oO, sunflower seed oil, hempeeed oil 
nigerseed oil, tobacco seed oil, Scotch fir seed 
oO, kukui oil, menhaden oil. fish oil. soya bean 
oil, com oil. maise oil. cottonseed oil, castor oil, 
rosin oil, pine oil, tar oO. seal oil, minentl paint 
oil, paint oil. putty oil. etc. 
Oil absorption of lithopone; 55 

banana, to make; 397 

barrels, blue paints for; 148 

cloth, use of lithopone in manufacturing; 

colors, fine grinding of; 112 

foots, avoid in white lead grinding; 30 

grinding sine white in; 48 

linseed, arrangement of storage tanks to 
avoid foots; 30 

selection for grinding white lead; 28 

of turpentine; 301 

paint, gypsum as an extender for; 98 

quantity required for grinding white lead; 

required for grinding chrome yellows; 250 
for grinding Dutch and quick process 
lead; 26 

soluble aniline colors; 344 

stains; 341 

sulphuric add process for grinding pulp 
lead; 41 
Oils and fats, comparative taUe; 283 

floor; 408 
Old standard lampblack; 126 
Oleic acid; 282 
Oleum White; 54 


Olive green; 184, 187, 188, 191, 203. 319. 320 
dipping paint; 187 
tin roof paint; 336 
trunk paint; 445 
Omnibus yellow in Jmma: 366 
One coat gloss dipping paint, blue; 349 

red; 848 
Opaque green; 197 
Orange chrome yellow; 250,264 
in Japan; 264 
cold water paints; 386 
lead. English; 253 

mineral; 221, 224, 225, 226, 253. 387. 891 
cause of pink cast in white lead; 28 
German process; 253 
Tours; 253, 892 
Ordinaxy brown ]4>an; 412 
lampblack; 126 
steel color paint in paste fonn; 412 




Origin and uses of casein; 375 
Oipiment; 258 
Oit's white enamel; 51 
Oraeilline; 228 
Orthoaniflidine; 217 
Outside white, high class; 315 
Overheating a mixer; 111 

white lead in grinding; 30.82 
Oxford ocher; 242, 253, 254 
Oxide of chromium green; 171, 172, 193, 196, 
198, 203, 333, 387, 392. 406 

of iron dipping paints; 218 
filler; 244 

red marine paint; 434 
reds; 205. 211. 391 

of magnesium; 105 

of sine; See "Zinc white." 

maroon; 205, 211 

red; 205, 218, 219, 229, 333, 387, 391 

yellow; 246 

Packages, filled, storage of ; 16 

fiUing; 15 

for pulp lead; 41 

marks on French ocher; 241 

steel for white lead; 35 

tendency of sine white to harden in; 48 

to prevent errors in labeling; 16 
Packing; 15 

calcium hydrate; 383 


Paint, black for hulls of ships; 418' 

marine; 432 
blue marine; 432 
bronse green marine; 433 
burnt Turkey umber marine; 433 
cheap, for rough work; 300 
chocolate color marine; 433 
combination marine white paste; 437 
copper, for wooden ships' bottoms; 402 

so-called for yacht bottoms; 408 
eggshell gloss white for hulls of steel craft; 

for metal (tin or iron) ; 428 
for structural iron to comply with specifica- 
tions; 423 
gold bronse; 410 
gray marine; 434 
green marine; 434 

silicate paste; 440 
hardening in cans; 16 
Jet black marine; 432 
legislation; 314 


liquid aluminum bronse; 397 

marine black with asphaltum base; 419 

with magnetic oxide; 418 
mast color; 435 
non-Klarkening white deck; 437 
oil; 300, 303 

other than linseed; 295 
oxide of iron red marine; 434 
paste drier for, without white lead; 426 
quick drying red for ships' bunkers and 
holds; 438 

white for ships' holds; 439 
red graphite, paste and liquid; 429 
remover at low cost; 424 
roof, cheap elastic black; 431 
rust preventative black, for steel freight or 

coal cars; 448 
teak color; 435 
thinners and solvents ; 301 
silicate; 439 
siUcate white paste; 439 
steel color in paste form; 412 
to prevent growth of barnacles on ships; 

value of casein as a binder; 376 
vehicles and thinners; 267 
Venetian red marine; 435 
water, washable black; 441 

washable blue; 442 

washable, green; 442 

washable red; 442 

washable yellow; 442 
waterproof dipping for fishing rods and 

wooden baits; 453 
white, for seams of lake boats; 414 

lead marine; 436 

silicate of soda for exterior use; 441 
for interior use; 441 
sine white marine; 436 


Paints, anti-fouling for ships' bottoms; 398 
asphaltum; 400 
bam and roof; 335 
cold water, tests for; 381 
dipping; 347 
dry kalsomine; 893 
enamel; 357 

for preserving metals, general remarks; I 
for structural iron; 123 
for trunks; 444,445 

olive green; 446 
machinery; 367 

mSsoellaneous for iron or steel; 446 
ready-mixed; 311 
ship, as sold by ship chandlers; 431 



PAINTS— CootiauMi 

■Uioate of KxU; 440 
tinted pMte; 44 
to flpedfioations; 421 
white pMte; 60 
Painting, diatemper; 801 
fresco; 301 

■teel pftnenter ean; mrf aoera and enameb 
for; 440 
Pale liquid drier; 300 
Pan dry prooeaa of grinding white lead; 27 
Pan* for drying white lead; 30,41 
ParaffineoU; 303 
Para red; 226. 227. 230 
Paranitraniline; 217.220, 
Parchment paper used to prevent sine white 

from hardening; 40 
Parma red; 226 
Permared; 226 
Paris blue; 138 

green; 171, 172, 102. 104, 107, 203 
white; 87 

grades and uses of ; 87 
preparation of ; 87 
Parrot green; 107 
Passenger cars, steel, surfacers and enamels 

for; 440 
Paste cement for fixing metal letters to glass; 
drier for printing ink plate printing; 42ft 
for sine white or lithopone; 427 
manga D eee and lead; 426 
without manganese; 427 
without white lead for paint; 420 
fillers, use of ; 365 
starch in; 107 
floor wax polish; 406 
made with stardi; 100 
mortar colors; 410 
paint; green silicate; 440 

white; 50 
paints, sine lead base; 44 

machinery, steel color; 368 
white aUoate; 440 
wood fillers; 363.364 
Srellows in oil; 251 
Patent green; 107 
Patents for malring casein; 377 
Patented cement or concrete coatings; 332 
Paul Veronese green; 107 
Pagring seams of lake boats, cement for; 414 
Pease, E. N.; 215 

Pennsylvania Railroad caboose car red; 222, 

specifications for freight car red; 200 
Tuscan red; 213, 216. 450 
Percentage of oil required for grindii^ sine 
white; 48 


Perfect yellow; 265 

Permanent ornon-fading reds in oil: 224 

ltd; 226 

lake; 220,230 

white; 77. 78 

yeUow; 251, 255, 260, 265 
Ptonianred; 222 

Gulf red; 206,211,210 
Petroleum distiUates; 308 

spirits; 303 
Phsrsical examination of tung or Cfaipa wood 

oU; 286 
Pioher Iicad Company; 48 
Pigments most suitable in cold water paint; 885 

reinforcing; 81 
Pigment value of lithopone; 64 

varnish stains; 342 
Pink, brown; 258 

Dutch; 257. 258. 250. 263, 302 

English; 250. 263 

Italian; 258. 250. 263 

rase; 213. 228. 232. 233, 235 
Pine oil; 200 

Planished metal, flat black for spras^ing; 447 
Plant required for manufacturing lithopone; 57 
Plaster of Paris; 05,07 

putty for iron; 367 
Plate printing printers' ink, paste drier for; 425 
Plumbago; 120 
Polish for cabinet work; 400 

for fine woodwork; 400 

wax, for floors, in paste form; 406 
Polishing varnishes with Tung or China wood 
<^; 200 

white lead in roller mills; 33 
Pompeiian red; 205 
Ponceau; 220 
Ponolith; 54 
Poppyseedoil; 205 
Porch chair enamels; 305 
Porcelain, cement for; 378 

grinding discs; 75 

finish, interior; 358 

white; 54 
Posterredink; 225 
Potato starch; 106 
Powdered drop black; 115. 116 
Practical recipes and working formulas; 305 
Precipitated barytes; 84 
Preparation of barium sulphide; 58 
Preparing oaldum hydrate; 382 
Present methods for formulating mixed paints; 


Preservative coatings for iron or steel; 828 
formetai; 327 




blAok; 828 
brown; 330 
green; 830 
maroon; 880 
red; 329 
Prevenikm of lumpe when grinding lead and 

sine together; 49 
Primer for dipping fiahing rods and wooden 
baits: 463 
for galvanised iron; 428 
Priming ooat for rough iron castings; 410 

for steel freight equipment, etc.; 448 
for iron or steel; 328 
red lead for steel or iron; 327 
with 3rellow ooher; 239 
Primrose yellow; 247, 263 
Prince's metallic or mineral brown; 152 
Principalusesoftung or China wood oil; 287 
Printing ink; 121. 139 

for plate printing, drier for; 425 
manganese and lead paste drier for; 

red; 225 
Process of manufacturing cold water paint; 383 

lithopone; 58 
Processes for making casein; 377 
Production of China wood or tung oO; 275 
Prussian black; 131 
blue; 138 

extenders for; 139 
grinding in turpentine; 455 
Prussiate black; 131 
Pullman color; 217, 450 

coach body color ground in coach japan; 
Pumice stone; 103 

Pulp ground white lead, exposure tests; 28 
grinding process; 88 
process of grinding white lead; 27 
Pumps for liquids; 15 

measuring; 15 
Purchasing lithopone; 66 
Pure bone black; 116 

red lead turning solid in'paokage; 220 
Purree; 257 
Putties and cements; 369 


Putty; 89 

commercial; 869 

draw; 76 

machinery required; 369 

manufacture of ; 869 

oU; 300,303 

plaster, for iron; 867 

sweating or ripening; 369 

unshrinkable, for boats; 414 

Quaker green; 171,185,186,190 

Quantity of linseed oil required for grinding 

white lead; 34 
Quercitron; 258 
Quicksilver vermilion; 231 
Quick drying dead flat finish; 404 

whites; 74 

white paint for ships' holds; 489 
process white lead, 25 
Quicksilver vermilion; 221,222,231 

Railroad paint, use of whiting in; 90 
Rare greens for coach work; 192 
Raw Cyprus umber; 165, 167 
oil for white lead grinding; 29 
sienna; 156. 392 
Turkey umber; 166,167 
umber, grinding in various vdiides; 166 
in japan; 167 
selection and analysis; 164 


Ready-mixed paints; 811 

present methods for formulating; 

See *«Mixed Paints" and "Liquid 


Red, asophor; 234 
autol fast; 234 
bam and roof paint; 835,337 
barrel paints; 222 
casein or cold water paint; 887,388 
Chinese; 222 
chrome; 222, 891 
coach or coach painters'; 238,234 
coal tar derivatives; 220 
colors for fresco pai nt i n g; 891 
copperas; 206 
Crawshay; 206 
devil's; 226 
Dewey; 226 
dipping paint; 218,219 
English Venetian; 206 
ikx>r paint; 824 
Forest of Dean; 206 
for implement and wagon painting; 227 
for signals; 226 
freight car; 209 

gloss dipping paint, one ooat; 848 
graphite paint, paste and liquid; 429 
heat proof enamel; 406 



RED— ContiniMd 

heUo; 234 

hematite; 206 

Indian; 206. 211. 212. 214. 219. 232. 233. 

236. 387. 391 
iron oxide; 206. 211. 391 
lake; 232. 233. 236 

alisarine; 214, 217, 229. 231, 232. 236, 

permanent; 229, 230. 236 
lead; 219. 221 

cauaeof pink cast in white lead; 23 

drying; 327 

for priming iron and steel; 327 

mixed with whiting; 90 

pure, turning solid in package; 220 
Mars; 206.213 
metal preservative; 329 
mineral primer for engine tenders; 430 

shingle stain; 339 
mixed paints; 321 
non-fading; 226 
ooher; 333 

one ooat gloss dipping paint; 848 
oxide; 206. 218. 219, 229, 333. 387, 391 

of iron, gypsum as an extender; 99 
marine paint; 434 

scarlet; 206 
para; 226, 227. 236 
parma; 226 
perma; 226 
permanent; 226 

or non-fading, in oO; 224 
Persian; 222 

Persian Gulf; 206.211,219 
pigments. i r^iT^ng and grinding; 206 
Pompeiian; 206 
printing inks; 226 
quick drying ships' bunker and hold paint; 

road cart; 233, 236 
roofing paint, high grade; 428 
seal lithopone; 62 
Spanish; 211 
toner; 226. 226, 236 
Tuscan; 206,213,216.233.236,321 

Pennsylvania Railroad; 460 
232, 233. 236, 321, 387, 391 

containing calcined plaster; 97 

U. 8. Navy department specifications; 

marine paint; 436 
Victoria; 206 
washable water paint; 442 
Windsor; 206 
yacht composition; 403 
Reflex blue; 139 


Reinforcing pigments; 81 
Resinate of sine drier; 427 
Rich brown shingle stain; 340 
Rinmann's green; 201 
Ripening of putty; 369 

of white base in enamel manufacture; 73 
Rivet head and butt end cement for sted 
vessels; 430 

cement or composition; 371 
Road cart red; 233,236 
Roller mills for grinding white lead; 33 

for grinding sine white; 46. 48 

in pulp lead grinding; 41 

use in grinding white lead; 27 
Roman ocher; 263,264 


Roof and bam punts; 336 
cement; 370 

paint, lead color; 336,337 
moss green; 336.338 
brown; 164 

elastic black (cheap); 431 
olive green; 336, 338 
red; 336, 337 
slate; 336, 338 
typical formulas; 337 
high grade: 428 
stopping for leaky tin roofs; 429 
tin, paints; 166 
Rustless coatings for iron and steel; 328 
Rust preventive paint, silica in; 101,^102 
Roaedoree; 230,231 

lake; 228,232,233,236 
madder; 230, 231 
pink; 213,228,232,233,236 
Rosewood stain; 342 
Rosin and bensine liquid; 306 

in combination with tung or China wood 

oil; 279 
oU; 299,302 

or rosin oil, tests for; 286 
spirits; 302 
Rough stuff, white; 76 
Rosral green; 171 
Rubbing varnishes with tung or China wood 

oil; 290 
Russian green; 171, 190 
Rust discoloring white lead dried on iron pans; 
inhibiter, sine ohromate; 252 
preventative black paint for steel freight or 
coal oars; 448 



Sandstone cold water or casein paint; 388 

Sanitary nature of casein painte; 390 

Sap green; 172, 199 

Sapan wood; 228, 230 

Sardinian yellow earth; 246 

Sash red; 321 

Satin spar; 98 

Scarlet lake; 228,229.230 

imperial; 222 

red oxide; 206 
Schweinfurt green; 172, 197 
Scotch firseed oil; 296 
Scrap heap, consigning machinery to; 13 
Seal oil; 299 

Seam cement white, lake boats'; 414 
Second coat black for baking; 446 

grade Venetian reds; 208 
Selecting, mixing and grinding burnt umber; 

umber; 163 
Selection of colored pigments for cold water 
paints; 386 

of lithppone; 66 
Selenite; 95.98 

Semi-drying and non-drying oils; 298 
Separator used in pulp process of grinding white 

lead; 40 
Sepia; 151,169 

as a water color; 169 
Sesquioxide of iron, percentage in mineral 

brown; 153 
Shade cloth, use of lithopone in manufacturing; 

52, 55, 65 
SheUac Japan; 306, 307 

substitutes made with tung oil; 292 


Shingle stains; 339 
green; 339 
high quality; 339 
mineral red; 339 
rich brown; 340 
silver grey; 340 
to decrease cost; 340 
Venetian red; 339 


Ships' boot topping; 431 

bottoms paints, anti-fouling; 398 

copper; 402 
bunker and hold paint, quick drying red; 

chandlers, paints sold by; 431 
hold paint, quick drying red; 438 
quick drying white; 439 
hulls, marine black for; 418 

with asphaltum base; 419 

SHIP PAINTS-Continued 

paints, as sold by ship chandlers; 431 
steel, anti-corrosive coatings for bottoms; 
anti-corrosive composition for bot- 
toms; 399 
Shipping, general remarks on; 13 
Shutter greens; 318 
Siberian green; 171 
Siderite; 153 
Sign writers' black; 129 
lampblack; 126 
Signal red; 226 
Siena. Italy; 156 


Sienna; 151. 155, 156, 159. 392 

earth; 156 

grindu3g in turpentine; 455 

Italian and American compared; 157. 158 

U. S. Government specifications ; 162 

Winsor 4 Newton; 158 
Single vs. several pigment paints; 314 


Silica; 100 

as a reinforcing extender for paint; 101 

held in solution by starch; 103 

in rust preventative paint; 101, 102 

testing and grinding; 102 
Silicate enamels for metal; 443 
tinted; 443 

of potash; 100 

of soda; 100.104,440 

paint, white for exterior use; 441 
white for interior use; 441 

paint; 439 

paste white; 439 

paste paint, green; 440 

white enamel for imitating enameled ware; 
Silver grey shingle stain; 840 

white; 77 

in iapan; 75 
Silex; 100 

in wood fillers; 101 
Sises for fabric and paper; 379 
Skinning of white lead by standing; 35 
Slate bam and roof paint; 336.338 
Slating for blaokboaids; 401 
Slushing compound for castings; 438 
Smalts, cobalt blue; 141 
Smaragd green; 198 
Smooth castings, filler and surfacer for; 411 

iron or steel, air diying flat black for; 447 
Snow white; 77 
Soapstone; 103 




So-CftUed oo|>i»r p*int for jraoht bottomt; 403 

SodanhnmAriiiM; 142.144,145 

Solid colon in ready for use building paints; 318 

red mixed paints; 321 

yellow mixed paint; 320 
Solution for printing ink paste drier; 426 
Solvents for paint; 301 
Solvent naphtha; 303 

as penetrative agent for stains; 841 
in wood stains; 304 
Southern oohers; 244 

pine; 230 
Soya bean oil; 296 
Spanish red; 211 

whiting; 87.88 
Spar color; 420 
Special heavy bodied linseed oil; 73 

solution for paste drier; 425 

yellow ocher in oil; 243 
Specification paints; 421 
Speed of mills; 112 

of white lead mills; 32 
Spirits of turpentine; 301 

stains, anfline; 345 
Spraying flat black for planished metal; 447 
Spreading of cold water paint, to test; 881 

vs. covering c^jMicity of white lead; 20.27 
Spraoe; 240 

color effect for spars; 420 
floor paint; 324 
Stack method of corroding white lead; 26 


Stafais; 841 

Stam and liquid filler combined; 304 

aniline spirit; 345 
varnish; 344 

cherry; 341 

dark oak: 341 

ebony; 342 

interior decorative; 848 

light oak; 341 

mahogany; 341 

nut brown; 348 

oil and varnish with pigment b a ses ; 841 

rosewood; 342 

shingle; 830 

varnish; 342 

varnish for; 342 

walnut, dark; 841.— light; 842 

water; 345 

wiped effect; 343 

with aniline colors as base; 844 
Standee]; 78 
Star lampblack; 120 
Starch and its use in fillers; 105 


in paste fillers; 107 
paste; 100 

to hold silica in solution; 108 
Steel baking pahit. first coat bla<^; 440 
second coat black; 440 
blue; 180 

boats, eggshell gloss white for; 417 
«a- black finish for baking or toned air 
drying; 449 
..caxB for subway or tunnel service. Joint 
compound for; 451 
color finish for iron; 411 

machinery paste paints; 808 
paint in paste form; 412 
colored iron filler; 307 
flat black, air drying; 447 
freight equipment, priming coat for; 448 

or coal car paint, black; 448 
gloss finish for baking; 440 
kegs; 41 

or iron paints; 440 
packages for white lead; 35 
passenger car painting, surfacers and 

enamels for; 440 
preservative paints, general remarks; 880 
red lead for priming coat; 327 
rustless or preservative coatings for; 328 
ships, antiHX>rrosive coatings for bottoms; 

composition for bottoms ; 309 
marine Mack for hulls; 418 
vessels, rivet head and butt end cement for; 

vs. stone roUers for grinding white lead; 33 
Stiffening up of white lead in storage tanks; 35 
StippUng, white lead best adapted for; 29 
Stone, casein cement for filling holes; 402 
mill not adapted for sine white; 40 
to stone, cement for uniting; 402 
vs. steel roUers for grinding white lead; 33 
Stopping for leaky tin roofs; 429 


Storage, general remarks on; 18 

of bases for mixed paint making; 09 

of filled cans; 10 

of inflammable materials; 15 

of linseed oU; 270 

of white lead in bulk; 30 

of sine white; 40 

in bulk; 49 

tanks for white lead in bulk; 30 
Stringy lead; 29 
Strong drying brown Japan; 412 
Strontian yellow; 250 
Structural iron paints; 123 

to meet specifications; 423 




Sublimed blue lead for freight oan; 448 
lead M a bue for mixed paints; 48 
in combination whites; 50 
in combination with other pigments; 

not adapted for priming iron or sted; 
white lead, grinding; 48 
Substitute turpentines; 801 
Sugar house black; 115 
of lead green; 178 
Sulphide of barium; See "Barium sulphide." 
Sulphate of lead; See "Lead sulphate;" 
of lime; 05 
of magnesia; 105 
ultramarine; 144, 145 
Gkilphide of sine white; 51 
Sulphur yellow; 265 

Sulphuric acid process oil for grinding pulp lead ; 

reaction, tung or China wood oil; 285 
treatment for cement or concrete; 831 
Sunflower seed oil; 295 
Sunlight, effect on lithopone; 61.62,65 
Sunproof lithopone; 65 
Superfine coach colors; yellows; 261 
Surfacers and enamels for steel passenger car 

painting; 449 
Surfacer for iron eastings; 410 
high grade; 411 
Sweating of putty; 800 
Ssrcamore; 240 
Sjrrian asphaltum; 151 

Table of oils and fats; 283 

Talc; 103 

Tallow and sine composition; 443 


Tanks for cooling white lead; 35 

for storing white lead in bulk; 80 

storage for liquids; 15 
TaroU; 299 
Teak color paint; 435 
Temperature of pulp lead in agitator; ^40 

of white lead grinding room; 20 
Tendency of sine white to harden in package; 48 
Tenders of locomotives, red mineral paste 

primer; 420 
Test for mineral oil; 285 

in linseed ofl; 271 

fbrrosin; 285 

forrosinoU; 285 
Testing and grinding silica; 102 

oold water paint for heat resistanot; 883 

TESTING— ContiniMd 

gSTPsum for use in paint; 00 

liquid driers; 307 

of tung or China wood oil; 283 

properties of barsrtes; 83 

working property of oold water paint; 382 
Tests and uses of china clay; 03 

of coatings for iron and steel; 32S 

of lithopone; 64 

for cold water paints; 881 
Terra alba; 05 

Terreverte; 172.100.200,203,802 
Texture of sublimed lead; 43 

. of sine lead; 45 
Thenard'sblue; 141 
Thinners and solvents for paint; 301 
Third grade liquid paint; 317 
Tiles, cement for; 402 

Time required for lithopone manufacture; 60 
Tin cans; 16 

dipping paint for; 340 

paint for; 428 

roof paints; 155 

olive green; 336 

roofs, stopping for leaks; 420 
Tinted enamel for engines; 405 

paste paints, sine lead base; 44 

silicate enamels; 443 
Tinting colors affected by sine lead; 45 

enamel paints; 358,350 
Tobacco seed oil; 206 
Toluidine; 217, 223. 236 

red; 224.236,406 
"Tooth;" 26 

Tours orange mineral; 253, 302 
Transparent white; 78 

waterproof finish; 454 
Transportation, facilities for; 14 
Trimming greens; 318 
Trowelling paste cement for rivet heads and 

butt ends of steel vessels; 430 
True ultramarine blue; 144 
Trunk paints; 444,445 

olive green; 445 
Tungates; 202 


Tung oU; 260, 273. 274 

as used by Chinese; 277 

bleaching; 281 

chemistry of; 281 

coagulating at high temperature; 278 

compared with linseed in diying; 201 

drying uniformly; 280 

effect on linseed oil or varnish; 280 

empirical examination; 284 



TUNG OIL--Continu«d 

exports from China; 392 

hardenioc of ; 281 

in combination with rodn; 270 

in floor vamiahes and paints; 280 

in manufacture of varnishes; 278 

in polishing varnishes; 200 

in rubbing varnishes; 200 

physical properties; 277 

principal uses; 287 

production; 276 

testing; 283 

unsafe to use with lead or sine; 203 

in enamel varnishes; 280 

ph3rsioal examination; 286 
Tung tree; 273 

fruit; 274 
Turkey red in oil; 220 

lake; 232 
umber; 163.166.167,168 

burnt, marine paint; 433 
Turntable, watercooled; 34 
Turpentine; 301 

grinding colors in; 466 
Tuscan red; 206. 213. 215. 233. 236. 821 

Pennsylvania Railroad; 450 

P. R. R. Standard; 216, 216 
Twin mixers; 31 



Ultramarine, American vs. foreign make; 146 
blue; 141,144.333.386,302 
artificial; 144. 146, 147. 302 
enamel; 147 

extended with gypsum; 00 
for coach painting; 146 
in distemper; 147 
green; 171. 172. 103. 201, 203, 387. 302 
native; 143 
Uses of casein and cold water paints; 301 

in decoration and art paint; 380 
U. S. Government specifications for sienna; 162 
Navy Department brown line; 462 

specifications for Indian reds; 212 
for Venetian reds; 207 
spar color; 420 
specifications for yellow ocher; 240 


Umber; 161. 163. 164, 166, 167.^302 

burnt, selecting, mixing and grinding; 167 
Turkey, marine paint; 433 

grinding in turpentine; 466 

raw in Japan; 167 

selecting, mixing and grinding; 163 

sources of supply; 163 
Unshrinkable putty for boats; 414 

Vandyke brown; 161, 160, 302 

grinding in turpentine; 465 
Variety of uses for casein; 378 


Varnishes, asphaltum; 400 
black; 122 

black, for engine finishing; 117 
casein; 302 

driers and japans; 306 
for enamel paints; 368 
for stains; 342 

making, use of tung or China wood oil ; 288 
mixing; 305 

for floor paint; 324 
needed in the paint factory; 306,306 
polishmg, made with tung or China wood 

oU; 200 
rubbing, with tung or China wood oil; 200 
stains; 305. 341, 342 
stains, aniline; 344 
tung or China wood oil used in manufao- 

tuie; 278 
white lead ground in; 37 
Vehicle for quick drying white; 74 


Venetian red; 205.211,218,210,222,230, 231 
232, 233. 236, 321. 387, 301 

containing calcined plaster; 07 
English: 206 
extended; 208 
marine paint; 436 
shingle stain; 330 

U. S. Navy Department specifications; 
white; 77 
Venice turpentine; 802 
Verdigris; 171, 103, 104 

for prevention of marine growth; 106 
Verditer, blue; 134 


Vermilion; 210, 220, 221, 230, 231, 801 

American; 222 

artificial; 221,226 

Chinese; 231 

English: 233,236 

lithol; 224 

quicksilver; 231 

substitute; 220 
Vermilionette; 226 
Verte emeraude; 172, 106. 203 




Verona green; 172, 199, 893 
Victoria red; 205 
Vienna jsreen; 197 
Vine black; 123,392 
Viridian; 198 


Wagon painting, reds for; 227 


Wall finishes, flat; 351 

fonnuJas for; 352 
paints, flat: 64.65,66,67 

grinding bases for; 70 
Walnut brown shingie stain; 340 
floor paint; 324 
oU; 295 
stain 341. 342 
Waste prevention; 70 
Water-cooled turntable; 34 
Water floated baiytes; 82 
100, 104 
paints; 440 


Water paint, black washable; 441 
blue washable; 442 
old formulas for; 375 
quantity required to thin cold water paint 

reason for its presence in liquid paints; 314 
removal from lead in pulp grinding; 41 
soluble casein; 391 
stains; 345 
Washable dahn for casein paints; 389 


Washable water paint black; 441 
blue; 442 
red; 442 
green; 442 
yellow; 442 
Waterproof compositions for fishing rods and 
wooden baits; 453 
enamel; 360 

for wooden fishing baits; 453 
finish, transparent; 454 
Waterproofing compound for export canvas 
^ covered packages; 454 
Wax floor polish in paste form; 408 
polish for furniture, liquid; 409 


Weatherproof enamel; 359,360 

Weighing box for grinding pulp white lead; 39; 

Western lino ores; 46 


White and colored enamel paints; 357 
bases for liquid paints, grinding; 69 
barsrta; 78 

casein or cold water paint; 387,388 
cement for paying seams of lake boats; 414 
Chinese; 75,77,78,79 
Cremniti; 74, 77 
deck paint, non-darkening; 437 
enamel for 3raohts; 416 

durable; 73 

Orr's; 51 

paints, grinding bases for; 71 
flake; 74, 77. 79 
glaaing; 78 
gloss paints; 72 
Kremser; 74 

mixed paint, outside, high class; 315 
paint, paste drier for. without 

paste, combination marine white; 437 

paints; 50 
permanent; 77, 78 
pigments, grinding in water; 79 
pine; 240 

quick drsring ships' hold paint; 439 
rough stuff; 76 

seam paint for lake boats; 414 
silicate paste paint; 439 

of soda paint for exterior use; 
for interior use; 
sflver; 77 

in Japan; 75 
snow; 77 
sine; See *'Zinc white." 


White lead, ageing; 37 

and sine paste, effect of dampness; 37 
grinding combination of; 49 
body or hiding power; 26 
chasers and roller mills for grinding; 33 
composition of ; 24 
cooling after grinding; 34 
covering vs. spreading; 26,27 
crusade against; 52 
crusting or skinning by standing; 85 
density of quick process and Dutch 
compared; 26 

; 441 
; 441 



WHITE LEAD— C<mtlnu«d 

dried on iron pans ditootorinf from 

nut; 41 
dry, examination of; 23 
dry method of grinding in oil; 28 
Dutch prooees; 21, 25 
early imported not pure; 21 
effect of foreign metab in; 23 
examination of dry; 22 
expoeure testa of pulp ground and pan 

dry ground; 28 
for artists* tube colon; 77 
griUy; 22 

grinding, apparatus required for; 81 
effect of oil foots; 30 
oil required; 26 
in turpentine; 466 
stone vs. steel rollers; 88 
gritty appearance caused by low tem- 
perature; 29 
ground in gold siae; 87 
in oil; 27 
in varnish; 87 
historical; 21 
homy; 22 
marine paint; 480 
miUs; 32 

heating during grinding; 82,33 
speed of; 32 
mixers required; 31 
mixing and grinding; 21 
normal amount of moisture in; 30 
old Dutch process compared with 

quick process; 26 
OTcrheating; 30. 82 
pan dry process of grinding; 27 
pinkcastin; 23 
proportions of lead carbonate and lead 

hydrate; 24 
prejudice against pulp ground; 28 
pulp grinding process; 27, 38 
quantity of oil required for grinding 

quick process; 26 

rdative quantities of oil required for 
grinding Dutch and quick process 
selection of oil for grinding; 28 
stack method of corrosion; 26 
stiffening up in storage tanks; 86 
storage in bulk; 36 
stringy; 29 

sublimed, grinding; 43 
temperature of grinding room; 29 
testing for lead acetate; 22 
theoretical composition of; 24 
"tooth," 26 
two methods of grinding; 27 


use of roller mills in grinding; 27 

steel packages; 36 

yellow cast in; 23 
Whites for artists' tube colors; 77 

quick drying; 74 
Whitewood; 240 


Whiting; 87 

characteristics; 90 

grades and uses of ; 87 

in combination whites; 60 

in railroad painu; 90 

in red lead; 90 

preparation; 88 

selecting and testing; 88 

value of in certain paints; 89 

vs. clay for cold water paints; 886 
Willow charcoal black; 123 
Wme color; 233. 236 
Windsor red; 206 
Winsor ft Newton; 168 
Wiped effect stains; 343 
Wire cloth; chrome green for; 173 
Witherite; 86 

Wood fillers, liquid and paste; 363 
paste; 364 
silexin; 101 
Wood oU; 276 

ponceau; 229 

turpentine; 301 
Wooden baits, waterproof compositions for; 46S 

fishing baits, waterproof enamel for; 463 

ships' bottoms, copper paint for; 402 
Working property of cold water paint* to test 

Yacht bottoms, so-called copper paint for; 403 
compositions, formulas for; 403 
green; 403 
red; 403 
eggshell gloss white; 417 
Yachts, marine white enamel fbr; 416 


Yellow, antimony; 266 
artists* colors; 263 
baryta; 266 
brimstone; 266 

cadmium; 263, 266, 261. 264, 266, 892 
canary; 246, 247. 263 ^ 
car-body; 266 
oast in white lead; 28 



YELLOW— ContiniMd 

ohromAte of lead; 246 
ehrome; 239. 246. 247. 248, 260. 254. 26ft. 

medium; 248. 264 
ettron; 246.266 
oobah; 268.260 
cold water paints; 886,888 
oolora in Japan; 261 
earth. Sardinian; 246 
Indian; 253.267 
king's; 268 
lake; 257. 258 
lemon; 247. 251. 268 
madder; 258 

Mars; 213. 253. 254 
Naples; 252. 255. 261. 266 
ocher; 230. 253, 254. 250« 838 

as a priming coat; 230 

French; 230. 241, 242. 244. 245. 258 

harmed by moistmv; 242 

special, in ofl; 248 

U. 8. Navy specifications for; 240 
omnibus; 266 
or ange chrom e; 250,264 
oxide; 246 
paste, in oil; 251 
perfect; 265 

pigments in water, 250 
pigments, mixing and grinding; 230 
primrose; 247,263 
raw sienna; 156. 302 
seal lithopone; 52 
strontian; 256 
sulphur; 265 

washable water paint; 442 
sine; 251. 255,'260, 265 


Zinc and tallow composition; 448 

brown. U. a Navy Department spedfic*- 

tkms; 452 
carbonate; 47,78 

ZINC— ContiaiMd 

flhromate; 252,255,338 

as a rust inhibiter; 252 
green; 108,201,203 
lead; 44,45 

as a pigment; 45 

characteristics; 45 

effect on tinting c(Jors; 45 

in combination with inert pigments; 45 

proportions of lead and sine; 45 
ores containing lead; 46 
oxide; See "Zinc white." 
as a base for flat wall finidies; 858 
sulphate as a wash for cement; 331 
in lithopone manufacture; 58 
sulphide contents of lithopone; 64 

for colwing rubber; ^l 
white; 54 


Zinc white and white lead, grinding combina- 

as a base for flat wall finishes; 853 

as base for mixed paint; 48 

condensed in bulk in < 

diffflfent methods of 
pared; 48 

for artists' tube colors; 77 

for faiterior flat work; 47 

Orifilth*s patent; 52 

grinding; 46 

grinding in turpentine; 455 

grinding in large establishments; 46 

grinding in oil; 48 

ground in water; 70 

indamar; 857 

in water, uses of ; 80 

in Japan; 75 

marine paint; 486 

paste drier for; 427 

storage in bulk; 40 

storage of; 46 

tendency to harden in package; 48 

use of parchment paper to prevent 
hardening; 40 
Zinc yeUow; 251. 255, 260. 265 
Zuntatic drier; 427 








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